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Qiang Shi, Zheng Meng, Jun-Feng Xiang, Chuan-Feng Chen
The movement of three pairs of different non-photoresponsive rotaxanes can be efficiently controlled by visible light through a photo-induced proton-transfer (PIPT) strategy in the presence of the photoacid 1-MEH. Moreover, the PIPT strategy also provides systems with a good fatigue resistance after more than 50 cycles.
March 22, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Srinivasan Ramakrishnan, Beejan Asady, Roberto Docampo
Membrane contact sites are regions of close apposition between two organelles, typically less than 30 nanometers apart, that facilitate transfer of biomolecules. The presence of contact sites has been demonstrated in yeast, plants, and mammalian cells. Here, we investigated the presence of such contact sites in Trypanosoma brucei . In mammalian cells, endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria contact sites facilitate mitochondrial uptake of Ca2+ released by the ER-located inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP₃R)...
March 22, 2018: Pathogens
Ana Luz Muñoz-Rosas, Arturo Rodríguez-Gómez, Juan Carlos Alonso-Huitrón
Nowadays, the use of plasmonic metal layers to improve the photonic emission characteristics of several semiconductor quantum dots is a booming tool. In this work, we report the use of silicon quantum dots (SiQDs) embedded in a silicon nitride thin film coupled with an ultra-thin gold film (AuNPs) to fabricate light emitting devices. We used the remote plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique (RPECVD) in order to grow two types of silicon nitride thin films. One with an almost stoichiometric composition, acting as non-radiative spacer; the other one, with a silicon excess in its chemical composition, which causes the formation of silicon quantum dots imbibed in the silicon nitride thin film...
March 22, 2018: Nanomaterials
Fatemeh Nasiri, Saeed Ajeli, Dariush Semnani, Mohsen Jahanshahi, Rahmatollah Emadi
The present work is investigated mechanical properties of tubular carbon/Kevlar® composite coated with poly methyl methacrylate/Graphene nanoplates as used in internal fixation of bones. Carbon fibers are good candidates for developing high-strength biomaterials and due to better stress transfer and electrical properties, they can enhance tissue formation. In order to improve carbon brittleness, ductile Kevlar® was added to the composite. The tubular carbon/ Kevlar® composites have been prepared with tailorable braiding technology by changing fiber pattern and angle in composite structure and number of composite layers...
March 22, 2018: Biomedical Materials
Eva Kovacs, Anna-Janina Stephan, Amanda Phillips, Jörg Schelling, Ralf Strobl, Eva Grill
OBJECTIVES: Vertigo and dizziness are highly prevalent symptoms in primary care, frequently misdiagnosed. Based on a thorough need assessment, INDICORE (INform, DIagnose, COmmunicate, REfer), an evidence-based complex intervention has been developed to transfer knowledge of specialized tertiary clinics to primary care providers (PCPs), improve the referral process and, ultimately, improve functioning and quality of life of patients with vertigo/dizziness. The main objective of the PRIMA-Vertigo pilot study is to examine whether the INDICORE intervention is feasible and sufficiently promising to warrant a larger trial...
March 22, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Wei Huang, Joyprokash Chakrabartty, Catalin Harnagea, Dawit Gedamu, Ibrahima Ka, Mohamed Chaker, Federico Rosei, Riad Nechache
Perovskite multiferroic oxides are promising materials for the realization of sensitive and switchable photodiodes, due to their favorable band gap (< 3.0 eV), high absorption coefficient and tunable internal ferroelectric polarization. A high speed switchable photodiode based on multiferroic Bi2FeCrO6 (BFCO)/SrRuO3 (SRO) layered heterojunction was fabricated by pulsed laser deposition. The heterojunction photodiode exhibits a large ideality factor (n = ~5.0) and a response time as fast as 68 ms, thanks to the effective charge carrier transport and collection at the BFCO/SRO interface...
March 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ahmet Alperen Gunay, Hannah Kim, Naveen Nagarajan, Mateusz Lopez, Rajath Kantharaj, Albraa Alsaati, Amy Marconnet, Andrej Lenert, Nenad Miljkovic
Rooftop solar thermal collectors have the potential to meet residential heating demands if deployed efficiently at low solar irradiance (i.e., 1 sun). The efficiency of solar thermal collectors depends on their ability to absorb incoming solar energy and minimize thermal losses. Most techniques utilize a vacuum gap between the solar absorber and the surroundings to eliminate conduction and convection losses, in combination with surface coatings to minimize re-radiation losses. Here, we present an alternative approach that operates at atmospheric pressure with simple, black, absorbing surfaces...
March 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jeannine Steinmeyer, Heidi-Kristin Walter, Mathilde A Bichelberger, Violetta Schneider, Tomáš Kubař, Franziska Rönicke, Bettina Olshausen, Karin Nienhaus, Gerd Ulrich Nienhaus, Ute Schepers, Marcus Elstner, Hans-Achim Wagenknecht
Two fluorescent dyes covalently attached in diagonal interstrand orientation to siRNA undergo energy transfer and thereby enable a dual color fluorescence readout (red/green) for hybridization. Three different structural variations were carried out and compared by their optical properties, including (i) the base surrogate approach with an acyclic linker as a substitute of the 2-deoxyriboside between the phosphodiester bridges, (ii) the 2'-modification of conventional ribofuranosides and (iii) the arabino-configured 2'-modification...
March 22, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Shmuel Zilberg, Amir Mizrahi, Dan Meyerstein, Haya Kornweitz
An effort to reproduce the chemical and physical properties of carbonate and carbonate anion radicals in aqueous solutions by DFT proves that one has to include an inner hydration sphere of six water molecules for both anions. Application of the SMD model to CO3(H2O)62- and CO3(H2O)6˙- enables achievement of the experimental value of the redox potential of the CO3(H2O)6˙-/2- couple. This is a result of the direct inclusion of a considerable charge transfer (CT) from CO32- to its inner hydration sphere in the calculation of the hydration effect...
March 22, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Ingridi Souza Sene, Vladimir Costa Silva, Gisele Elias Nunes Pauli, Ivan Helmuth Bechtold, Livio Cesar Cunha Nunes, Carla Eiras, Carlos Henrique Nery Costa
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine that plays a crucial role not only in the immune system, but also in numerous biological processes. Elevated IL-6 levels have been observed in many types of cancer and inflammatory diseases. Among the techniques that have been used to quantify IL-6, a Lateral Flow Assay (LFA) is one of the most promising. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to perform a technological and scientific exploration of the development of a LFA for IL-6...
March 20, 2018: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
Andre T Walcott, Monique L Smith, Jennifer M Loftis, Andrey E Ryabinin
The expression of pain serves as a way for animals to communicate potential dangers to nearby conspecifics. Recent research demonstrated that mice undergoing alcohol or morphine withdrawal, or inflammation, could socially communicate their hyperalgesia to nearby mice. However, it is unknown whether such social transfer of hyperalgesia can be observed in other species of rodents. Therefore, the present study investigated if the social transfer of hyperalgesia occurs in the highly social prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster)...
March 22, 2018: Social Neuroscience
Irena Závadová
In the Czech Republic, around 70 % of deceased people die in hospital settings every year. On the other hand, surveys showed that almost 78% Czech wish to die at home. General practitioners take care of most of dying at their homes. Unfortunately, hours of attendance and visiting hours are not always sufficient when complications develop and health status rapidly deteriorates and the goal is to die at home. Significant proportion of patients is then transferred to acute hospital settings and lots of them dies there during so called terminal hospitalization...
2018: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
Guoxuan Qin, Yibo Zhang, Kuibo Lan, Lingxia Li, Jianguo Ma, Shihui Yu
A novel method of fabricating the flexible thin-film transistor based on single-crystalline Si nanomembrane (SiNM) with high-k Nb2O5-Bi2O3-MgO (BMN) ceramic gate dielectric on a plastic substrate is demonstrated in this paper. The SiNMs are successfully transferred to a flexible PET substrate, which has been plated indium-tin-oxide (ITO) conductive layer and high-k BMN ceramic gate dielectric layer by room-temperature magnetron sputtering. The BMN ceramic gate dielectric layer demonstrates as high as ~109 dielectric constant, with only dozens of pA current leakage...
March 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Matthaeus Schwarz-Schilling, Aurore Dupin, Fabio Chizzolini, Swati Krishnan, Sheref Mansy, Friedrich C Simmel
Molecular complexes composed of RNA molecules and proteins are promising multifunctional nanostructures for a wide variety of applications in biological cells or in artificial cellular systems. In this study, we systematically address some of the challenges associated with the expression and assembly of such hybrid structures using cell-free gene expression systems. As a model structure, we investigated a pRNA-derived RNA scaffold functionalized with four distinct aptamers, three of which bind to proteins - streptavidin and two fluorescent proteins - while one binds the small molecule dye malachite green (MG)...
March 22, 2018: Nano Letters
Brittany L Daughtry, Shawn L Chavez
The use of time-lapse microscopic imaging has proven to be a powerful tool for the study of mitotic divisions and other cellular processes across diverse species and cell types. Although time-lapse monitoring (TLM) of human preimplantation development was first introduced to the in vitro fertilization (IVF) community several decades ago, it was not until relatively recently that TLM systems were commercialized for clinical embryology purposes. Traditionally, human IVF embryos are assessed by successful progression and morphology under a stereomicroscope at distinct time points prior to selection for transfer...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jiandong Wu, Juan Wei, John D Hogan, Pradeep Chopra, Apoorva Joshi, Weigang Lu, Joshua Klein, Geert-Jan Boons, Cheng Lin, Joseph Zaia
Among dissociation methods, negative electron transfer dissociation (NETD) has been proven the most useful for glycosaminoglycan (GAG) sequencing because it produces informative fragmentation, a low degree of sulfate losses, high sensitivity, and translatability to multiple instrument types. The challenge, however, is to distinguish positional sulfation. In particular, NETD has been reported to fail to differentiate 4-O- versus 6-O-sulfation in chondroitin sulfate decasaccharide. This raised the concern of whether NETD is able to differentiate the rare 3-O-sulfation from predominant 6-O-sulfation in heparan sulfate (HS) oligosaccharides...
March 21, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Anthony Markham
Gilead Sciences has developed a single tablet anti-HIV-1 medication (Biktarvy® ) combining the novel integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) bictegravir with the nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide. This fixed dose combination has demonstrated efficacy as treatment for both anti-retroviral naïve and virologically suppressed HIV-1 infection in patients switching therapy, and was recently approved in the USA. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of bictegravir leading to this first approval of bictegravir/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide as treatment for HIV-1 infection...
March 21, 2018: Drugs
Shang Wang, Irina V Larina
The oviduct (or fallopian tube) serves as the site where a number of major reproductive events occur for the start of a new life in mammals. Understanding the oviduct physiology is essential to uncover hidden mechanisms of the human reproduction and its disorders, yet the current analysis of the oviduct that is largely limited to in vitro imaging is a significant technical hurdle. To overcome this barrier, we have recently developed in vivo approaches based on optical coherence tomography for structural and functional imaging of the mouse oviduct...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Juan Cruz Montañez, María A Arribére, Andrea Rizzo, Marina Arcagni, Linda Campbell, Sergio Ribeiro Guevara
Zinc (Zn) bioaccumulation and trophic transfer were analyzed in the food web of Lake Nahuel Huapi, a deep, unpolluted ultraoligotrophic system in North Patagonia. Benthic macroinvertebrates, plankton, and native and introduced fish were collected at three sites. The effect of pyroclastic inputs on Zn levels in lacustrine food webs was assessed by studying the impact of the eruption of Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcanic complex (PCCVC) in 2011, by performing three sampling campaigns immediately before and after the PCCVC eruption, and after 2 years of recovery of the ecosystem...
March 21, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Youzhi Miao, Yanqiong Kong, Pan Li, Guangqi Li, Dongyang Liu, Qirong Shen, Ruifu Zhang
Xylanase with a high thermostability will satisfy the needs of raising the temperature of hydrolysis to improve the rheology of the broth in industry of biomass conversion. In this study, a xylanase gene (xyn10A), predicted to encode a hydrolase domain of GH10, a linker region and a CBM1 domain, was cloned from a superior lignocellulose degrading strain Aspergillus fumigatus Z5 and successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris X33. Xyn10A has a specific xylanase activity of 34.4 U mg-1 , and is optimally active at 90 °C and pH 6...
March 21, 2018: AMB Express
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