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Invisible disease

Michael I Seider, Dilraj S Grewal, Prithvi Mruthyunjaya
Portable, hand-held optical coherence tomography (OCT) revealed three clinically relevant yet not ophthalmoscopically detected or confirmed manifestations of retinoblastoma in a single patient with familial bilateral disease. Specifically, OCT showed new retinal tumors, new vitreous seeds, and tumor recurrence before they could be detected or confirmed by ophthalmoscopy. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:965-968.].
October 1, 2016: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
K L Barker, F Toye, C J Minns Lowe
: We aimed to systematically review qualitative studies exploring the experience of living with osteoporosis to develop new conceptual understanding. We identified themes about the invisibility/visibility of osteoporosis, the experience of uncertainty of living with osteoporosis (OP) and living with an ageing body and the place of gender. PURPOSE: The aim of this review was to systematically review the body of qualitative studies exploring the experience of living with either osteoporosis or osteopenia and to use meta-ethnography to develop new conceptual understanding...
December 2016: Archives of Osteoporosis
Anna Klöckner, Henrike Bühl, Patrick Viollier, Beate Henrichfreise
The evolutionary separated Gram-negative Chlamydiales show a biphasic life cycle and replicate exclusively within eukaryotic host cells. Members of the genus Chlamydia are responsible for many acute and chronic diseases in humans, and Chlamydia-related bacteria are emerging pathogens. We revisit past efforts to detect cell wall material in Chlamydia and Chlamydia-related bacteria in the context of recent breakthroughs in elucidating the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of the chlamydial cell wall biosynthesis...
September 21, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Janis Antonovics, Jacobus Kritzinger
This study presents the first translation from Latin to English of the Linnaean dissertation Mundus invisibilis or The Invisible World, submitted by Johannes Roos in 1769. The dissertation highlights Linnaeus's conviction that infectious diseases could be transmitted by living organisms, too small to be seen. Biographies of Linnaeus often fail to mention that Linnaeus was correct in ascribing the cause of diseases such as measles, smallpox and syphilis to living organisms. The dissertation itself reviews the work of many microscopists, especially on zoophytes and insects, marvelling at the many unexpected discoveries...
September 2016: British Journal for the History of Science
Elisabeth M Bik
Recent developments in sequencing methods and bioinformatics analysis tools have greatly enabled the culture-independent analysis of complex microbial communities associated with environmental samples, plants, and animals. This has led to a spectacular increase in the number of studies on both membership and functionalities of these hitherto invisible worlds, in particular those of the human microbiome. The wide variety in available microbiome tools and platforms can be overwhelming, and making sound conclusions from scientific research can be challenging...
September 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Desmond Schatz
This address was delivered by Desmond Schatz, MD, President, Medicine & Science, of the American Diabetes Association (ADA), at the Association's 76th Scientific Sessions in New Orleans, LA, on 12 June 2016. Dr. Schatz is Professor and Associate Chairman of Pediatrics, Medical Director of the University of Florida Diabetes Institute, and Director of the Clinical Research Center at the University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. A physician-scientist, he has been involved in type 1 diabetes research since the mid-1980s and has published over 300 articles and book chapters...
October 2016: Diabetes Care
Kenichiro Yamagata, Bashar Aldhoon, Josef Kautzner
Radiofrequency catheter ablation has become the treatment of choice for atrial fibrillation (AF) that does not respond to antiarrhythmic drug therapy. During the procedure, fluoroscopy imaging is still considered essential to visualise catheters in real-time. However, radiation is often ignored by physicians since it is invisible and the long-term risks are underestimated. In this respect, it must be emphasised that radiation exposure has various potentially harmful effects, such as acute skin injury, malignancies and genetic disease, both to patients and physicians...
August 2016: Arrhythmia & Electrophysiology Review
Silvie Kloeters, Christian J Hartmann, Viktoria D Pundmann, Alfons Schnitzler, Martin Südmeyer, Joachim Lange
Interacting with other individuals in a social world requires fast and accurate perception of other individuals' identity, actions, or intentions. Humans are very efficient in these social tasks, as they can extract social information even if the actor is represented only by a handful of point-lights on an otherwise invisible body. Theories have argued that efficient visual perception of actions is based on intact motor system functioning. The motor system provides visuo-motor action representations shaped by the observer's own movements or motor repertoire...
September 5, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Akhil Muthigi, Arvin K George, Abhinav Sidana, Michael Kongnyuy, Richard Simon, Vanessa Moreno, Maria J Merino, Peter L Choyke, Baris Turkbey, Bradford J Wood, Peter A Pinto
PURPOSE: Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and fusion biopsy detect more high risk prostate cancer and less low risk prostate cancer than systematic biopsy. However, there remains a small subset of patients in whom systematic biopsy captures higher grade disease than fusion biopsy. We sought to identify potential mechanisms of the failure of fusion biopsy in the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed a prospectively maintained database of patients who underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging followed by fusion biopsy and systematic biopsy from 2007 to 2014...
August 28, 2016: Journal of Urology
Eric A Owens, Maged Henary, Georges El Fakhri, Hak Soo Choi
Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence light has been widely utilized in clinical imaging by providing surgeons highly specific images of target tissue. The "NIR window" from 650 to 900 nm is especially useful due to several special features such as minimal autofluorescence and absorption of biomolecules in tissue, as well as low light scattering. Compared with visible wavelengths, NIR fluorescence light is invisible, thus allowing highly sensitivity real-time image guidance in human surgery without changing the surgical field...
September 20, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
Annemiek J Linn, Lisa Vandeberg, Annemarie M Wennekers, Marcia Vervloet, Liset van Dijk, Bart J F van den Bemt
Medication non-adherence is a major public health problem that has been termed an 'invisible epidemic.' Non-adherence is not only associated with negative clinical consequences but can also result in substantial healthcare costs. Up to now, effective adherence interventions are scarce and a more comprehensive model of adherence determinants is required to target the determinants for not taking the medication as prescribed. Current approaches only included explicit attitudes such as self-reported evaluations of medication as determinants, neglecting the role of associative processes that shape implicit attitudes...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Aldona Dlugosz, Ammar Mohkles Barakat, Niklas K Björkström, Åke Öst, Annika Bergquist
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Primary sclerosing cholangitis associated inflammatory bowel disease (PSC-IBD) is characterized by a high risk of colorectal dysplasia. Surveillance colonoscopies with random biopsies have doubtful power for dysplasia detection. Our aim was to prospectively investigate the feasibility and efficacy of pCLE in surveillance colonoscopies in patients with PSC-IBD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty-nine patients with PSC-IBD underwent colonoscopy in 2 steps...
August 2016: Endoscopy International Open
Marisa A Schoen, Carol L Shields, Emil Anthony T Say, Alexzandra M Douglass, Jerry A Shields, Lee M Jampol
PURPOSE: To report subclinical retinal hemangioblastoma detected by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography in at-risk twins. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A set of twins, age 7 years, (Twin A and Twin B) with known family history of von Hippel-Lindau disease (gene test positive) and no systemic manifestations were evaluated. Visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes of both twins. Anterior segment examination and intraocular pressures were unremarkable in both eyes...
August 16, 2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Kesha Morant Williams
Through her stories and mine, my sister and I allow the outside world to see the ways in which we grapple with a critical health incident along her journey of living with lupus. Lupus is a chronic, autoimmune disease that is difficult to recognize and to diagnose. The ambiguous nature of the disease creates considerable confusion for the ill person as well as her support system. Using an illness narrative, I analyze a real life event linked to chronic illness, invisibility, living loss, liminality and family-and more specifically, to social support within the sibling relationship...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Humanities
Alison Moore
Sickle cell disease is a life-limiting and sometimes life-threatening condition that most healthcare professionals will encounter at some point in their career.
July 20, 2016: Nursing Standard
Lily O'Hara, Jane Taylor, Margaret Barnes
The field of health promotion has arguably shifted over the past thirty years from being socially proactive to biomedically defensive. In many countries this has been accompanied by a gradual decline, or in some cases the almost complete removal of health promotion designated positions within Government health departments. The language or discourse used to describe the practice and discipline of health promotion is reflective of such changes. In this study, critical discourse analysis was used to determine the representation of health promotion as a practice and a discipline within 10 Australian Government weight-related public health initiatives...
July 19, 2016: Health Promotion International
Tania Anne Woloshyn
A much forgotten figure in the history of artificial and natural light therapies, the nurse played a central role in the administration of beneficial - and harmful - ultraviolet radiation in the treatment of skin diseases, tuberculosis and rickets, especially on child patients. As the primary operators of light therapy equipment, nurses specialised in this new and modern treatment, and both the therapy's successes and failures could be attributed to their skill, or lack thereof. This paper provides an introduction to the history of light therapy, especially phototherapy (artificial light therapy), during the early twentieth century in Britain, and to the 'invisible' technicians who contributed so much to its nascent reputation...
March 2016: Dermatological Nursing
Naohiro Ikeda, Tomohiro Ikeda, Hisashi Iwami
PURPOSE: To describe the ophthalmoscopic changes of the choroidal vessels in the posterior pole of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease patients whose choroid is thickened due to asymptomatic choroiditis. METHODS: Three patients whose choroidal vessels are indistinct or not visible in the posterior pole by ophthalmoscopy were examined by fundus photography and enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). RESULTS: They did not complain of vision problems, and visual acuity was good...
July 5, 2016: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Yi-Ya Chang, Yu-Tzu Dai, Nai-Hui Chien, Hui-Ya Chan
PURPOSE: This study explored the lived experiences of people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) following hospitalization for acute exacerbation or pneumonia. DESIGN AND METHOD: A phenomenological approach was adopted to collect data through semistructured interviews. Fourteen participants were recruited from a medical center in northern Taiwan. Data were collected from January 2013 to January 2014. Giorgi's phenomenological methodology was adopted to analyze the interview content...
September 2016: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
Pamela A Lopez-Vargas, Allison Tong, Martin Howell, Richard Ks Phoon, Steven J Chadban, Yvonne Shen, Jonathan C Craig
BACKGROUND: Diabetes, hypertension and smoking may contribute to the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its complications. The aim of this study was to assess patients' awareness and beliefs about these and other risk factors associated with CKD. METHODS: Participants with CKD Stages 1-5 were purposively sampled for participation in a mixed methods study. Focus group participants completed a survey on CKD risk factors and discussed the reasons for their choices...
June 1, 2016: Nephrology
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