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diarrhea viral

Radhwane Saidi, Amina Bessas, Idir Bitam, Yaşar Ergün, Veysel Soydal Ataseven
This study was performed to investigate the presence of bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in dromedary camels (Camelus dromaderius) kept in mixed herds with sheep and goats in Algeria, since the prevalence of BHV-1, BVDV, and BLV infections among dromedary camels in Algeria is unknown. Totally, 111 camel sera were collected from two provinces (Laghouat and Ghardaia) in Algeria. The sera were analyzed for BHV-1 specific antibodies, BVDV specific antibodies and BVDV antigen using the ELISA, and BLV nucleic acid using PCR...
November 13, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Frank Gillam, Jianqiang Zhang, Chenming Zhang
Porcine epidemic diarrhea Virus (PEDV) is the causative agent of porcine epidemic diarrhea, which is a devastating viral disease and causes severe economic loss to the swine industry. Current vaccine options for PEDV include modified live viruses and killed live viruses. Though these vaccines have shown efficacy, some have side effects including viral shedding. This report details an E. coli based expression and purification process of multiple vaccine candidates for PEDV using Hepatitis B Core Antigen (HBcAg) as a backbone protein...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
Mrigendra K S Rajput, Karim Abdelsalam, Mahmoud F Darweesh, Lyle J Braun, Jason Kerkvliet, Adam D Hoppe, Christopher C L Chase
Autophagy is a cellular process that maintains cellular homeostasis by the proteolytic recycling of cytoplasm. Autophagy occurs at basal levels in almost all cells. It is upregulated in cellular stress including starvation, oxidative stress or during infection. Several viruses including flavivirus have developed strategies to subvert or use autophagy for their efficient replication. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a member of the Flaviviridae family and the pestivirus virus group. BVDV is responsible for significant economic loss in cattle industry worldwide...
December 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Xiaoping He, Lynne Hopkins, George Everett, Willie M Carter, Cynthia SchroppDyce, Khalid Abusaada, Vincent Hsu
AIM: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir on hepatitis C eradication in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection in an urban HIV clinic. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 40 subjects co-infected with HIV-1 and HCV treated with the fixed-dose combination of ledipasvir and sofosbuvir for 12 wk from 2014 to 2016. All patients included were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) with HIV RNA values of 100 copies/mL or fewer regardless of baseline HCV RNA level...
October 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
Gilberto González-Parra, Hana M Dobrovolny, Diego F Aranda, Benito Chen-Charpentier, Rafael Antonio Guerrero Rojas
Globally, rotavirus is the most common cause of diarrhea in children younger than 5 years of age, however, a quantitative understanding of the infection dynamics is still lacking. In this paper, we present the first study to extract viral kinetic parameters for in vitro rotavirus infections in the REH cell tumor line. We use a mathematical model of viral kinetics to extract parameter values by fitting the model to data from rotavirus infection of REH cells. While accurate results for some of the parameters of the mathematical model were not achievable due to its global non-identifiability, we are able to quantify approximately the time course of the infection for the first time...
November 3, 2017: Virus Research
Dong Joo Seo, Day Jung, Soontag Jung, Seung-Kwon Ha, Sang-Do Ha, In-Soo Choi, Jinjong Myoung, Changsun Choi
Ten Yucatan miniature piglets were challenged with the human norovirus (NoV) GII.12/GII.3 CAU140599 strain and five piglets were used as negative controls. Stool, serum, and organs were collected and processed from two NoV-infected piglets and one negative piglet at 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 days post-inoculation (dpi). NoV was detected in stool and serum samples by real-time RT-PCR. Mild diarrhea was observed at 1-3 dpi. Fecal shedding and viremia were detected intermittently at 1, 3, and 7 dpi. While interferon-α was significantly elevated at 2-3 dpi, interferon-γ was not changed...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
Selwyn A Headley, Werner Okano, Luciana C Balbo, Rogério A Marcasso, Thalita E Oliveira, Alice F Alfieri, Luiz C Negri Filho, Mariana Z Michelazzo, Silvio C Rodrigues, Anderson L Baptista, João Paulo E Saut, Amauri A Alfieri
We investigated the occurrence of infectious pathogens during an outbreak of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in a beef cattle feedlot in southern Brazil that has a high risk of developing BRD. Nasopharyngeal swabs were randomly collected from steers ( n = 23) and assessed for the presence of infectious agents of BRD by PCR and/or RT-PCR assays. These included: Histophilus somni, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Mycoplasma bovis, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine coronavirus (BCoV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3)...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Yunfang Su, Yunchao Liu, Yumei Chen, Guangxu Xing, Huifang Hao, Qiang Wei, Yue Liang, Weitao Xie, Dongliang Li, Huimin Huang, Ruiguang Deng, Gaiping Zhang
Two different genotypes of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), the classical and variant strains, are classified by multiple insertions and deletions in their S genes. It is critical to detect and differentiate two genotypes in the pork industry to prevent PEDV outbreaks. In the present study, a novel duplex TaqMan RT-PCR was developed for detecting and differentiating PEDV strains in China. There was no cross-amplification between the two probes when using standard recombinant plasmids, and the specificity was further confirmed by using other seven non-PEDV swine pathogens...
November 7, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Probes
Yousry A Hawash, Khadiga A Ismail, Mazen Almehmadi
Infectious diarrhea is endemic in most developing countries. We aimed to investigate the protozoan, viral, and bacterial causes of acute diarrhea in Taif, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional prospective 1-year study was conducted on 163 diarrheal patients of various ages. Stool samples were collected, 1 per patient, and tested for 3 protozoa, 3 viruses, and 9 bacteria with the Luminex Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel. Overall, 53.4% (87/163) of samples were positives (20.8% protozoa, 19.6% viruses, 2.8% bacteria, and 9...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Melina Villalba, Fernanda Fredericksen, Carola Otth, Víctor H Olavarría
The immediate early response 3 (IER3) is a key regulatory factor in the immune response, particularly as related to homeostasis immunomodulation via the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. The IER3 gene has been identified in mammals and, more recently, in other higher vertebrates. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about this regulator in bovines. Therefore, this study explored, characterized, and compared the genetic context of bovine IER3 to homologous genes in the human, mouse, and canine chromosomes...
November 1, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Loni L Schumacher, Anne R Huss, Roger A Cochrane, Charles R Stark, Jason C Woodworth, Jianfa Bai, Elizabeth G Poulsen, Qi Chen, Rodger G Main, Jianqiang Zhang, Phillip C Gauger, Alejandro Ramirez, Rachel J Derscheid, Drew M Magstadt, Steve S Dritz, Cassandra K Jones
New regulatory and consumer demands highlight the importance of animal feed as a part of our national food safety system. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is the first viral pathogen confirmed to be widely transmissible in animal food. Because the potential for viral contamination in animal food is not well characterized, the objectives of this study were to 1) observe the magnitude of virus contamination in an animal food manufacturing facility, and 2) investigate a proposed method, feed sequencing, to decrease virus decontamination on animal food-contact surfaces...
2017: PloS One
Tomokazu Tamura, Takasuke Fukuhara, Takuro Uchida, Chikako Ono, Hiroyuki Mori, Asuka Sato, Yuzy Fauzyah, Toru Okamoto, Takeshi Kurosu, Yin Xiang Setoh, Michio Imamura, Norbert Tautz, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Alexander A Khromykh, Kazuaki Chayama, Yoshiharu Matsuura
The family Flaviviridae consists of four genera, Flavivirus, Pestivirus, Pegivirus, and Hepacivirus, and comprises important pathogens of human and animals. Although the construction of recombinant viruses carrying reporter genes including fluorescent and bioluminescent proteins has been reported, the stable insertion of foreign genes into viral genomes retaining infectivity remains difficult. Here, we applied the 11-amino-acid subunit derived from NanoLuc luciferase to the engineering of the Flaviviridae viruses, and then examined the biological characteristics of the viruses...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
Xiaoli Xiong, M Alejandra Tortorici, Joost Snijder, Craig Yoshioka, Alexandra C Walls, Wentao Li, Andrew T McGuire, Félix A Rey, Berend-Jan Bosch, David Veesler
Coronaviruses recently emerged as major human pathogens causing outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle-East respiratory syndrome. They utilize the spike (S) glycoprotein anchored in the viral envelope to mediate host attachment and fusion of the viral and cellular membranes to initiate infection. The S protein is a major determinant of the zoonotic potential of coronaviruses and is also the main target of the host humoral immune response. We report here the 3.5 Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of the S glycoprotein trimer from the pathogenic porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), which belongs to the recently identified delta genus...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
Pablo Gallardo, Mariana Izquierdo, Roberto M Vidal, Nayaret Chamorro-Veloso, Ramon Rosselló-Móra, Miguel O'Ryan, Mauricio J Farfán
Background: Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) strains are a major cause of diarrhea in children under 5 years of age worldwide. DEC pathogenicity relies on the interaction of bacteria with environmental factors, including the host's resident gut microbiota. Previous reports have shown changes in the gut microbiota's composition during episodes of diarrhea, which may increase the pathogenicity of DEC strains. More intense and detailed identification of microbiota strains specifically associated with DEC infections and disease is needed to pinpoint their role in DEC pathogenicity...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Tanja Opriessnig, Priscilla F Gerber, Huigang Shen, Alessandra Marnie M G de Castro, Jianqiang Zhang, Qi Chen, Patrick Halbur
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus strains from the G1b cluster are considered less pathogenic compared to the G2b cluster. The aim of this study was to compare the ability of G1b-based live virus exposure against use of a commercial G2b-based inactivated vaccine to protect growing pigs against G2b challenge. Thirty-nine PEDV naïve pigs were randomly divided into five groups: EXP-IM-1b (intramuscular G1b exposure; G2b challenge), EXP-ORAL-1b (oral G1b exposure; G2b challenge), VAC-IM-2b (intramuscular commercial inactivated G2b vaccination; G2b challenge), POS-CONTROL (sham-vaccination; G2b challenge) and NEG-CONTROL (sham-vaccination; sham-challenge)...
October 26, 2017: Veterinary Research
Walter A Bogdanoff, Edmundo I Perez, Tomás López, Carlos F Arias, Rebecca M DuBois
Human astroviruses are recognized as a leading cause of viral diarrhea worldwide in children, immunocompromised patients, and the elderly. There are currently no vaccines available to prevent astrovirus infection, however antibodies developed by healthy individuals during previous infection correlate with protection from reinfection, suggesting that an effective vaccine could be developed. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which several strains of human astrovirus serotype 2 (HAstV-2) are resistant to the potent HAstV-2-neutralizing monoclonal antibody PL-2 (mAb PL-2)...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Virology
Shipra Gupta, Anuja Krishnan, Sumit Sharma, Praveen Kumar, Satinder Aneja, Pratima Ray
There are very few studies that have assessed multiple viral agents causing Acute-Gastroenteritis (AGE) in India. The present study compared the changing pattern of prevalence and genetic diversity of five enteric viruses associated with acute-diarrhea in Delhi children within a gap of 5 years. Fecal samples were collected from diarrheal children (<4 years) during two winter seasons: year 2009-2010 (n = 59) and year 2014-2015 (n = 85). Samples were individually tested for rotavirus-A, norovirus, astrovirus, adenovirus, and sapovirus using EIA/RT-PCR and genetically characterized by phylogenetic analysis...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
Kerstin Wernike, Jörn Gethmann, Horst Schirrmeier, Ronald Schröder, Franz J Conraths, Martin Beer
Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is one of the most important infectious diseases in cattle, causing major economic losses worldwide. Therefore, control programs have been implemented in several countries. In Germany, an obligatory nationwide eradication program has been in force since 2011. Its centerpiece is the detection of animals persistently infected (PI) with BVD virus, primarily based on the testing of ear tissue samples of all newborn calves for viral genome or antigen, and their removal from the cattle population...
October 18, 2017: Pathogens
Silke Graul, Sindy Böttcher, Daniel Eibach, Ralf Krumkamp, Julia Käsmaier, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Jürgen May, Egbert Tannich, Marcus Panning
BACKGROUND: Little is known on human parechovirus (HPeV) infections in Africa. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the prevalence, genetic diversity, and association with diarrhea of HPeV in Ghanaian children. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 682 stool samples from a pediatric case-control study on causes of diarrhea collected in 2007-2008 were used. Laboratory analysis included HPeV real-time RT-PCR and sequencing partial viral protein (VP) 1 gene region of HPeV...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Runbo Luo, Xiaoqin Wei, Hongbo Zhou, Suolang Sizhu
Here, we report two strains of Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), named XZ01 and XZ02, that were isolated from cattle in Tibet, China. They belong to subgenotype 1b. This report will help in understanding the molecular characteristics of BVDV in Tibetan cattle.
October 19, 2017: Genome Announcements
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