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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545321/virus-detection-by-pcr-following-vaccination-of-naive-calves-with-intranasal-or-injectable-multivalent-modified-live-viral-vaccines
#1
Paul H Walz, Benjamin W Newcomer, Kay P Riddell, Daniel W Scruggs, Victor S Cortese
We evaluated duration of PCR-positive results following administration of modified-live viral (MLV) vaccines to beef calves. Twenty beef calves were randomly assigned to either group 1 and vaccinated intranasally with a MLV vaccine containing bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), or to group 2 and vaccinated subcutaneously with a MLV vaccine containing bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and 2 (BVDV-1, -2), BoHV-1, BRSV, and BPIV-3...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539533/evaluation-of-control-measures-for-bovine-viral-diarrhea-implemented-in-nemuro-district-hokkaido-japan-using-a-scenario-tree-model
#2
Norikazu Isoda, Akihiro Asano, Michiru Ichijo, Shiho Wakamori, Hiroshi Ohno, Kazuhiko Sato, Hirokazu Okamoto, Shigeru Nakao, Hajime Kato, Kazuma Saito, Naoki Ito, Akira Usui, Hiroaki Takayama, Yoshihiro Sakoda
A scenario tree model was developed to propose efficient bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) control measures. The model used field data in eastern Hokkaido where the risk of BVDV infection in cattle has been reduced by an eradication program including mass vaccination, individual tests prior to communal pasture grazing, herd screening tests using bulk milk, and outbreak investigations of newly infected herds. These four activities were then used as hypothesized control measures in the simulation. In each simulation, the numbers of cattle infected persistently and transiently with BVDV detected by clinical manifestations and diagnosis tests and of missed by all of the diagnosis tests were calculated, and the numbers were used as indicators to be compared for the efficacy of the control measures...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537239/-translational-efficiency-of-bvdv-ires-and-emcv-ires-for-t7-rna-polymerase-driven-cytoplasmic-expression-in-mammalian-cell-lines
#3
F Ghassemi, O Madadgar, F Roohvand, M Rasekhian, M H Etemadzadeh, G R N Boroujeni, A G Langroudi, K Azadmanesh
Mammalian T7 polymerase-based cytoplasmic expression systems are common tool for molecular studies. The majority of these systems include the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of the encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV). To carry out a cap-independent translation process, this type of IRES might require the expression of an extensive array of host factors, what is a disadvantage. Other IRESes might be less dependent on the host cell factors, but their biology is characterized to a lesser degree. Here, we compare the translational efficiencies of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) IRES with that of ECMV...
March 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536072/characterization-of-astrovirus-associated-gastroenteritis-in-hospitalized-children-under-five-years-of-age
#4
Hassan Zaraket, Hadi Abou-El-Hassan, Khalil Kreidieh, Nadia Soudani, Zainab Ali, Moza Hammadi, Lina Reslan, Soha Ghanem, Farah Hajar, Adlette Inati, Mariam Rajab, Hassan Fakhouri, Bassam Ghanem, Ghassan Baasiri, Nada M Melhem, Ghassan Dbaibo
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and genetic diversity of astrovirus (AstV) detected in children hospitalized for gastroenteritis (GE). METHODS: A multi-center, hospital-based surveillance study was conducted across Lebanon to investigate the incidence of AstV among diarrheal hospitalizations. Viral RNA was extracted from stool samples collected between 2011 and 2013 from children, below the age of 5years, hospitalized for GE at six medical centers across Lebanon...
May 20, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536059/current-state-of-knowledge-on-the-traditional-uses-phytochemistry-and-pharmacology-of-the-genus-hymenaea
#5
REVIEW
Pone Kamdem Boniface, Sabrina Baptista Ferreira, Carlos Roland Kaiser
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Plants of the genus Hymenaea (Fabaceae) are used in South American and Asian traditional medicines to treat a multitude of disorders, like cough, diarrhea, dysentery, intestinal colic, pulmonary weakness, asthma, anemia, sore throat, and for the treatment of kidney problems, viral related disorders, chronic cystitis, bronchitis, and bladder infections. Some Hymenaea species are also used as vermifuge, and for the treatment of arthritis, and inflammation conditions...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534849/evaluation-and-comparison-of-the-pathogenicity-and-host-immune-responses-induced-by-a-g2b-taiwan-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-strain-pintung-52-and-its-highly-cell-culture-passaged-strain-in-conventional-5-week-old-pigs
#6
Yen-Chen Chang, Chi-Fei Kao, Chia-Yu Chang, Chian-Ren Jeng, Pei-Shiue Tsai, Victor Fei Pang, Hue-Ying Chiou, Ju-Yi Peng, Ivan-Chen Cheng, Hui-Wen Chang
A genogroup 2b (G2b) porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) Taiwan Pintung 52 (PEDVPT) strain was isolated in 2014. The pathogenicity and host antibody responses elicited by low-passage (passage 5; PEDVPT-P5) and high-passage (passage 96; PEDVPT-P96) PEDVPT strains were compared in post-weaning PEDV-seronegative pigs by oral inoculation. PEDVPT-P5-inoculation induced typical diarrhea during 1-9 days post inoculation with fecal viral shedding persisting for 26 days. Compared to PEDVPT-P5, PEDVPT-P96 inoculation induced none-to-mild diarrhea and lower, delayed fecal viral shedding...
May 19, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527686/local-innate-responses-and-protective-immunity-after-intradermal-immunization-with-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-e2-protein-formulated-with-a-combination-adjuvant-in-cattle
#7
Sams M A Sadat, Marlene Snider, Ravendra Garg, Robert Brownlie, Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the most serious pathogens in cattle. Recently, we developed a novel adjuvant platform (TriAdj) that includes a toll-like receptor 3 agonist, poly (I:C); an innate defense regulatory peptide; and water-soluble polymer, poly[di(sodiumcarboxylatoethylphenoxy)]-phosphazene (PCEP). To develop a needle-free intradermal (ID) subunit vaccine, the BVDV type-2 E2 protein was formulated with TriAdj, and immune protection was evaluated in calves against a BVDV-2 strain. Intradermal delivery of E2/TriAdj elicited robust virus neutralizing antibodies and cell-mediated immune responses including CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses...
May 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524070/tmprss2-and-mspl-facilitate-trypsin-independent-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-replication-in-vero-cells
#8
Wen Shi, Wenlu Fan, Jing Bai, Yandong Tang, Li Wang, Yanping Jiang, Lijie Tang, Min Liu, Wen Cui, Yigang Xu, Yijing Li
Type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs) facilitate the spread and replication of viruses such as influenza and human coronaviruses, although it remains unclear whether TTSPs play a role in the progression of animal coronavirus infections, such as that by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). In this study, TTSPs including TMPRSS2, HAT, DESC1, and MSPL were tested for their ability to facilitate PEDV replication in Vero cells. Our results showed that TMPRSS2 and MSPL played significant roles in the stages of cell-cell fusion and virus-cell fusion, whereas HAT and DESC1 exhibited weaker effects...
May 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515290/a-point-mutation-in-the-rhesus-rotavirus-vp4-protein-generated-through-rotavirus-reverse-genetics-system-attenuates-the-murine-model-of-biliary-atresia
#9
Sujit K Mohanty, Bryan Donnelly, Phylicia Dupree, Inna Lobeck, Sarah Mowery, Jaroslaw Meller, Monica McNeal, Greg Tiao
Rotavirus infection is one of the most common causes of diarrheal illness in humans. In neonatal mice, rhesus rotavirus (RRV) can induce biliary atresia (BA), a disease resulting in inflammatory obstruction of the extra-hepatic biliary tract and intrahepatic bile ducts. We have previously shown that the amino acid, arginine (R) within the sequence "SRL" (amino acids 445-447) on the RRV VP4 protein is required for viral binding and entry into biliary epithelial cells. To determine if the single amino acid (R) influences the pathogenicity of the virus, we generated a recombinant virus with a single amino acid mutation at this site through a reverse genetics system...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514971/effects-of-organic-complexed-or-inorganic-co-cu-mn-and-zn-supplementation-during-a-45-day-preconditioning-period-on-productive-and-health-responses-of-feeder-cattle
#10
K D Lippolis, R F Cooke, L G T Silva, K M Schubach, A P Brandao, R S Marques, C K Larson, J R Russell, S A Arispe, T DelCurto, D W Bohnert
This experiment evaluated production and health parameters among cattle offered concentrates containing inorganic or organic complexed sources of supplemental Cu, Co, Mn and Zn during a 45-day preconditioning period. In total, 90 Angus×Hereford calves were weaned at 7 months (day -1), sorted by sex, weaning BW and age (261±2 kg; 224±2 days), and allocated to 18 drylot pens (one heifer and four steers per pen) on day 0; thus, all pens had equivalent initial BW and age. Pens were randomly assigned to receive a corn-based preconditioning concentrate containing: (1) Cu, Co, Mn and Zn sulfate sources (INR), (2) Cu, Mn, Co and Zn complexed organic source (AAC) or (3) no Cu, Co, Mn and Zn supplementation (CON)...
May 18, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510265/severity-and-outcome-of-the-norovirus-infection-in-children-after-intestinal-transplantation
#11
Marie Patte, Danielle Canioni, Véronique Avettand Fenoel, Pierre Frange, Marion Rabant, Cécile Talbotec, Florence Lacaille
In immunocompromised patients, the NoV infection is prolonged and severe. We retrospectively studied the severity of the NoV infection in children after an ITx, the treatment, and the long-term evolution. Norovirus PCR in stools was positive for 19 children in 21 separate episodes. The infection was symptomatic in 18 cases. At diagnosis, the median weight loss was 5% (0-11) and the creatinine clearance was 75 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (19-142). On 14 digestive biopsies, the pathological findings were non-specific with a constant mononuclear infiltration, showing signs of rejection in one case...
May 16, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504301/first-report-on-serological-evidence-of-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-bvdv-infection-in-farmed-and-free-ranging-mithuns-bos-frontalis
#12
Vidya Singh, Niranjan Mishra, S Kalaiyarasu, R K Khetan, D Hemadri, R K Singh, K Rajukumar, J Chamuah, K P Suresh, S S Patil, V P Singh
Despite reports of BVDV infection in several domestic and wild ruminants, no information exists for mithun (Bos frontalis) species. Hence, this study was undertaken to determine prevalence of BVDV infection in mithuns, which contribute significantly to local economy in the North Eastern region of India. Blood and serum samples were collected between 2013 and 2016 from mithuns (n = 466) belonging to the states of Nagaland, Mizoram, and Arunachal Pradesh. Serum samples were tested for BVDV antibodies by a commercial ELISA and leukocytes were tested for BVDV by real-time RT-PCR...
May 14, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498621/enhanced-production-of-enveloped-viruses-in-bst-2-deficient-cell-lines
#13
Eunbi Yi, Jinsoo Oh, Ngoc Quynh Giao, Soohwan Oh, Se-Ho Park
Despite all the advantages that cell-cultured influenza vaccines have over egg-based influenza vaccines, the inferior productivity of cell-culture systems is a major drawback that must be addressed. BST-2 (tetherin) is a host restriction factor which inhibits budding-out of various enveloped viruses from infected host cells. We developed BST-2-deficient MDCK and Vero cell lines to increase influenza virus release in cell culture. BST-2 gene knock-out resulted in increased release of viral particles into the culture medium, by at least 2-fold and up to 50-fold compared to release from wild-type counterpart cells depending on cell line and virus type...
May 12, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494925/comparison-of-humoral-and-t-cell-mediated-immune-responses-to-a-single-dose-of-bovela-%C3%A2-live-double-deleted-bvdv-vaccine-or-to-a-field-bvdv-strain
#14
Ratree Platt, Lyle Kesl, Christian Guidarini, Chong Wang, James A Roth
The objective of this study was to determine and compare the humoral and cellular immune responses of calves exposed to a single dose of Bovela(®) bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) live double deleted vaccine or a field strain virus (FSV) of BVDV type 2 (strain 890). Thirty seronegative, colostrum-deprived 5 month-old Holstein steer calves that tested negative for persistent BVDV by ear notch immunohistochemistry and seronegative to BVDV types 1 and 2 were used. Calves were screened by multi-parameter flow cytometry (MP-FCM) 1 week before vaccination to ensure that they were negative for T cell responses to the BVDV types 1 and 2 viruses in the Bovela(®) vaccine...
May 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490591/deletion-of-a-197-amino-acid-region-in-the-n-terminal-domain-of-spike-protein-attenuates-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-in-piglets
#15
Yixuan Hou, Chun-Ming Lin, Masaru Yokoyama, Boyd L Yount, Douglas Marthaler, Arianna L Douglas, Shristi Ghimire, Yibin Qin, Ralph S Baric, Linda J Saif, Qiuhong Wang
We previously isolated a porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) strain PC177, by blind serial passaging the intestinal contents of a diarrheic piglet in Vero cell culture. Compared with a US highly virulent PEDV strain PC21A, the tissue culture-adapted PC177 (TC-PC177) contains a 197 aa-deletion in the N-terminal domain of the spike protein. We orally inoculated neonatal, conventional suckling piglets with TC-PC177 or PC21A to compare the pathogenicity. Within 7 days post-inoculation, TC-PC177 caused mild diarrhea and lower fecal viral RNA shedding, with no mortality, whereas PC21A caused severe clinical signs and 55% mortality...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490584/a-naturally-occurring-recombinant-enterovirus-expresses-a-torovirus-deubiquitinase
#16
Pengcheng Shang, Saurav Misra, Ben Hause, Ying Fang
Enteroviruses are implicated in a wide range of diseases in human and animals. In this study, a novel enterovirus (species G; EVG 08/NC_USA/2015) was isolated from a diagnostic sample of neonatal pig diarrhea case and identified using metagenomics and complete genome sequencing. The viral genome shares 75.4% nucleotide identity with a prototypic EVG strain (PEV9 UKG/410/73). Remarkably, a 582 nucleotide insertion, flanked by 3C(pro) cleavage sites at 5' - and 3' - ends, was found in the 2C/3A junction region of the viral genome...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484432/rice-bran-and-probiotics-alter-the-porcine-large-intestine-and-serum-metabolomes-for-protection-against-human-rotavirus-diarrhea
#17
Nora Jean Nealon, Lijuan Yuan, Xingdong Yang, Elizabeth P Ryan
Human rotavirus (HRV) is a leading cause of severe childhood diarrhea, and there is limited vaccine efficacy in the developing world. Neonatal gnotobiotic pigs consuming a prophylactic synbiotic combination of probiotics and rice bran (Pro+RB) did not exhibit HRV diarrhea after challenge. Multiple immune, gut barrier protective, and anti-diarrheal mechanisms contributed to the prophylactic efficacy of Pro+RB when compared to probiotics (Pro) alone. In order to understand the molecular signature associated with diarrheal protection by Pro+RB, a global non-targeted metabolomics approach was applied to investigate the large intestinal contents and serum of neonatal gnotobiotic pigs...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480431/anti-viral-effect-of-herbal-medicine-korean-traditional-cynanchum-paniculatum-bge-kitag-extracts
#18
Woong Kim, Tae-Seok Oh, Youn-Jin Park
BACKGROUND: Pestiviruses in general, and Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) in particular, present several potential targets for directed antiviral therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The antiviral effect of Cynanchum paniculatum (Bge.) Kitag (Dog strangling vine: DS) extract on the bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus was tested. First, a cytotoxicity test in MDBK (Madin-Darby bovine kidney) cells was done with all organic extract concentrations. RESULTS: The cytotoxic concentration CC50 for the ethyl acetate (EA) extracts was 18...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475152/prevalence-of-rotavirus-genogroup-a-and-norovirus-genogroup-ii-in-bassaseachic-falls-national-park-surface-waters-in-chihuahua-mexico
#19
Ma Carmen E Delgado-Gardea, Patricia Tamez-Guerra, Ricardo Gomez-Flores, Aurora Mendieta-Mendoza, Francisco Javier Zavala-Díaz de la Serna, Juan Francisco Contreras-Cordero, Gilberto Erosa-de la Vega, María Concepción Pérez-Recoder, Blanca Sánchez-Ramírez, Carmen González-Horta, Rocío Infante-Ramírez
In areas lacking potable water treatment, drinking contaminated water may represent a public health threat. In addition to enteropathogenic bacteria and parasites, fecal contamination in water environments is associated with the transmission of enteric viruses and other causal agents of infectious disease. Rotavirus and norovirus are the main enteric viral agents responsible for diarrheic outbreaks. The aim of the present study was to detect seasonal variation of rotavirus and norovirus in the surface water at Bassaseachic Falls National Park during 2013...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474223/the-role-of-orf3-accessory-protein-in-replication-of-cell-adapted-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-pedv
#20
Phonphimon Wongthida, Benjamas Liwnaree, Nanchaya Wanasen, Jaraspim Narkpuk, Anan Jongkaewwattana
The ORF3 accessory protein has been shown to impede reverse genetics of cell-culture-adapted porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). Its absence or truncated variants are also associated with viral attenuation in vivo. Here, three ORF3 variants (ORF3NP12, ORF3NP14 and ORF3RB14) and their truncated counterparts were investigated for their regulatory role in recovery of cell-adapted PEDV in vitro. We demonstrate that ORF3NP12, but not the truncated form, can inhibit recovery of reverse-genetics-derived PEDV when expressed in trans...
May 4, 2017: Archives of Virology
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