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diarrhea viral

Yi Zhang, Chen Zhang, Bo Li, Yang Li, Xiao Zhou He, Acher Li, Wei Wu, Su Xia Duan, Fang Zhou Qiu, Ji Wang, Xin Xin Shen, Meng Jie Yang, De Xin Li, Xue Jun Ma
OBJECTIVE: Unbiased next generation sequencing (NGS) is susceptible to interference from host or environmental sequences. Consequently, background depletion and virome enrichment techniques are usually needed for clinical samples where viral load is much lower than background sequences. METHODS: A viral Sequence Independent Targeted Amplification (VSITA) approach using a set of non-ribosomal and virus-enriched octamers (V8) was developed and compared with traditionally used random hexamers (N6)...
April 2018: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
Yashpal Singh Malik, Shubhankar Sircar, Kuldeep Dhama, Rashmi Singh, Souvik Ghosh, Krisztián Bányai, Anastasia N Vlasova, Touil Nadia, Raj Kumar Singh
Picobirnavirus (PBV) is recognized as a putative cause of diarrhea and respiratory illnesses. Although PBV has been reported in several mammalian (including humans) and avian host species, data pertaining to its presence in small ruminants are limited. We report, here, PBV infection in small ruminants (ovine and caprine), in India. From January 2015 to December 2017, 400 samples were tested for the presence of PBV, using an RT-PCR assay specific for the genome segment-2. The overall rate of PBV infection was 35...
May 14, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Puxian Fang, Liurong Fang, Jie Ren, Yingying Hong, Xiaorong Liu, Yunyang Zhao, Dang Wang, Guiqing Peng, Shaobo Xiao
Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) has recently emerged as an enteric pathogen that can cause serious vomiting and diarrhea in suckling piglets. The first outbreak of PDCoV occurred in the United States in 2014 and was followed by reports of PDCoV in South Korea, China, Thailand, Lao people's Democratic Republic, and Vietnam, leading to economic losses for pig farms and posing considerable threat to the swine industry worldwide. Our previous studies have shown that PDCoV encodes three accessory proteins, NS6, NS7, and NS7a, but the functions of these proteins in viral replication, pathogenesis, and immune regulation remain unclear...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Virology
Dario Amilcar Malacari, Andrea Pécora, Maria Sol Pérez Aguirreburualde, Nancy Patricia Cardoso, Anselmo Carlos Odeón, Alejandra Victoria Capozzo
Non-cytopathic (ncp) type 2 bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV-2) is widely prevalent in Argentina causing high mortality rates in cattle herds. In this study, we characterized an Argentinean ncp BVDV-2 field isolate (98-124) compared to a high-virulence reference strain (NY-93), using in silico analysis, in vitro assays, and in vivo infections of colostrum-deprived calves (CDC) to compare pathogenic characters and virulence. In vitro infection of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with BVDV 98-124 induced necrosis shortly after infection while NY-93 strain increased the apoptotic rate in infected cells...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Paul H Walz, Kay P Riddell, Benjamin W Newcomer, John D Neill, Shollie M Falkenberg, Victor S Cortese, Daniel W Scruggs, Thomas H Short
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important viral cause of reproductive disease, immune suppression and clinical disease in cattle. The objective of this study was to compare reproductive protection in cattle against the impacts of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) provided by three different multivalent vaccines containing inactivated BVDV. BVDV negative beef heifers and cows (n = 122) were randomly assigned to one of four groups. Groups A-C (n = 34/group) received two pre-breeding doses of one of three commercially available multivalent vaccines containing inactivated fractions of BVDV 1 and BVDV 2, and Group D (n = 20) served as negative control and received two doses of saline prior to breeding...
April 23, 2018: Vaccine
Gayatri Kashyap, R Singh, Y S Malik, R K Agrawal, K P Singh, P Kumar, M Sahoo, D Gupta, Rahul Singh
We describe here the intestinal and extra-intestinal spread of the species A rotavirus (RV-A) and associated lesions thereof in Swiss albino suckling mice pups, inoculated with a bovine-origin RV-A strain. In total, 35 suckling pups were used, wherein 20 pups received cell culture isolated RV-A @ 160 μL (TCID50 /ml, 5 × 106.5 ) per pup [oral 80 μL and intra peritoneal (IP) 80 μL] and served as an infected group, while 15 pups were kept in the control group and inoculated the same volume of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) of neutral pH orally and IP...
April 23, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Di Wang, Xinna Ge, Dongjie Chen, Jie Li, Yueqi Cai, Jin Deng, Lei Zhou, Xin Guo, Jun Han, Hanchun Yang
The recently emerged highly virulent variants of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) have caused colossal economic losses to the worldwide swine industry. In this study, we investigated the viral virulence determinants by constructing a series of chimeric mutants between the highly virulent strain BJ2011C and avirulent strain CHM2013. When tested in the 2-day-old piglet model, WT BJ2011C caused severe diarrhea and death of the piglets within 72 hours. In contrast, its chimeric derivative carrying the S gene from CHM2013 (BJ2011C-SCHM ) was avirulent to the piglets...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Virology
Amauri Alcindo Alfieri, Juliane Ribeiro, Luciana de Carvalho Balbo, Elis Lorenzetti, Alice Fernandes Alfieri
Dairy calf rearing unit is a management system that is only recently being implemented by some milk producer's cooperatives in southern Brazil. However, aspects related to the health profile of the heifer calves that arrive in the rearing unit as well as about biosecurity practices and microbiological challenges have not yet been evaluated in this rearing system in a tropical country. Diarrhea is the main and most frequent consequence of enteric infections in newborn calves. This study, through some etiological and epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak of neonatal diarrhea, has the aim to alert to the possibility of pathogenic microorganism spread in a dairy heifer calf rearing unit...
April 18, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
M D Givens
The purpose of this paper is to review scientific evidence concerning pathogens that could potentially be transmitted via bovine semen. As a result of a careful analysis of the characteristics of infections that may cause transmission of disease through semen, effective control procedures can be identified that provide minimal constraint to the introduction of new bulls into herds for natural breeding and importation of valuable novel genetics through artificial insemination. The potential for transmission through bovine semen and corresponding effective control procedures are described for bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine leukemia virus, lumpy skin disease virus, bluetongue virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and Schmallenberg virus...
April 18, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Abdelfattah M Selim, Mahmoud M Elhaig, Sherif A Moawed, Ehab El-Nahas
Aim: The present cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and potential risk factors associated with Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) disease in cattle and buffaloes in Egypt, to model the potential risk factors associated with the disease using logistic regression (LR) models, and to fit the best predictive model for the current data. Materials and Methods: A total of 740 blood samples were collected within November 2012-March 2013 from animals aged between 6 months and 3 years...
March 2018: Veterinary World
Kiyoung Kim, Gyeonghweon Lee, Hien Dang Thanh, Jong-Hwa Kim, Maytiya Konkit, Seokmin Yoon, Miri Park, Siyoung Yang, Eunsup Park, Wonyong Kim
We aimed to determine the effects of Lactobacillus strains against rotaviral infections. Rotaviruses are the major causative agent of acute gastroenteritis in infants and children worldwide. However, to date, no specific antiviral drugs for the treatment of rotavirus infection have been developed. We identified 263 Lactobacillus strains from 35 samples of the traditional Korean fermented vegetable food, kimchi. Among them, Lactobacillus plantarum LRCC5310, more specifically the exopolysaccharides produced by these cells, were shown to have an antiviral effect against human rotavirus Wa strain in vitro...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Xing-Ye Wang, Cheng-Jie Ji, Xue Zhang, De-Peng Xu, De-Li Zhang
From September 2015 to May 2016, epidemic outbreaks of a diarrheal disease caused severe economic losses to the swine industry in northwest China. Typical clinical symptoms of the disease included severe diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration and death. In order to identify the pathogen, 27 intestinal samples were collected from dead piglets in Shaanxi, Gansu and Qinghai provinces and from Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. All samples were tested using RT-PCR to detect rotavirus (RV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV)...
April 3, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Shollie M Falkenberg, Rohana P Dassanayake, John D Neill, Julia F Ridpath
Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) can cause both acute and persistent infections in cattle. Exposure to BVDV persistently infected (PI) animals results in transmission of the virus to a naïve animal which causes a transient acute infection. While it is known that direct exposure to PI animals is a highly efficient means of transmission, less information is available regarding the potential for transmission from acutely infected either by direct or indirect exposure to naïve animals. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for spread of the virus from calves acutely infected, with typical virulence field viruses know to have minimal shedding and viremia, to naïve contact animals either by direct or indirect exposure...
April 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Xiao-Xia Ma, Peng Ma, Qiu-Yan Chang, Lin-Jie Li, Xiao-Kai Zhou, De-Rong Zhang, Ming-Sheng Li, Xin Cao, Zhong-Ren Ma
In this study, the systemic analyses of nucleotide, codon and amino acid usages for E2 gene of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were carried out for estimating its genetic features. The nucleotide usage pattern at the first codon position was strongly influenced by the overall nucleotide composition, while the nucleotide usage patterns at the second and third codon positions seemed to have little link to the overall nucleotide composition. The result indicated that the mutation pressure from nucleotide composition constraint was not the single evolutionary force for genetic features of BVDV E2 gene...
March 21, 2018: Gene
Shengwei Ji, Yuzi Luo, Tengteng Zhang, Lina Shao, Xing-Yu Meng, Yimin Wang, Yao Gao, Yongfeng Li, Su Li, Yuan Sun, Xin Jin, Hua-Ji Qiu
Classical swine fever (CSF), which is caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV), is a highly contagious disease of pigs. CSFV is genetically and serologically related to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a ruminant pestivirus. However, currently available ELISAs based on the full-length E2 protein of CSFV cannot discriminate anti-CSFV from anti-BVDV antibodies. In this study, a truncated CSFV E2 protein (amino acids 690 to 879) covering antigenic domains B/C/D/A (E2B/C/D/A ) was designed based on homologous modeling according to the crystal structure of the BVDV E2 protein...
March 23, 2018: Archives of Virology
Cecilia Cs Yeung, David M Hockenbery, Maria Westerhoff, Steven E Coutre, Ruth H Sedlak, Ronald L Dubowy, Veerendra Munugalavadla, Kerry Taylor, Francesc Bosch
AIM: Idelalisib (IDELA) treatment is associated with diarrhea/colitis (incidence of ∼15% grade ≥3). We performed a retrospective analysis of gastrointestinal biopsies from 29 patients treated with IDELA across 9 clinical trials. METHODS: A central core laboratory performed histopathologic review, immunohistochemistry, and droplet digital PCR viral studies. These results were correlated with tissue immune profiling data and morphologic features per modified Geboes score...
March 23, 2018: Future Oncology
Zhichao Xu, Huiling Zhong, Qingfeng Zhou, Yunping Du, Li Chen, Yun Zhang, Chunyi Xue, Yongchang Cao
Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a newly identified virus that causes watery diarrhea in newborn piglets and results in significant economic losses to the pig industry. Since first reported in Hong Kong in 2012, PDCoV has been subsequently detected in USA, South Korea, Thailand, and mainland China. Here we isolated a strain of PDCoV, named CHN-GD-2016, from the intestinal content of a diseased newborn piglet with severe diarrhea in a pig farm in Guangdong, China. PDCoV CHN-GD-2016 could be identified by immunofluorescence with PDCoV specific rabbit antisera, and typical crown-shaped particles with spiky surface projections of this PDCoV were observed with electron microscopy...
March 22, 2018: Virologica Sinica
Scott A Dee, Fernando V Bauermann, Megan C Niederwerder, Aaron Singrey, Travis Clement, Marcelo de Lima, Craig Long, Gilbert Patterson, Maureen A Sheahan, Ana M M Stoian, Vlad Petrovan, Cassandra K Jones, Jon De Jong, Ju Ji, Gordon D Spronk, Luke Minion, Jane Christopher-Hennings, Jeff J Zimmerman, Raymond R R Rowland, Eric Nelson, Paul Sundberg, Diego G Diel
The goal of this study was to evaluate survival of important viral pathogens of livestock in animal feed ingredients imported daily into the United States under simulated transboundary conditions. Eleven viruses were selected based on global significance and impact to the livestock industry, including Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV), Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV), Influenza A Virus of Swine (IAV-S), Pseudorabies virus (PRV), Nipah Virus (NiV), Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV), Swine Vesicular Disease Virus (SVDV), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) and Vesicular Exanthema of Swine Virus (VESV)...
2018: PloS One
Feng Yang, Yonggen Jiang, Lihua Yang, Juanxiu Qin, Mingquan Guo, Yuxia Lu, Hongyou Chen, Yuan Zhuang, Jinghao Zhang, Hong Zhang, Zhaoyun Dai, Min Li, Changqing Yang, Min Chen, Yanmei Zhang, Hu Zhao
Objective: To investigate prevalence of acute diarrhea in Shanghai and analyze virulence associated-genes and antibiotic resistance of major enteropathogens using combination of conventional and molecular epidemiology methods. Method: The 412 stool specimens were obtained by systematic sampling from diarrhea patients throughout entire year 2016. Bacterial and viral pathogens were identified and bacterial isolates were cultured and screened for antibiotic resistance profiles. Two most prevalent bacteria, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Salmonella were further typed by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and analyzed for presence of virulence-associated genes...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Leíse Gomes Fernandes, Edviges Maristela Pituco, Adriana Hellmeister de Campos Nogueira Romaldini, Eliana De Stefano, Inácio José Clementino, Amanda Rafaela Alves Maia, Carolina de Sousa Américo Batista Santos, Clebert José Alves, Sérgio Santos de Azevedo
BACKGROUND: Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) and Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) cause reproductive problems in cattle and restrictions on international trade in animals worldwide. Both infections were detected in cattle herds in the Paraíba state, Northeastern Brazil, however, the spatial distribution and geographic identification of positive herds for these viruses has never been examined. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the spatial pattern of apparent prevalence estimate and to identify spatial clustering of positive herds of BVDV and BoHV-1 infections in cattle herds from the state of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil...
March 20, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
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