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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329686/highlighting-priority-areas-for-bovine-viral-diarrhea-control-in-italy-a-phylogeographic-approach
#1
Erika Ebranati, Stefania Lauzi, Francesco Cerutti, Claudio Caruso, Loretta Masoero, Ana Moreno, Gian Mario De Mia, Simone Peletto, Gianguglielmo Zehender, Camilla Luzzago
The prevalence and genetic diversity of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a geographic area are largely influenced by live animal trade and management practices. Despite control and eradication programs currently underway in several European countries, the risk of BVDV spread within and among countries is still present. BVDV-1 is the predominant type circulating in European cattle population. In this study, a phylogeographic analysis was applied to the BVDV-1 highest prevalent subtypes in Italy to reconstruct the origin and spatial-temporal distribution and to trace main viral flows between different locations to highlight priority areas for BVDV control...
January 9, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325885/9-aminoacridine-based-agents-impair-the-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-bvdv-replication-targeting-the-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase-rdrp
#2
Roberta Loddo, Valeria Francesconi, Erik Laurini, Silvia Boccardo, Suzana Aulic, Maurizio Fermeglia, Sabrina Pricl, Michele Tonelli
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection is still a plague that causes important livestock pandemics. Despite the availability of vaccines against BVDV, and the implementation of massive eradication or control programs, this virus still constitutes a serious agronomic burden. Therefore, the alternative approach to combat Pestivirus infections, based on the development of antiviral agents that specifically inhibit the replication of these viruses, is of preeminent actuality and importance. Capitalizing from a long-standing experience in antiviral drug design and development, in this work we present and characterize a series of small molecules based on the 9-aminoacridine scaffold that exhibit potent anti-BVDV activity coupled with low cytotoxicity...
January 4, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322882/molecular-detection-and-characterization-of-transient-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-bvdv-infections-in-cattle-commingled-with-ten-bvdv-persistently-infected-cattle
#3
Lalitha Peddireddi, Kelly A Foster, Elizabeth G Poulsen, Baoyan An, Quoc Hung Hoang, Catherine O'Connell, Joseph W Anderson, Daniel U Thomson, Gregg A Hanzlicek, Jianfa Bai, Richard A Hesse, Richard D Oberst, Gary A Anderson, Ivan Leyva-Baca
Fifty-three cattle of unknown serologic status that were not persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were commingled with 10 cattle that were PI with different strains of BVDV, and were monitored for an extended commingle period using a reverse-transcription real-time PCR (RT-rtPCR) BVDV assay on various sample types. Transient infections with BVDV were also assessed by virus isolation, virus neutralization (VN) assays, and direct buffy coat 5'-UTR sequencing. Infections were demonstrated in all cattle by RT-rtPCR; however, the detection rate was dependent on the type of sample...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316971/mycoplasma-bovis-co-infection-with-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-in-bovine-macrophages
#4
Nina Bürgi, Christoph Josi, Sibylle Bürki, Matthias Schweizer, Paola Pilo
Several studies suggest that synergisms between Mycoplasma bovis and other microorganisms might exacerbate disease outcome of bovine mycoplasmosis. Screening several bovine cell types to assess their potential use as in vitro infection models for M. bovis, it was observed that a widely used cell line of bovine macrophages (Bomac cells) is in fact persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). The cell line was first cured of this virus allowing comparative studies between both cell lines. Subsequently, uptake and co-culture of two M...
January 9, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316065/prevalence-and-viability-of-group-a-rotavirus-in-dairy-farm-water-sources
#5
Matías Castells, Carlos Schild, Darío Caffarena, Marina Bok, Federico Giannitti, Joaquín Armendano, Franklin Riet-Correa, Matías Victoria, Viviana Parreño, Rodney Colina
AIM: To analyze group A rotavirus (RVA) environmental contamination in waters used for calves' consumption and to assess viral viability in dairy farm water sources. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed 202 samples of water used for calves' consumption and RVA was detected by RT-qPCR in 35.1% (95%CI: 28.9-42.0%). A marked pattern of seasonality was observed with higher frequency of detection in colder than warmer months (p=0.002). There was no association between viral load and season or between the number of milking cows in the herd and the detection of RVA in the farm...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306770/development-of-a-new-enzyme-immunoassay-for-improved-detection-of-rotavirus-in-fecal-specimens-of-vaccinated-infants
#6
Houping Wang, Merry Liu, Ken Sugata, Yuhuan Wang, Jennifer Hull, Kimberly Foytich, Baoming Jiang
BACKGROUND: Group A rotavirus is the most common cause of acute diarrhea in young children worldwide. A simple and rapid enzyme immunoassay (EIA) has been commonly used to detect rotavirus infection and evaluate rotavirus vaccines. Currently licensed commercial EIA kits have low sensitivity. A more sensitive detection of rotavirus can improve rotavirus diagnostics and vaccine efficacy studies. OBJECTIVE: A biotin-avidin based sandwich EIA was developed and compared with commercial EIA kits for improved detection of viral shedding in fecal samples from infants who received human rotavirus vaccine Rotarix in Mexico...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306002/bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-genomic-variation-within-persistently-infected-cattle
#7
A Chernick, A Ambagala, K Orsel, J D Wasmuth, G van Marle, F van der Meer
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a single stranded RNA virus in the family Flaviviridae that causes a form of persistent infection. If a fetus is infected in utero during the first 120days of gestation the resulting calf will be immunotolerant to the infecting strain and maintain the virus for life. These animals are epidemiologically important in maintaining BVDV on farms, but also present a unique opportunity to study quasispecies in vivo in the absence of significant selection by the host adaptive immune response...
January 3, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302775/herd-level-risk-factors-for-bovine-viral-diarrhea-infection-in-cattle-of-tamil-nadu
#8
Subbiah Krishna Kumar, K M Palanivel, K Sukumar, B Samuel Masilamoni Ronald, G Selvaraju, G Ponnudurai
A cross-sectional study was carried out to identify risk factors for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in 62 randomly selected dairy herds which were tested for BVD serum antibodies by using an indirect ELISA kit (IDEXX). Results from the chi-square test analysis were interpreted by analyzing by chi-square test. A sum of 500 sera samples were screened and 66 animals (13.20%) showed positive for BVDV antibody. Within herd, BVD seroprevalence was 12-65%. This study concluded that epidemiological risk factors like location, herd size, housing patterns like, tail to tail system, roofing pattern, distance between the manure pit and farm, and distance between farms were significantly associated with BVDV serological status (P < 0...
January 4, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300333/atomic-resolution-structures-of-human-bufaviruses-determined-by-cryo-electron-microscopy
#9
Maria Ilyas, Mario Mietzsch, Shweta Kailasan, Elina Väisänen, Mengxiao Luo, Paul Chipman, J Kennon Smith, Justin Kurian, Duncan Sousa, Robert McKenna, Maria Söderlund-Venermo, Mavis Agbandje-McKenna
Bufavirus strain 1 (BuV1), a member of the Protoparvovirus genus of the Parvoviridae, was first isolated from fecal samples of children with acute diarrhea in Burkina Faso. Since this initial discovery, BuVs have been isolated in several countries, including Finland, the Netherlands, and Bhutan, in pediatric patients exhibiting similar symptoms. Towards their characterization, the structures of virus-like particles of BuV1, BuV2, and BuV3, the current known genotypes, have been determined by cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction to 2...
January 4, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300158/vaccination-of-sows-with-a-dendritic-cell-targeted-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-s1-protein-based-candidate-vaccine-reduced-viral-shedding-but-exacerbated-gross-pathological-lesions-in-suckling-neonatal-piglets
#10
Sakthivel Subramaniam, Danielle M Yugo, C Lynn Heffron, Adam J Rogers, Harini Sooryanarain, Tanya LeRoith, Christopher Overend, Dianjun Cao, Xiang-Jin Meng
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) poses a serious threat to swine worldwide as evidenced by its recent introduction into the USA and the devastating economic impact it caused to the USA swine industry. Commercial vaccines against PEDV are available but their efficacies are inadequate. Therefore, vaccines with improved efficacy are needed to effectively control PEDV infections. We previously determined the immunogenicity of a novel dendritic cell (DC)-targeted PEDV S1 protein-based subunit vaccine in weaned piglets in which the PEDV antigen was targeted to DCs through a porcine Langerin-specific antibody...
January 4, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297815/serologic-response-to-canine-distemper-vaccination-in-captive-linnaeus-s-two-toed-sloths-choloepus-didactylus-after-a-fatal-canine-distemper-virus-outbreak
#11
Julie D Sheldon, Andrew C Cushing, Rebecca P Wilkes, Eman Anis, Edward J Dubovi
Canine distemper virus (CDV) affects many wild and captive, nondomestic species worldwide but has not been previously reported in Xenarthra. Paucity of information on vaccination safety and efficacy presents challenges for disease prevention in captive collections. CDV infections and subsequent mortalities in five captive Linnaeus's two-toed sloths ( Choloepus didactylus) in eastern Tennessee are reported. Clinical signs included oculonasal discharge, oral ulcerations, and diarrhea, and the diagnosis was confirmed by necropsy, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, virus isolation, and polymerase chain reaction...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290098/rotavirus-infection-as-a-frequent-cause-of-neonatal-fever
#12
Ha-Na Kang, Hyun Kyung Park, Hyun-Ju Lee, Jin-Hwa Moon, Jae Won Oh, Chang-Ryul Kim
BACKGROUND: Fever rather than diarrhea or vomiting was the most common symptom of neonatal rotavirus(RV) infection in our previous study. We investigated if RV infection is a major cause of neonatal fever and we compared the clinical characteristics of bacterial infections, viral infections and unknown causes of neonatal fever. METHOD: We reviewed the electronic medical records of 48 newborns of ≤ 28 days who were admitted to the Special Care Nursery of Hanyang University Guri Hospital for fever (≥ 38°C) from 2005 to 2009...
December 31, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288049/development-of-a-recombinase-polymerase-amplification-combined-with-lateral-flow-dipstick-assay-for-detection-of-bovine-ephemeral-fever-virus
#13
Peili Hou, Guimin Zhao, Hongmei Wang, Chengqiang He, Yanjun Huan, Hongbin He
Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV), identified as the causative pathogen of bovine ephemeral fever (BEF), is responsible for increasing numbers of epidemics/outbreaks and has a significant harmful effect on the livestock industry. Therefore, a rapid detection assay is imperative for BEFV diagnosis. In this study, we described the development of lateral-flow dipstick isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (LFD-RPA) assays for detection of BEFV. RPA primers and LF probes were designed by targeting the specific G gene, and the amplification product can be visualized on a simple lateral flow dipstick with the naked eyes...
December 26, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Probes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284216/dembo-pcr-technique-for-the-detection-of-bovine-abortion-diarrhea-and-respiratory-disease-complex-infectious-agents-in-potential-vectors-and-reservoirs
#14
Sayed Samim Rahpaya, Shinobu Tsuchiaka, Mai Kishimoto, Mami Oba, Yukie Katayama, Yuki Nunomura, Saki Kokawa, Takashi Kimura, Atsushi Kobayashi, Yumi Kirino, Tamaki Okabayashi, Nariaki Nonaka, Hirohisa Mekata, Hiroshi Aoki, Mai Shiokawa, Moeko Umetsu, Tatsushi Morita, Ayako Hasebe, Keiko Otsu, Tetsuo Asai, Tomohiro Yamaguchi, Shinji Makino, Yoshiteru Murata, Ahmad Jan Abi, Tsutomu Omatsu, Tetsuya Mizutani
The bovine abortion, diarrhea, and respiratory disease complexes, caused by infectious agents, result in high and significant economic losses for the cattle industry. These pathogens are likely transmitted by various vectors and reservoirs including insects, birds and rodents. However, experimental data that supports this possibility are scarce. We collected total 117 samples and screened for 44 bovine abortive, diarrheal and respiratory disease complex pathogens by using Dembo-PCR, based on TaqMan real-time PCR...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282191/persisting-ulcerating-lesions-after-cyclosporine-therapy-for-erosions-found-in-flexural-sites
#15
Mina Amin, Shannon Famenini, Jashin J Wu
In February 2012, a patient with a 15-year history of painful, pruritic eruptions presented with a severe exacerbation that had lasted for the previous week. The patient also reported severe headaches, a fever of 38.9°C (102.1°F), a cough, and diarrhea, which had now resolved. Physical examination showed erythematous macerated patches with erosions in the left submammary region, bilateral axillae, and vaginal area (Figure 1), and greasy scale covering the scalp. Despite lessening of the lesions in the submammary region and abdomen with the administration of minocycline 100 mg twice per day and cyclosporine 100 mg three times per day, the patient continued to complain of persistent painful ulcerations in the labia majora and perianal area (Figure 2)...
2017: Skinmed
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275032/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-infectious-enteritis-in-neonatal-and-juvenile-ruminants
#16
REVIEW
Meera C Heller, Munashe Chigerwe
Common causes of infectious enteritis in neonate and juvenile ruminants include viral, bacterial, and protozoal pathogens. The most common presenting sign in ruminants with infectious enteritis is diarrhea. Diagnosis of the cause of enteritis has important zoonotic and herd health implications. Severity of clinical signs with similar pathogens may differ between calves and small ruminants. Treatment of enteritis involves supportive care to correct fluid and electrolyte imbalances, provision of nutritional support for neonates, prevention and treatment of endotoxemia or sepsis, and pathogen-specific treatments when relevant and available...
December 20, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260489/virus-neutralization-technique-as-a-tool-to-evaluate-the-virological-profile-for-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-infection-in-dairy-water-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis-herds
#17
Sonália Ferreira Paixão, Juliana Torres Tomazi Fritzen, Alice Fernandes Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo Alfieri
Serological evidence shows that the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections are present in Brazilian dairy and beef water buffalo herds. As few reports describe the BVDV infection profile the aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of BVDV circulation in Brazilian dairy water buffalo herds through analysis of the seropositivity rate and the titer range of anti-BVDV neutralizing antibodies in a group of animals that are considered sentinels. Blood samples (n = 305) were obtained from unvaccinated, asymptomatic young water buffalos from four dairy herds randomly identified as A (n = 106), B (n = 62), C (n = 119), and D (n = 18)...
December 19, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259078/astrovirus-infection-and-diarrhea-in-8-countries
#18
Maribel Paredes Olortegui, Saba Rouhani, Pablo Peñataro Yori, Mery Siguas Salas, Dixner Rengifo Trigoso, Dinesh Mondal, Ladaporn Bodhidatta, James Platts-Mills, Amidou Samie, Furqan Kabir, Aldo Lima, Sudhir Babji, Sanjaya Kumar Shrestha, Carl J Mason, Adil Kalam, Pascal Bessong, Tahmeed Ahmed, Estomih Mduma, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Ila Lima, Rakhi Ramdass, Lawrence H Moulton, Dennis Lang, Ajila George, Anita K M Zaidi, Gagandeep Kang, Eric R Houpt, Margaret N Kosek
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Astroviruses are important drivers of viral gastroenteritis but remain understudied in community settings and low- and middle-income countries. We present data from 8 countries with high prevalence of diarrhea and undernutrition to describe astrovirus epidemiology and assess evidence for protective immunity among children 0 to 2 years of age. METHODS: We used 25 898 surveillance stools and 7077 diarrheal stools contributed by 2082 children for enteropathogen testing, and longitudinal statistical analysis to describe incidence, risk factors, and protective immunity...
December 19, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248200/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-infectious-enteritis-in-adult-ruminants
#19
REVIEW
Munashe Chigerwe, Meera C Heller
Infectious enteritis in adult ruminants is often a result of 1 or more viral, bacterial, or parasitic pathogens. Diagnosis of etiologic agents causing enteritis is important when considering herd implications and zoonotic potential of some etiologies. Differential diagnoses for enteritis in adult ruminants is not simple based on clinical signs alone. Diagnostic samples include feces, blood, and antemortem and postmortem tissues. Treatment of infectious enteritis is aimed at correcting dehydration and electrolyte imbalances secondary to diarrhea...
December 13, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244212/detection-of-enteric-and-non-enteric-adenoviruses-in-gastroenteritis-patients-bangladesh-2012-2015
#20
Mokibul Hassan Afrad, Tasnuva Avzun, Jahurul Haque, Warda Haque, Mohammad Enayet Hossain, Afm Rajibur Rahman, Shahnawaz Ahmed, Abu Syed Golam Faruque, Mohammed Ziaur Rahman, Mustafizur Rahman
BACKGROUND: Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are common cause of nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Limited data exist on HAdVs molecular epidemiology associated with acute gastroenteritis in Bangladesh. OBJECTIVE: We describe the genetic diversity and epidemiology of HAdVs among hospitalized diarrhea patients, including HAdV genotypes, clinical symptoms and co-infecting enteric pathogens. STUDY DESIGN: Stool samples were collected from ongoing diarrhea surveillance during 2012-2015...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
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