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Disability rights

Maram A Alwadi, Sarah R Baker, Janine Owens
OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aimed to describe the extent to which oral health research since the advent of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the current movement on the inclusion of voices of children, has been done on or with children with disabilities. METHODS: A systematic review of the dental literature for children with disabilities from 2001 to 2017 was conducted...
March 14, 2018: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
Connie McGilloway, David Smith, Rose Galvin
BACKGROUND: Sexual violence is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The incidence of sexual violence against adults with intellectual disability is significantly higher than in the general population. The aim of this systematic review and qualitative meta-synthesis was to explore the barriers faced by adults with intellectual disability in reporting sexual assault from the perspective of different stakeholders. METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted to identify relevant studies...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
Aditya Jain, Aaron F Struck, Kaitlin M Woo, Christine J Jaskowiak, Lance T Hall
The aim of this study was to investigate thalamic and basal ganglia (BG) metabolism in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) on interictal18 F-FDG PET using standardized uptake value (SUV). Retrospective review of data was undertaken for patients who were surgically treated for medically intractable TLE. All patients underwent18 F-FDG PET, MRI brain and EEG as preoperative workup, and subsequently underwent temporal lobe resection. Postoperative outcomes were analyzed as without or with residual disabling seizures. SUVmax and SUVpeak values were calculated for thalamus and BG...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Elisenda Alari-Pahissa, Antía Moreira, Ana Zabalza, Roberto Alvarez-Lafuente, Elvira Munteis, Andrea Vera, Rafael Arroyo, Jose C Alvarez-Cermeño, Luisa Maria Villar, Miguel López-Botet, Jose E Martínez-Rodríguez
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has been recently associated with a lower multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility, remaining controversial whether it has a protective role or is merely an epiphenomenon related to westernization and early-life viral infections. We aimed to evaluate whether CMV serostatus may differ in early MS as compared to non-early MS patients, analyzing the putative association of this virus with MS clinical course and humoral immune responses against other herpesviruses...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Erik K St Louis
Apathy has been recently recognized as a distinct neuropsychological syndrome, overlapping with but also separable from mood disorders and cognitive impairment. While it is perhaps seen most often as a cardinal feature of depression as an amotivational symptom, it may occur independently in isolation without other prominent mood, vegetative, or cognitive symptoms or signs. The etymology of apathy is derived from the Greek "pathos" (passion), so apathy may be considered to be an amotivational state, i...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Benjamin R Pittman-Polletta, Allison Quach, Ali I Mohammed, Michael Romano, Krishnakanth Kondabolu, Nancy J Kopell, Xue Han, Michelle M McCarthy
Cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic (CBT) β oscillations (15-30 Hz) are ele- vated in Parkinson's disease and correlated with movement disability. To date, no experimental paradigm outside of loss of dopamine has been able to specifically elevate β oscillations in the CBT loop. Here, we show that activation of striatal cholinergic receptors selectively increased β oscillations in mouse striatum and motor cortex. In individuals showing simultaneous β increases in both striatum and M1, β partial directed coherence (PDC) increased from striatum to M1 (but not in the reverse direction)...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Katherine E Manning, Roger Tait, John Suckling, Anthony J Holland
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder of genomic imprinting, presenting with a characteristic overeating disorder, mild to moderate intellectual disability, and a variable range of social and behavioral difficulties. Consequently, widespread alterations in neural structure and developmental and maturational trajectory would be expected. To date, there have been few quantitative and systematic studies of brain morphology in PWS, although alterations of volume and of cortical organisation have been reported...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
María Carmen Sánchez-González, Verónica Pérez-Cabezas, Inmaculada López-Izquierdo, Estanislao Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Carmen Ruiz-Molinero, Manuel Rebollo-Salas, José Jesús Jiménez-Rejano
The aim of this study was to establish whether there is a relationship between conditions of accommodative visual dysfunctions and cervical complaints. Fifty-two participants were included. Variables were accommodative amplitude, positive and negative relative accommodation (NRA), accommodative response, and accommodative facility. Subjects were classified as accommodative insufficiency, accommodative excess, or normal. Neck complaints were measured with the Neck Disability Index, the Visual Analogue Scale, and by cervical range of motion, deep flexor muscle activation score, and performance index...
March 10, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Carlos Conte, Araceli López
The new models for understanding persons with disabilities and their needs come with an expansion of their rights. This article discusses the new approaches, the changes produced in recent years, and the upcoming challenges posed by the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), which, in Argentina, is on equal par with the Constitution. Additionally, the article mentions the incorporation of the World Health Organization's new multi-dimensional classifcation of disability, which takes into account the impairments suffered by persons along with any limitations on their activities and constraints on participation...
July 2017: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
Heather A Feldner, Samuel W Logan, James C Galloway
AIM: Rehabilitation professionals are increasingly recognizing mobility as a basic human right and endorsing the efficacy of early powered mobility for children with mobility impairments to foster independence, promote socialization with peers and facilitate participation in family and community life. However, the relationship between mobility and technology provision, when considered in the context of lived experiences of children with mobility impairments and their families, is complex and understudied...
March 9, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
Niels Martin, Jose L Pascual, Dennis Crowe, Christine Toevs, Maurizio F Cereda, Mark Mikkelsen, Lewis J Kaplan
The US has witnessed a vast increase in animals in therapeutic roles. These roles include Service as defined by the American Disabilities Act (ADA) as well as other animal types that are not covered under the ADA provisions. Such animal roles are designated as Therapy animals and Emotional Support animals (ESA). Understanding the legal and regulatory requirements that govern how each animal type accesses healthcare facilities is essential in planning for their presence. Since only Service animals are required to be given access to facilities, individual institutions must plan for how to accommodate their presence throughout different phases of care...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Giuseppe Vallar, Elena Calzolari
Unilateral spatial neglect is a disabling neurologic deficit, most frequent and severe after right-hemispheric lesions. In most patients neglect involves the left side of space, contralateral to a right-hemispheric lesion. About 50% of stroke patients exhibit neglect in the acute phase. Patients fail to orient, respond to, and report sensory events occurring in the contralateral sides of space and of the body, to explore these portions of space through movements by action effectors (eye, limbs), and to move the contralateral limbs...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Y J Daniel Yang, Tandra Allen, Sebiha M Abdullahi, Kevin A Pelphrey, Fred R Volkmar, Sandra B Chapman
Measuring treatment efficacy in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) relies primarily on behaviors, with limited evidence as to the neural mechanisms underlying these behavioral gains. This pilot study addresses this void by investigating neural and behavioral changes in a Phase I trial in young adults with high-functioning ASD who received an evidence-based behavioral intervention, Virtual Reality-Social Cognition Training over 5 weeks for a total of 10 hr. The participants were tested pre- and post-training with a validated biological/social versus scrambled/nonsocial motion neuroimaging task, previously shown to activate regions within the social brain networks...
March 8, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Marc Vecchi, Ricardo Pereira Mestre, S Luciamma Thiekalamuriyil, Roberto Cartolari
In the context of painful cranial neuropathies, a very rare cause is represented by the irritation of the glossopharyngeal nerve due to various aetiologic factors. Here, we present a case of neuralgia of the ninth right cranial nerve due to a compression of its nerve root upon the kinking of the homolateral vertebral artery, resulting in a disabling clinical overview for the patient. Our objective was to focus the reader's attention on the clinical manifestation, which alone could lead to an immediate diagnosis...
September 2017: Case Reports in Neurology
Jodie Stephenson, Erik Nutma, Paul van der Valk, Sandra Amor
Neurodegenerative diseases, the leading cause of morbidity and disability is gaining increased attention as it imposes a considerable socioeconomic impact, due in part to the ageing community. Neuronal damage is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease, spinocerebellar ataxia and multiple sclerosis, although such damage is also observed following neurotropic viral infections, stroke, genetic white matter diseases and paraneoplastic disorders...
March 7, 2018: Immunology
R Mezzina
AIM: Italy pioneered deinstitutionalisation over the past 60 years and enforced a famous mental health (MH) reform law in 1978. Deinstitutionalisation has been completed with the very closure of all psychiatric hospitals over two decades. METHODS: After 40 years of implementation, this article presents the main achievements and challenges of the Italian MH reform law, including its long-term effect and impact in Italy and abroad. RESULTS: The Legislation of 1978 was based on the discovery of rights as a key tool in mental healthcare...
March 6, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
Katie A Butera, Steven Z George, Paul A Borsa, Geoffrey C Dover
OBJECTIVES: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is commonly used for reducing musculoskeletal pain to improve function. However, peripheral nerve stimulation using TENS can alter muscle motor output. Few studies examine motor outcomes following TENS in a human pain model. Therefore, this study investigates the influence of TENS sensory stimulation primarily on motor output (strength) and secondarily on pain and disability following exercise-induced delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS)...
March 5, 2018: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
Katerina Trajanoska, Josje D Schoufour, Sirwan Kl Darweesh, Elizabeth Benz I, Carolina Medina-Gomez, Louise Jm Alfernik, Lies Lahousse, Guy Brusselle, Bruno Stricker, Sarwa Darwish Murad, M Carola Zillikens, Andre G Uitterlinden, M Arfan Ikram, Oscar H Franco, Fernando Rivadeneira
Sarcopenia, a complex multifactorial condition, is characterized by loss of muscle mass and function, which increases progressively with age. The existence of different definitions has contributed to the large variation in the prevalence estimates of sarcopenia. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of sarcopenia in the general population using the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) proposed definition and compared baseline demographic and clinical characteristics between the non-sarcopenia, pre-sarcopenia, and sarcopenia individuals, with particular emphasis on the overlap with osteoporosis and fracture risk...
March 4, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Gillian Loomes
The right to active participation by disabled people in academic research has been discussed at length in recent years, along with the potential for such research to function as a tool in challenging oppression and pursuing disability rights. Significant ethical, legal and methodological dilemmas arise, however, in circumstances where a disabled person loses the capacity to provide informed consent to such participation. In this article, I consider disability politics and academic research in the context of the Mental Capacity Act (MCA) 2005, which sets out in Anglo-Welsh law the circumstances and requirements for research participation by individuals lacking the capacity to provide informed consent...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
Elisa Tassano, Sara Uccella, Thea Giacomini, Mariasavina Severino, Laura Siri, Marcella Gherzi, Maria Elena Celle, Simona Porta, Giorgio Gimelli, Patrizia Ronchetto
Heterogeneous clinical and neuropsychological features, such as intellectual disability, developmental and language delay, hypotonia, and, to a lesser extent, microcephaly that is present in about the half of the reported patients, characterize the 3q29 microduplication syndrome with usually a milder phenotype compared with the corresponding 3q29 microdeletion syndrome. The duplications described so far range from 2.3 Mb to 1.6 Mb, spanning from TFRC to BDH1 genes. Here we report on two patients with overlapping interstitial duplications of the 3q29 region differing in size...
March 1, 2018: European Journal of Medical Genetics
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