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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088766/staphylococcus-aureus-cc395-harbours-a-novel-composite-staphylococcal-cassette-chromosome-mec-element
#1
Jesper Larsen, Paal S Andersen, Volker Winstel, Andreas Peschel
BACKGROUND: CoNS species are likely reservoirs of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) in Staphylococcus aureus S aureus CC395 is unique as it is capable of exchanging DNA with CoNS via bacteriophages, which are also known to mediate transfer of SCCmec OBJECTIVES: To analyse the structure and putative origin of the SCCmec element in S aureus CC395. METHODS: The only MRSA CC395 strain described in the literature, JS395, was subjected to WGS, and its SCCmec element was compared with those found in CoNS species and other S...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088757/challenges-in-neonatal-transport-in-jamaica-a-resource-limited-setting
#2
Salome Henry, Helen Trotman
AIM: This study aimed to determine challenges associated with neonatal transport in Jamaica, a resource-limited setting. METHODS: This was a prospective descriptive study of neonates transported to the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI) over a 15 month period. Data on the clinical status of the neonates before, during and at the end of transport, as well as on accompanying staff and equipment, were collected. Neonatal demographics, reason for transfer and outcome at 48 h and at discharge were also collected...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088748/a-dna-probe-based-on-phosphorescent-resonance-energy-transfer-for-detection-of-transgenic-35s-promoter-dna
#3
Jinzhi Lv, Yanming Miao, Jiajia Yang, Jin Qin, Dongxia Li, Guiqin Yan
A QDs-DNA nano-probe was made by combining Mn-doped ZnS room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) quantum dots (QDs) and DNA. Then an RTP sensor for quantitative detection of genetically-modified mark sequence cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (Ca MV 35S) DNA was built on basis of phosphorescent resonance energy transfer (PRET). The underlying principles were that a QDs-DNA water-soluble nano-probe was built by connecting single-strand DNA to the surfaces of QDs via a ligand exchange method. This probe had good RTP performance and could well identify Ca MV 35S...
January 7, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088723/discovery-and-metagenomic-analysis-of-an-anammox-bacterial-enrichment-related-to-candidatus-brocadia-caroliniensis-in-a-full-scale-glycerol-fed-nitritation-denitritation-separate-centrate-treatment-process
#4
Hongkeun Park, Ariane C Brotto, Mark C M van Loosdrecht, Kartik Chandran
A distinctive red biofilm was observed in a glycerol-fed digester liquid effluent treatment process coupling partial nitrification (nitritation) and partial denitrification (denitritation) processes. Based on initial phylogenetic screening using 16S rRNA clone libraries and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, the biofilm was enriched in novel anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AMX/anammox) closely related to Candidatus "Brocadia caroliniensis". The metabolic functionality of the C. "Brocadia caroliniensis" enrichment was further explored using high-throughput sequencing and de novo metagenome assembly...
January 6, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088721/modeling-biosolids-drying-through-a-laminated-hydrophobic-membrane
#5
Solmaz Marzooghi, Chunjian Shi, Steven K Dentel, Paul T Imhoff
The adaptation of the membrane distillation process as a low-cost and sustainable approach to biosolids drying and stabilization is investigated, which may have application in container-based sanitation systems proposed in low-income urban regions. Three-layer laminated, breathable, hydrophobic membranes enclose the biosolids, facilitating drying but preventing transport of contaminants. The membranes used in this process are non-wetting with pore spaces that only allow vapor transport. Water vapor can be expelled due to a moderate vapor pressure gradient...
December 29, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088720/role-of-dissolved-mn-iii-in-transformation-of-organic-contaminants-non-oxidative-versus-oxidative-mechanisms
#6
Erdan Hu, Ya Zhang, Shuyan Wu, Jun Wu, Liyuan Liang, Feng He
Mn(III) is a strong oxidant for one electron transfer, which may be important in the transformation of organic contaminants during water/wastewater treatment and biogeochemical redox processes. This study explored the reaction mechanisms of dissolved Mn(III) with organics. The role of dissolved Mn(III) either as a catalyst or an oxidant in reactions with organics was recognized. Aquo and/or hydroxo (or free) Mn(III), generated from the bisulfite activated permanganate process, facilitated efficient N-dealkylation of atrazine via a β-elimination mechanism, resulting no net redox reaction...
January 7, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088691/stability-effect-of-cholesterol-poly-acrylic-acid-in-a-stimuli-responsive-polymer-liposome-complex-obtained-from-soybean-lecithin-for-controlled-drug-delivery
#7
M G Simões, P Alves, Manuela Carvalheiro, P N Simões
The development of polymer-liposome complexes (PLCs), in particular for biomedical applications, has grown significantly in the last decades. The importance of these studies comes from the emerging need in finding intelligent controlled release systems, more predictable, effective and selective, for applications in several areas, such as treatment and/or diagnosis of cancer, neurological, dermatological, ophthalmic and orthopedic diseases, gene therapy, cosmetic treatments, and food engineering. This work reports the development and characterization of a pH sensitive system for controlled release based on PLCs...
January 4, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088690/electrochemical-studies-of-dna-interaction-and-antimicrobial-activities-of-mn-ii-fe-iii-co-ii-and-ni-ii-schiff-base-tetraazamacrocyclic-complexes
#8
Anuj Kumar, Vinod Kumar Vashistha, Prashant Tevatia, Randhir Singh
Tetraazamacrocyclic complexes of Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II) and Ni(II) have been synthesized by template method. These tetraazamacrocycles have been analyzed with various techniques like molar conductance, IR, UV-vis, mass spectral and cyclic voltammetric studies. On the basis of all these studies, octahedral geometry has been assigned to these tetraazamacrocyclic complexes. The DNA binding properties of these macrocyclic complexes have been investigated by electronic absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra, cyclic voltammetric and differential pulse voltammetric studies...
January 6, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088681/maintenance-effects-of-working-memory-intervention-cogmed-in-children-with-symptomatic-epilepsy
#9
Amanda Fuentes, Elizabeth N Kerr
PURPOSE: To extend previous research documenting the benefits of working memory (WM) intervention (Cogmed) immediately post-intervention in children with epilepsy by assessing the 3-month maintenance effects. METHODS: Participants involved in a previous randomized clinical trial (RCT) were invited to participate if they completed Cogmed within the last 3months (n=15) and additional participants (n=13) were prospectively recruited. Standardized assessments of near-transfer effects (i...
January 12, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088643/molecular-mechanisms-of-bio-catalysis-of-heme-extraction-from-hemoglobin
#10
Serzhan Sakipov, Olga Rafikova, Maria G Kurnikova, Ruslan Rafikov
Red blood cell hemolysis in sickle cell disease (SCD) releases free hemoglobin. Extracellular hemoglobin and its degradation products, free heme and iron, are highly toxic due to oxidative stress induction and decrease in nitric oxide availability. We propose an approach that helps to eliminate extracellular hemoglobin toxicity in SCD by employing a bacterial protein system that evolved to extract heme from extracellular hemoglobin. NEAr heme Transporter (NEAT) domains from iron-regulated surface determinant proteins from Staphylococcus aureus specifically bind free heme as well as facilitate its extraction from hemoglobin...
January 7, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088631/an-esipt-based-two-photon-fluorescent-probe-detection-of-hydrogen-peroxide-in-live-cells-and-tissues
#11
Liyi Zhou, Yongbo Peng, Qianqian Wang, Qinlu Lin
A variety of diseases associated with human aging, which have a strong oxidative stress, but connecting age-related diseases and oxidative stress of the basic molecular mechanisms still insufficiently understood. Oxidative stress origins from the unregulated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and oxidative damaging to tissues and organs from subsequent oxidation-reduction chemistry by cellular mismanagement. In particular, H2O2 is a major by-product of ROS in live organisms and a common marker for oxidative stress, and its dynamic equilibrium can have various physiological and pathological consequences...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088553/the-influence-of-landmark-stability-on-control-by-occasion-setters
#12
REVIEW
Lauren M Cleland, Chad M Ruprecht, Ronnie V Lee, Kenneth J Leising
In an operant serial feature-positive procedure, an occasion setter (OSX) signals that a response will be reinforced in the presence of second stimulus (e.g., a discriminative stimulus, A). During a transfer test, the OS is paired with a different discriminative stimulus. Experiment 1a tested transfer effects in a touchscreen-based spatial occasion setting task with pigeons. During training, four OSs (OSW, OSX, OSY, and OSZ) were paired on separate trials with landmark A (LMA) or B (LMB) and the opportunity for a reinforced response one location to the immediate left (R1) or right (R2) of the LM (OSW→LMA:R1, OSX→LMA:R2, OSY→LMB:R1, OSZ→LMB:R2)...
January 11, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088534/the-social-transmission-of-metacontrol-policies-mechanisms-underlying-the-interpersonal-transfer-of-persistence-and-flexibility
#13
REVIEW
Bernhard Hommel, Lorenza S Colzato
Humans often face binary cognitive-control dilemmas, with the choice between persistence and flexibility being a crucial one. Tackling these dilemmas requires metacontrol, i.e., the control of the current cognitive-control policy. As predicted from functional, psychometric, neuroscientific, and modeling approaches, interindividual variability in metacontrol biases towards persistence or flexibility could be demonstrated in metacontrol-sensitive tasks. These biases covary systematically with genetic predispositions regarding mesofrontal and nigrostriatal dopaminergic functioning and the individualistic or collectivistic nature of the cultural background...
January 11, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088528/study-of-the-involved-sorption-mechanisms-of-cr-vi-and-cr-iii-species-onto-dried-salvinia-auriculata-biomass
#14
Aparecido Nivaldo Módenes, Ana Paula de Oliveira, Fernando R Espinoza-Quiñones, Daniela Estelita Goes Trigueros, Alexander Dimitrov Kroumov, Rosângela Bergamasco
Removal of Cr(VI) species by dried biomass of the aquatic macrophyte Salvinia auriculata was studied in order to understand the involved sorption mechanisms. Kinetic tests were carried out under the conditions such as concentration range of Cr(VI) from 50 to 250 mg L(-1) and a temperature of 30 °C. Modification of the biosorbent by the presence of Cr(VI) species was assessed by analysis of its porosity, density and infrared molecular absorption spectrum. A series of experimental approaches involving directed chemical modifications on the biosorbent surface was performed...
January 5, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088476/a-chimeric-protein-of-abrin-and-abrus-precatorius-agglutinin-that-neutralizes-abrin-mediated-lethality-in-mice
#15
Vinita Tiwari, Shradha Bagaria, Anjali A Karande
Abrin, a type II ribosome inactivating protein from the Abrus precatorius plant, is extremely toxic. It has been shown to be 75 times more potent than its infamous sister toxin, ricin and their potential use in bio-warfare is a cause of major concern. Although several vaccine candidates are under clinical trials for ricin, none are available against abrin. The present study proposes a chimeric protein, comprising of 1-123 amino acids taken from the A chain of abrin and 124-175 amino acids from Abrus precatorius agglutinin A chain, as a vaccine candidate against abrin intoxication...
January 11, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088448/fast-formation-of-low-defect-density-tethered-bilayers-by-fusion-of-multilamellar-vesicles
#16
Tadas Ragaliauskas, Mindaugas Mickevicius, Bozena Rakovska, Tadas Penkauskas, David J Vanderah, Frank Heinrich, Gintaras Valincius
A facile and reproducible preparation of surface-supported lipid bilayers is essential for fundamental membrane research and biotechnological applications. We demonstrate that multilamellar vesicles fuse to molecular-anchor-grafted surfaces yielding low-defect-density, tethered bilayer membranes. Continuous bilayers are formed within 10min, while the electrically insulating bilayers with <0.1μm(-2) defect density can be accomplished within 60min. Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy indicates that an amount of lipid material transferred from vesicles to a surface is inversely proportional to the density of an anchor, while the total amount of lipid that includes tethered and transferred lipid remains constant within 5% standard error...
January 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088422/effects-of-clay-after-an-aflatoxin-challenge-on-aflatoxin-clearance-milk-production-and-metabolism-of-holstein-cows
#17
S A Sulzberger, S Melnichenko, F C Cardoso
Oral supplementation of clay to dairy cattle has been reported to reduce toxicity of aflatoxin (AF) in contaminated feed. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of 3 concentrations of dietary clay supplementation in response to an AF challenge. Ten multiparous rumen-cannulated Holstein cows [body weight (mean ± SD) = 669 ± 20 kg and 146 ± 69 d in milk], were assigned to 1 of 5 treatments in a randomized replicated 5 × 5 Latin square design balanced to measure carryover effects. Periods (21 d) were divided in an adaptation phase (d 1 to 14) and a measurement phase (d 15 to 21)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088419/hexanal-as-biomarker-for-milk-oxidative-stress-induced-by-copper-ions
#18
Mohammad Asaduzzaman, Franco Biasioli, Maria Stella Cosio, Matteo Schampicchio
Milk flavor varies greatly due to its oxidative stress during storage. Several studies have documented the use of volatile biomarkers for determining milk oxidation, but only a few have focused on the development of inline procedures enabling the monitoring of milk oxidative stress. In this work, oxidative stress was induced in pasteurized milk samples by spiking increasing concentrations of copper ions (from 0 to 32 mg·L(-1)). During storage (4°C), hexanal evolution was monitored by a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088375/two-stage-management-of-cierny-mader-type-iv-chronic-osteomyelitis-of-the-long-bones
#19
Hongri Wu, Jie Shen, Xin Yu, Jingshu Fu, Shengpeng Yu, Dong Sun, Zhao Xie
INTRODUCTION: Cierny-Mader (C-M) type IV chronic osteomyelitis represents a complex clinical challenge with permeation of extensive bone and soft tissue involvement. Aggressive debridement through viable tissue margin includes en bloc resection improves the odds of eradication of infection, which creates large bone and soft tissue loss in treating this type of osteomyelitis. The potentially large defects increase reconstruction problems with traditional reconstruction technique. The newly staged induced membrane technique presents length-independent, potential as an alternative reconstruction method for segmental bone defects due to type IV chronic osteomyelitis...
January 6, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088205/quercetin-improves-macrophage-reverse-cholesterol-transport-in-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#20
Yingjie Cui, Pengbo Hou, Fahui Li, Qinghua Liu, Shucun Qin, Guanghai Zhou, Xuelian Xu, Yanhong Si, Shoudong Guo
BACKGROUND: Quercetin, one of the most widely distributed flavonoids in plants, has been demonstrated to reduce hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerotic lesion formation. Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) plays a crucial role in exporting cholesterol from peripheral cells, which is one mechanism utilized in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study is to investigate whether quercetin reduces lipid accumulation by improving RCT in vivo. METHODS: Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet were used to investigate the effect of quercetin on RCT by an isotope tracing method, and the underlying mechanisms were clarified by molecular techniques...
January 14, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
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