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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434154/protective-effects-of-cell-free-supernatant-and-live-lactic-acid-bacteria-isolated-from-thai-pigs-against-a-pandemic-strain-of-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus
#1
Wandee Sirichokchatchawan, Gun Temeeyasen, Dachrit Nilubol, Nuvee Prapasarakul
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a coronavirus which causes severe diarrhea and fatal dehydration in piglets. In general, probiotic supplements could enhance recovery and protect piglets against enteric pathogens. Seven local lactic acid bacteria (LAB), (Ent. faecium 79N and 40N, Lact. plantarum 22F, 25F and 31F, Ped. acidilactici 72N and Ped. pentosaceus 77F) from pig feces were well-characterized as high potential probiotics. Cell-free supernatants (CFS) and live LAB were evaluated for antiviral activities by co-incubation on Vero cells and challenged with a pandemic strain of PEDV isolated from pigs in Thailand...
April 22, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432927/type-2-bvdv-n-pro-suppresses-ifn-1-pathway-signaling-in-bovine-cells-and-augments-brsv-replication
#2
Abdulrahman A Alkheraif, Christina L Topliff, Jay Reddy, Chandirasegaran Massilamany, Ruben O Donis, Gregor Meyers, Kent M Eskridge, Clayton L Kelling
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection induces immunosuppression and in conjunction with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) contributes to the bovine respiratory disease complex. Bovine turbinate cells were single or co-infected with type 2 BVDV wild-type (BVDV2-wt), its dysfunctional N(pro) mutant (BVDV2-E), and/or BRSV. BVDV2-E significantly up-regulated PKR, IRF-7, TBK-1, IRF-3, and IFN-β mRNAs based on real-time Q-RT-PCR. BRSV-infected cells expressed significantly up-regulated PKR, IRF-3, IRF-7, and IFN-β mRNAs, whereas BVDV2-wt, but not BVDV2-E, abolished this up-regulation in co-infection...
April 19, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432676/bifidobacterium-adolescentis-dsm-20083-and-lactobacillus-casei-lafti-l26-dsl-probiotics-able-to-block-the-in-vitro-adherence-of-rotavirus-in-ma104-cells
#3
Karem Prunella Fernandez-Duarte, Nury Nathalia Olaya-Galán, Sandra Patricia Salas-Cárdenas, Jazmin Lopez-Rozo, Maria Fernanda Gutierrez-Fernandez
Rotavirus is the leading worldwide cause of gastroenteritis in children under five years of age. Even though there are some available vaccines to prevent the disease, there are limited strategies for challenging diarrhea induced by rotavirus infection. For this reason, researchers are constantly searching for other approaches to control diarrhea by means of probiotics. In order to demonstrate the ability of some probiotic bacteria to interfere with the in vitro rotavirus infection in MA104 cells, strains of Lactobacillus sp...
April 21, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423989/outbreaks-of-bovine-herpesvirus-2-infections-in-calves-causing-ear-and-facial-skin-lesions
#4
Tatiane Terumi Negrão Watanabe, Robert B Moeller, Beate M Crossley, Patricia C Blanchard
We describe 3 outbreaks of superficial dermatitis caused by bovine herpesvirus 2 (BoHV-2) in dairy breed calves. Clinically, all of the affected calves were 12-26 d of age, had alopecia and crusts on the face and ears, and were non-pruritic and afebrile. Affected animals recovered spontaneously without any treatment within 2-4 wk after onset of clinical signs based on 1 herd with follow up. Histologic examination of all skin crust or tissue samples identified neutrophilic inflammation, mild hyperkeratosis, multinucleate syncytial cells, and intranuclear inclusion bodies in the syncytial cells...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420390/a-novel-viewrna-in-situ-hybridization-method-for-the-detection-of-the-dynamic-distribution-of-classical-swine-fever-virus-rna-in-pk15-cells
#5
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Qianyi Zhang, Lu Xu, Yujie Zhang, Tuanjie Wang, Xingqi Zou, Yuanyuan Zhu, Yan Zhao, Cui Li, Kai Chen, Yongfang Sun, Junxiang Sun, Qizu Zhao, Qin Wang
BACKGROUND: Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious fatal infectious disease caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV). A better understanding of CSFV replication is important for the study of pathogenic mechanism of CSF. With the development of novel RNA in situ Hybridization method, quantitatively localization and visualization of the virus RNA molecular in cultured cell or tissue section becomes very important tool to address these pivotal pathogenic questions. In this study, we established ViewRNA ISH method to reveal the dynamic distribution of CSFV RNA in PK15 cells...
April 18, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416666/drebrin-restricts-rotavirus-entry-by-inhibiting-dynamin-mediated-endocytosis
#6
Bin Li, Siyuan Ding, Ningguo Feng, Nancie Mooney, Yaw Shin Ooi, Lili Ren, Jonathan Diep, Marcus R Kelly, Linda L Yasukawa, John T Patton, Hiroyuki Yamazaki, Tomoaki Shirao, Peter K Jackson, Harry B Greenberg
Despite the wide administration of several effective vaccines, rotavirus (RV) remains the single most important etiological agent of severe diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide, with an annual mortality of over 200,000 people. RV attachment and internalization into target cells is mediated by its outer capsid protein VP4. To better understand the molecular details of RV entry, we performed tandem affinity purification coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry to map the host proteins that interact with VP4...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414634/detection-of-the-canine-parvovirus-2c-subtype-in-australian-dogs
#7
Lucy Woolford, Paul Crocker, Hannah Bobrowski, Trevor Baker, Farhid Hemmatzadeh
Canine parvovirus (CPV-2) is an important cause of hemorrhagic enteritis in dogs. In Australia the disease has been associated with CPV-2a and CPV-2b variants. A third more recently emerged variant overseas, CPV-2c, has not been detected in surveys of the Australian dog population. In this study, we report three cases of canine parvoviral enteritis associated with CPV-2c infection; case 1 occurred in an 8-week-old puppy that died following acute hemorrhagic enteritis. Cases 2 and 3 were an 11-month-old female entire Saint Bernard and a 9-month-old male entire Siberian husky, respectively, both which had completed vaccination schedules and presented with vomiting or mild diarrhea only...
April 17, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408937/detection-of-gastrointestinal-pathogens-from-stool-samples-on-hemoccult-cards-by-multiplex-pcr
#8
Martin Alberer, Nicklas Schlenker, Malkin Bauer, Kerstin Helfrich, Carolin Mengele, Thomas Löscher, Hans Dieter Nothdurft, Gisela Bretzel, Marcus Beissner
Purpose. Up to 30% of international travelers are affected by travelers' diarrhea (TD). Reliable data on the etiology of TD is lacking. Sufficient laboratory capacity at travel destinations is often unavailable and transporting conventional stool samples to the home country is inconvenient. We evaluated the use of Hemoccult cards for stool sampling combined with a multiplex PCR for the detection of model viral, bacterial, and protozoal TD pathogens. Methods. Following the creation of serial dilutions for each model pathogen, last positive dilution steps (LPDs) and thereof calculated last positive sample concentrations (LPCs) were compared between conventional stool samples and card samples...
2017: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404864/longitudinal-peripheral-blood-transcriptional-analysis-of-a-patient-with-severe-ebola-virus-disease
#9
John C Kash, Kathie-Anne Walters, Jason Kindrachuk, David Baxter, Kelsey Scherler, Krisztina B Janosko, Rick D Adams, Andrew S Herbert, Rebekah M James, Spencer W Stonier, Matthew J Memoli, John M Dye, Richard T Davey, Daniel S Chertow, Jeffery K Taubenberger
The 2013-2015 outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone was unprecedented in the number of documented cases, but there have been few published reports on immune responses in clinical cases and their relationships with the course of illness and severity of Ebola virus disease. Symptoms of Ebola virus disease can include severe headache, myalgia, asthenia, fever, fatigue, diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and hemorrhage. Although experimental treatments are in development, there are no current U...
April 12, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400860/multiple-etiologies-of-infectious-diarrhea-and-concurrent-infections-in-a-pediatric-outpatient-based-screening-study-in-odisha-india
#10
Arpit Kumar Shrivastava, Subrat Kumar, Nirmal Kumar Mohakud, Mrutyunjay Suar, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan Sahu
BACKGROUND: There are multiple etiologies responsible for infectious gastroenteritis causing acute diarrhea which are often under diagnosed. Also acute diarrhea is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among children less than 5 years of age. METHODS: In our study, fecal samples (n = 130) were collected from children (<5 years) presenting with symptoms of acute diarrhea. Samples were screened for viral, bacterial, and parasitic etiologies. Rotavirus and Adenovirus were screened by immunochromatographic tests...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400145/vaccination-of-cattle-against-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus
#11
Benjamin W Newcomer, Manuel F Chamorro, Paul H Walz
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is responsible for significant losses to the cattle industry. Currently, modified-live viral (MLV) and inactivated viral vaccines are available against BVDV, often in combination with other viral and bacterial antigens. Inactivated and MLV vaccines provide cattle producers and veterinarians safe and efficacious options for herd immunization to limit disease associated with BVDV infection. Vaccination of young cattle against BVDV is motivated by prevention of clinical disease and limiting viral spread to susceptible animals...
April 6, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399724/the-epidemiology-of-iris-in-southern-india-an-observational-cohort-study
#12
Nisha Thambuchetty, Kayur Mehta, Karthika Arumugam, Umadevi G Shekarappa, Jyothi Idiculla, Anita Shet
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is an uncommon but dynamic phenomenon seen among patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). We aimed to describe incidence, risk factors, clinical spectrum, and outcomes among ART-naive patients experiencing IRIS in southern India. Among 599 eligible patients monitored prospectively between 2012 and 2014, there were 59.3% males, with mean age 36.6 ± 7.8 years. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome incidence rate was 51.3 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval: 44...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382208/etravirine-combined-with-antiretrovirals-other-than-darunavir-ritonavir-for-hiv-1-infected-treatment-experienced-adults-week-48-results-of-a-phase-iv-trial
#13
Eduardo Arathoon, Asad Bhorat, Rodica Silaghi, Herta Crauwels, Ludo Lavreys, Lotke Tambuyzer, Ben Van Baelen, Simon Vanveggel, Magda Opsomer
OBJECTIVE: VIOLIN (TMC125IFD3002; NCT01422330) evaluated the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of etravirine with antiretrovirals other than darunavir/ritonavir in HIV-1-infected patients. METHODS: In a 48-week, phase IV, single-arm, multicenter study, patients on prior antiretroviral therapy (⩾8 weeks) who needed to change regimen for virologic failure (viral load ⩾ 500 copies/mL) or simplification/adverse events (viral load < 50 copies/mL) received etravirine 200 mg bid with ⩾1 other active antiretroviral, excluding darunavir/ritonavir or only nucleoside/tide reverse transcriptase inhibitors...
2017: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381581/cell-attachment-domains-of-the-pedv-spike-protein-are-key-targets-of-neutralizing-antibodies
#14
Chunhua Li, Wentao Li, Eduardo Lucio de Esesarte, Hongbo Guo, Paul van den Elzen, Eduard Aarts, Erwin van den Born, Peter J M Rottier, Berend-Jan Bosch
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes enteric disease in pigs resulting in significant economic loss to the swine industry worldwide. Current vaccination approaches against this emerging coronavirus are only partially effective, though natural infection protects pigs against re-infection and provides lactogenic immunity to suckling piglets. The viral spike (S) glycoprotein, responsible for receptor binding and cell entry, is the major target for neutralizing antibodies. However, knowledge on antibody epitopes, their nature and location in the spike structure and the mechanisms by which the antibodies interfere with infection is scarce...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381569/group-a-rotaviruses-in-chinese-bats-genetic-composition-serology-and-evidence-for-bat-to-human-transmission-and-reassortment
#15
Biao He, Xiaohong Huang, Fuqiang Zhang, Weilong Tan, Jelle Matthijnssens, Shaomin Qin, Lin Xu, Zihan Zhao, Ling'en Yang, Quanxi Wang, Tingsong Hu, Xiaolei Bao, Jianmin Wu, Changchun Tu
Bats are natural reservoirs for many pathogenic viruses and increasing evidence supports that bats can also harbor group A rotaviruses (RVA), important causative agents of diarrhea in children and young animals. Currently, 8 RVA strains have been identified from African and Chinese bats, possessing completely novel genotype constellations or genotypes possibly originating from other mammals. However, all these data were mainly based on detection of RVA RNA, only present during acute infections, which does not permit assessment of the true exposure of a bat population to RVA...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381304/evaluation-of-biosecurity-measures-to-prevent-indirect-transmission-of-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus
#16
Yonghyan Kim, My Yang, Sagar M Goyal, Maxim C-J Cheeran, Montserrat Torremorell
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of biosecurity methods to mitigate the transmission of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) via farm personnel or contaminated fomites is poorly understood. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of biosecurity procedures directed at minimizing transmission via personnel following different biosecurity protocols using a controlled experimental setting. RESULTS: PEDV RNA was detected from rectal swabs of experimentally infected (INF) and sentinel pigs by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR)...
April 5, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380543/effect-of-pelleting-on-survival-of-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-contaminated-feed
#17
R A Cochrane, L L Schumacher, S S Dritz, J C Woodworth, A R Huss, C R Stark, J M DeRouchey, M D Tokach, R D Goodband, J Bia, Q Chen, J Zhang, P C Gauger, R J Derscheid, D R Magstadt, R G Main, C K Jones
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a heat-sensitive virus that has devastated the U.S. swine industry. Because of its heat sensitivity, we hypothesized that a steam conditioner and pellet mill mimicking traditional commercial thermal processing may mitigate PEDV infectivity. Pelleting, a common feed processing method, includes the use of steam and shear forces, resulting in increased temperature of the processed feed. Two thermal processing experiments were designed to determine if different pellet mill conditioner retention times and temperatures would impact PEDV quantity and infectivity by analysis of quantitative reverse transcription PCR and bioassay...
March 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379374/ebola-virus-disease-and-pregnancy-a-retrospective-cohort-study-of-patients-managed-at-five-ebola-treatment-units-in-west-africa
#18
Patricia C Henwood, Lisa M Bebell, Reshma Roshania, Vanessa Wolfman, Michaela Mallow, Anushka Kalyanpur, Adam C Levine
Background: Reliable data are lacking on pregnancy outcomes during Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) epidemics. We aimed to characterize symptoms and outcomes among pregnant women admitted to Ebola Treatment Units (ETUs) with suspected and confirmed EVD to better inform obstetric management. Methods: We analyzed a retrospective cohort of reproductive-aged women presenting to five West African ETUs from September 2014 to September 2015. We compared clinical symptoms, risk of EVD diagnosis, and mortality between pregnant and non-pregnant women...
March 31, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375824/genetic-diversity-of-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-in-cattle-from-mexico
#19
Ninnet Gómez-Romero, Francisco J Basurto-Alcántara, Antonio Verdugo-Rodríguez, Fernando V Bauermann, Julia F Ridpath
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infects cattle populations worldwide, causing significant economic losses though its impact on animal health. Previous studies have reported the prevalence of BVDV species and subgenotypes in cattle from the United States and Canada. We investigated the genetic diversity of BVDV strains detected in bovine serum samples from 6 different Mexican regions. Sixty-two BVDV isolates from Mexico were genetically typed based on comparison of sequences from the 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR) of the viral genome...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374120/calves-are-susceptible-to-infection-with-the-newly-emerged-porcine-deltacoronavirus-but-not-with-the-swine-enteric-alphacoronavirus-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus
#20
Kwonil Jung, Hui Hu, Linda J Saif
Fecal virus shedding, seroconversion and histopathology were evaluated in 3-7-year-old gnotobiotic calves orally inoculated with porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) (9.0-9.6 log10 genomic equivalents [GE] of OH-FD22-P5; n=4) or porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) (10.2-12.5 log10 GE of PC21A; n=3). In PDCoV-inoculated calves, an acute but persisting fecal viral RNA shedding and PDCoV-specific serum IgG antibody responses were observed, but without lesions or clinical disease. However, no fecal shedding, seroconversion, histological lesions, and clinical disease were detected in PEDV-inoculated calves...
April 3, 2017: Archives of Virology
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