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Multi casualty incidents

Rasikh Maqsood, Alia Rasikh, Tariq Abbasi, Irfan Shukr
BACKGROUND: As a front line state in war against terror, Pakistan has been a victim of terrorism, for the last many years & Baluchistan has been the hub of all such terror activities. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and type of injuries in mass casualties in terrorist activities in Baluchistan. METHODS: The study was done by the review of the record of all patients of terrorist attacks who were admitted in Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Quetta from 27th Aug 2012 to 31st Jul 2015...
October 2015: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
Rebecca Forsberg, José Antonio Iglesias Vázquez
INTRODUCTION: The worldwide use of rail transport has increased, and the train speeds are escalating. Concurrently, the number of train disasters has been amplified globally. Consequently, railway safety has become an important issue for the future. High-velocity crashes increase the risk for injuries and mortality; nevertheless, there are relatively few studies on high-speed train crashes and the influencing factors on travelers' injuries occurring in the crash phase. The aim of this study was to investigate the fatal and non-fatal injuries and the main interacting factors that contributed to the injury process in the crash phase of the 2013 high-velocity train crash that occurred at Angrois, outside Santiago de Compostela, Spain...
April 2016: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Carol Lee, Elizabeth Walters, Rodney Borger, Kathleen Clem, Gregory Fenati, Michael Kiemeney, Sakona Seng, Ho-Wang Yuen, Michael Neeki, Dustin Smith
On December 2, 2015, a terror attack in the city of San Bernardino, California killed 14 Americans and injured 22 in the deadliest attack on U.S. soil since September 11, 2001. Although emergency personnel and law enforcement officials frequently deal with multi-casualty incidents (MCIs), what occurred that day required an unprecedented response. Most of the severely injured victims were transported to either Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) or Arrowhead Regional Medical Center (ARMC). These two hospitals operate two designated trauma centers in the region and played crucial roles during the massive response that followed this attack...
January 2016: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Fabian G Mueck, Kathrin Wirth, Maximilian Muggenthaler, Uwe Kreimeier, Lucas Geyer, Karl-Georg Kanz, Ulrich Linsenmaier, Stefan Wirth
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to analyse and interpret radiological mass casualty incident workflow data. METHODS: In a mid-scale mass casualty incident exercise, the on-site triage assigned 12 cases to the investigated institution (11 included in the study). Two out of five institutional multislice-CT-scanners were used and the whole CT workflow and radiological service process chain were simulated as close to realistic as possible. The respective time intervals for reaching defined milestones were measured...
2016: British Journal of Radiology
Abraham Nilsson, Kristian Åslund, Maria Lampi, Helene Nilsson, Carl-Oscar Jonson
BACKGROUND: A previous study has shown no measurable improvement in triage accuracy among physicians attending the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) course and suggests a curriculum revision regarding triage. Other studies have indicated that cooperative learning helps students acquire knowledge. OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of trauma cards in triage training for firemen. METHODS: Eighty-six firemen were randomly assigned into two groups: the trauma card group and the direct instruction group...
2015: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Atle Dyregrov, Alison Salloum, Pål Kristensen, Kari Dyregrov
Children who have had someone close die as a result of a mass trauma event such as war, armed conflict, acts of terror, political violence, torture, mass accidents, and natural disasters are at risk for biopsychosocial problems. Research on how to classify when grief becomes complicated or traumatic in children is scarce, and while functioning level may provide a good indication, assessing functioning may be difficult in mass trauma environments where routines and structure are often lacking. There are promising trauma- and grief-focused interventions for children post-mass trauma, which are mostly provided in school settings...
June 2015: Current Psychiatry Reports
Stephen D Waterford, Mallory Williams, Charles J Siegert, P Marco Fisichella, Abraham Lebenthal
BACKGROUND: Trauma is the leading cause of death from ages 1-44-y in the United States and the fifth leading cause of death overall, but there are few studies quantifying trauma education in medical school. This study reviews curriculum hours devoted to trauma education at a northeastern medical school. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the preclinical curriculum at a northeastern medical school affiliated with three adult and two pediatric level I trauma centers verified by the American College of Surgeons...
August 2015: Journal of Surgical Research
Lev Zhuravsky
INTRODUCTION: On Tuesday, February 22, 2011, a 6.3 magnitude earthquake struck Christchurch, New Zealand. This qualitative study explored the intensive care units (ICUs) staff experiences and adopted leadership approaches to manage a large-scale crisis resulting from the city-wide disaster. PROBLEM: To date, there have been a very small number of research publications to provide a comprehensive overview of crisis leadership from the perspective of multi-level interactions among staff members in the acute clinical environment during the process of the crisis management...
April 2015: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Aura Ganz, James M Schafer, Zhuorui Yang, Jun Yi, Graydon Lord, Gregory Ciottone
In this paper we introduce DIORAMA-II system that provides real time information collection in mass casualty incidents. Using a mobile platform that includes active RFID tags and readers as well as Smartphones, the system can determine the location of victims and responders. The system provides user friendly multi dimensional user interfaces as well as collaboration tools between the responders and the incident commander. We conducted two simulated mass casualty incidents with 50 victims each and professional responders...
2014: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
C Norman Coleman, Julie M Sullivan, Judith L Bader, Paula Murrain-Hill, John F Koerner, Andrew L Garrett, David M Weinstock, Cullen Case, Chad Hrdina, Steven A Adams, Robert C Whitcomb, Ellie Graeden, Robert Shankman, Timothy Lant, Bert W Maidment, Richard C Hatchett
Resilience and the ability to mitigate the consequences of a nuclear incident are enhanced by (1) effective planning, preparation and training; (2) ongoing interaction, formal exercises, and evaluation among the sectors involved; (3) effective and timely response and communication; and (4) continuous improvements based on new science, technology, experience, and ideas. Public health and medical planning require a complex, multi-faceted systematic approach involving federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial governments; private sector organizations; academia; industry; international partners; and individual experts and volunteers...
February 2015: Health Physics
Yu Tian, Tian-Shu Zhou, Qin Yao, Mao Zhang, Jing-Song Li
Recently, mass casualty incidents (MCIs) have been occurring frequently and have gained international attention. There is an urgent need for scientifically proven and effective emergency responses to MCIs, particularly as the severity of incidents is continuously increasing. The emergency response to MCIs is a multi-dimensional and multi-participant dynamic process that changes in real-time. The evacuation decisions that assign casualties to different hospitals in a region are very important and impact both the results of emergency treatment and the efficiency of medical resource utilization...
December 2014: Journal of Medical Systems
Rita V Burke, Tae Y Kim, Shellby L Bachman, Ellen I Iverson, Bridget M Berg
INTRODUCTION: Children are particularly vulnerable during disasters and mass-casualty incidents. Coordinated multi-hospital training exercises may help health care facilities prepare for pediatric disaster victims. PROBLEM: The purpose of this study was to use mixed methods to assess the disaster response of three hospitals, focusing on pediatric disaster victims. METHODS: A full-functional disaster exercise involving a simulated 7.8-magnitude earthquake was conducted at three Los Angeles (California USA) hospitals, one of which is a freestanding designated Level I Pediatric Trauma Center...
December 2014: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Allen W Autrey, John L Hick, Kurtis Bramer, Jeremy Berndt, Jonathan Bundt
This report describes the successful use of a simple 3-phase approach that guides the initial 30 minutes of a response to blast and active shooter events with casualties: Enter, Evaluate, and Evacuate (3 Echo) in a mass-shooting event occurring in Minneapolis, Minnesota USA, on September 27, 2012. Early coordination between law enforcement (LE) and rescue was emphasized, including establishment of unified command, a common operating picture, determination of evacuation corridors, swift victim evaluation, basic treatment, and rapid evacuation utilizing an approach developed collaboratively over the four years prior to the event...
August 2014: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Yu Tian, Tian-Shu Zhou, Yu Wang, Mao Zhang, Jing-Song Li
Emergency care for mass casualty incidents is a sophisticated multi-participant process. To manage this process effectively, many information systems have been proposed. However, their performance in improving the efficiency and accuracy of patient triage is not satisfactory. This paper is concerned with the development of a mobile-based system for supporting emergency triage in the emergency care process for mass casualty incidents. This system collects the patient's emergency data throughout the whole emergency care process through a mobile application and data transfer mechanism...
June 2014: Journal of Medical Systems
Kristian Krieger, Richard Amlôt, M Brooke Rogers
This paper discusses the management of public responses to incidents involving chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear materials (CBRN). Given the extraordinary technical and operational challenges of a response to a CBRN release including, but not limited to, hazard detection and identification, casualty decontamination and multi-agency co-ordination, it is not surprising that public psychological and behavioural responses to such incidents have received limited attention by scholars and practitioners alike...
November 2014: Environment International
Gabriel Kleinoscheg, Harald Burgsteiner, Martin Bernroider, Günter Kiechle, Maria Obermayer
Dispatching ambulances is a demanding and stressful task for dispatchers. This is especially true in case of mass-casualty incidents. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate if and to what extent the dispatch operation of the Red Cross Salzburg can be optimized on such occasions with a computerized system. The basic problem of a dynamic multi-vehicle Dial-a-Ride Problem with time windows was enhanced according to the requirements of the Red Cross Salzburg. The general objective was to minimize the total mileage covered by ambulances and the waiting time of patients...
2014: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Rigo Hoencamp, Floris J Idenburg, Jaap F Hamming, Edward C T H Tan
BACKGROUND: To improve care for the injured service member, we have analyzed battle casualty patterns and mechanisms. This study is the first documented report of wounding patterns and mechanisms of battle casualties treated at the Dutch role 2 enhanced medical treatment facility at the multi-national base Tarin Kowt, Uruzgan, Afghanistan. METHODS: Participants were selected from the trauma registry at the Dutch role 2 enhanced medical treatment facility if they fitted the criteria 'battle casualty' and 'disease non-battle injury' between August 2006 and August 2010...
July 2014: World Journal of Surgery
Andrew J Schoenfeld, John C Dunn, Philip J Belmont
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies regarding musculoskeletal injuries sustained during war have been limited by a lack of specificity regarding wounds incurred by combat-specific personnel. This investigation endeavoured to develop a comprehensive catalogue of the extent of musculoskeletal trauma, as well as the frequency of distinct injuries, among soldiers possessing a single combat-specific specialty. METHODS: The Department of Defense Trauma Registry (DoDTR) and the Armed Forces Medical Examiner System (AFMES) were queried for all individuals with the combat-specific designation of cavalry scout who sustained injuries during deployment between the years 2003 and 2011...
December 2013: Injury
Laura S Greci, Rameshsharma Ramloll, Samantha Hurst, Karen Garman, Jaishree Beedasy, Eric B Pieper, Ricky Huang, Erin Higginbotham, Zia Agha
INTRODUCTION: During a pandemic influenza, emergency departments will be overwhelmed with a large influx of patients seeking care. Although all hospitals should have a written plan for dealing with this surge of health care utilization, most hospitals struggle with ways to educate the staff and practice for potentially catastrophic events. Hypothesis/Problem To better prepare hospital staff for a patient surge, a novel educational curriculum was developed utilizing an emergency department for a patient surge functional drill...
June 2013: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Daniel Cohen, Nick Sevdalis, Vishal Patel, Michael Taylor, Henry Lee, Mick Vokes, Mick Heys, David Taylor, Nicola Batrick, Ara Darzi
OBJECTIVES: To determine feasibility and reliability of skills assessment in a multi-agency, triple-site major incident response exercise carried out in a virtual world environment. METHODS: Skills assessment was carried out across three scenarios. The pre-hospital scenario required paramedics to triage and treat casualties at the site of an explosion. Technical skills assessment forms were developed using training syllabus competencies and national guidelines identified by pre-hospital response experts...
July 2013: Resuscitation
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