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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289495/mechanism-of-action-pharmacokinetics-efficacy-and-safety-of-transarterial-therapies-using-ethiodized-oil-preclinical-review-in-liver-cancer-models
#1
Ron C Gaba, Regina M Schwind, Sebastien Ballet
PURPOSE: To systematically review mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics (PKs), efficacy, and safety of ethiodized oil-based locoregional therapy (LRT) for liver cancer in preclinical models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A MEDLINE search was performed from 1988 to 2016. Search terms included hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), HCC, liver-cell carcinoma, liver, hepatic, hepatocarcinoma, transarterial or chemoembolization, TACE, animal, Lipiodol, Ethiodol, iodized oil, and/or poppy-seed oil...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259232/cardiac-depression-in-pigs-after-multiple-trauma-characterization-of-posttraumatic-structural-and-functional-alterations
#2
M Kalbitz, S Schwarz, B Weber, B Bosch, J Pressmar, F M Hoenes, C K Braun, K Horst, T P Simon, R Pfeifer, P Störmann, H Hummler, F Gebhard, H C Pape, M Huber-Lang, F Hildebrand
The purpose of this study was to define the relationship between cardiac depression and morphological and immunological alterations in cardiac tissue after multiple trauma. However, the mechanistic basis of depressed cardiac function after trauma is still elusive. In a porcine polytrauma model including blunt chest trauma, liver laceration, femur fracture and haemorrhage serial trans-thoracic echocardiography was performed and correlated with cellular cardiac injury as well as with the occurrence of extracellular histones in serum...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251669/non-invasive-assessment-of-intra-abdominal-pressure-using-ultrasound-guided-tonometry-a-proof-of-concept-study
#3
Andreas Bloch, Michael Glas, Andreas Kohler, Ulrich Baumann, Stephan M Jakob
BACKGROUND: Intra-abdominal hypertension jeopardizes abdominal organ perfusion and venous return. Contemporary recognition of elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) plays a crucial role in reducing mortality and morbidity. We evaluated ultrasound guided tonometry in this context hypothesizing that the vertical chamber diameter of this device inversely correlates with intra-abdominal pressure. METHODS: IAP was increased in six 5 mmHg steps to 40 mmHg by instillation of normal saline into the peritoneal cavity of eight anesthetized pigs...
December 14, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244763/bisphenol-a-causes-liver-damage-and-selectively-alters-the-neurochemical-coding-of-intrahepatic-parasympathetic-nerves-in-juvenile-porcine-models-under-physiological-conditions
#4
Michael Thoene, Liliana Rytel, Ewa Dzika, Andrzej Włodarczyk, Ewa Kruminis-Kaszkiel, Ptaszyński Konrad, Joanna Wojtkiewicz
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an extremely common polymer that is used in typical everyday products throughout the world, especially in food and beverage containers. Within the last ten years, it has been found that the BPA monomer tends to leach into foodstuffs, and nanogram concentrations of it may cause a variety of deleterious health effects. These health problems are very evident in developing children and in young adults. The aim of this study was to expose developing pigs to dietary BPA at both legally acceptable and ten-fold higher levels...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243495/the-recombinant-fusion-protein-cfp10-esat6-difn-has-protective-effect-against-tuberculosis-in-guinea-pigs
#5
Natalya V Permyakova, Pavel A Belavin, Dariya S Pirozhkova, Elena G Ufimtseva, Sergey M Rozov, Sergey R Mursalimov, Yuriy V Sidorchuk, Elena A Uvarova, Alla A Zagorskaya, Tatiana V Marenkova, Svetlana V Bannikova, Evgeniy A Demidov, Konstantin V Starostin, Marionella A Kravchenko, Diana V Vakhrusheva, Roman B Berdnikov, Natalya I Eremeeva, Sergey N Skornyakov, Sergey E Peltek, Elena V Deineko
Development of effective vaccine candidates against tuberculosis (TB) is currently the most important challenge in the prevention of this disease since the BCG vaccine fails to guarantee a lifelong protection, while any other approved vaccine with better efficiency is still absent. The protective effect of the recombinant fusion protein CFP10-ESAT6-dIFN produced in a prokaryotic expression system (Escherichia coli) has been assessed in a guinea pig model of acute TB. The tested antigen comprises the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) proteins ESAT6 and CFP10 as well as modified human γ-interferon (dIFN) for boosting the immune response...
December 15, 2017: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227475/an-alox12-12-hete-gpr31-signaling-axis-is-a-key-mediator-of-hepatic-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#6
Xiao-Jing Zhang, Xu Cheng, Zhen-Zhen Yan, Jing Fang, Xiaozhan Wang, Weijun Wang, Zhen-Yu Liu, Li-Jun Shen, Peng Zhang, Pi-Xiao Wang, Rufang Liao, Yan-Xiao Ji, Jun-Yong Wang, Song Tian, Xue-Yong Zhu, Yan Zhang, Rui-Feng Tian, Lin Wang, Xin-Liang Ma, Zan Huang, Zhi-Gang She, Hongliang Li
Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is a common clinical issue lacking effective therapy and validated pharmacological targets. Here, using integrative 'omics' analysis, we identified an arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase (ALOX12)-12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE)-G-protein-coupled receptor 31 (GPR31) signaling axis as a key determinant of the hepatic IR process. We found that ALOX12 was markedly upregulated in hepatocytes during ischemia to promote 12-HETE accumulation and that 12-HETE then directly binds to GPR31, triggering an inflammatory response that exacerbates liver damage...
December 11, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216295/alpha-1-antichymotrypsin-is-involved-in-astrocyte-injury-in-concert-with-arginine-vasopressin-during-the-development-of-acute-hepatic-encephalopathy
#7
Jonghyuk Park, Takahiro Masaki, Yoshihiro Mezaki, Hiroshi Yokoyama, Mariko Nakamura, Haruka Maehashi, Takahiko J Fujimi, Sabine S Gouraud, Keisuke Nagatsuma, Madoka Nakagomi, Naofumi Kimura, Tomokazu Matsuura
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We developed a bio-artificial liver (BAL) using a radial-flow bioreactor and rescued mini-pig models with lethal acute liver failure (ALF). The point of the rescue is the recovery from hepatic encephalopathy (HE). HE on ALF has sometimes resulted in brain death following brain edema with astrocyte swelling. Several factors, including ammonia and glutamine, have been reported to induce astrocyte swelling and injury. However, many clinicians believe that there are any other factors involved in the development of HE...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210476/delayed-revascularization-of-islets-after-transplantation-by-il-6-blockade-in-pig-to-non-human-primate-islet-xenotransplantation-model
#8
Byoung-Hoon Min, Jun-Seop Shin, Jong-Min Kim, Seong-Jun Kang, Hyun-Je Kim, Il-Hee Yoon, Su-Kyoung Park, Ji-Won Choi, Min-Suk Lee, Chung-Gyu Park
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic islet transplantation is currently proven as a promising treatment for type 1 diabetes patients with labile glycemic control and severe hypoglycemia unawareness. Upon islet transplantation, revascularization is essential for proper functioning of the transplanted islets. As IL-6 is important for endothelial cell survival and systemic inflammation related to xenograft, the effect of IL-6 receptor antagonist, tocilizumab, on revascularization of the transplanted islets was examined in pig to non-human primate islet xenotransplantation model...
December 6, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187245/d-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-and-melatonin-for-treatment-of-porcine-hemorrhagic-shock-and-injury-a-melatonin-dose-ranging-study
#9
Andrea Wolf, Kristine E Mulier, Sydne L Muratore, Gregory J Beilman
OBJECTIVE: Treatment with a combination of D-β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and melatonin (M) improves survival in hemorrhagic shock models. Our objective was to find the most effective melatonin concentration in combination with 4 molar BHB (4 M BHB). Survival and markers of organ injury were analyzed in pigs exposed to pulmonary contusion, liver crush injury, and hemorrhagic shock and treated with lactated Ringer's solution; 4 M BHB/43 mM M; 4 M BHB/20 mM M; 4 M BHB/10 mM M; 4 M BHB/4...
November 29, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184609/liver-atrophy-after-percutaneous-transhepatic-portal-embolization-occurs-in-two-histological-phases-hepatocellular-atrophy-followed-by-apoptosis
#10
Yasuhito Iwao, Hidenori Ojima, Tatsushi Kobayashi, Yoji Kishi, Satoshi Nara, Minoru Esaki, Kazuaki Shimada, Nobuyoshi Hiraoka, Minoru Tanabe, Yae Kanai
AIM: To clarify the histological changes associated with liver atrophy after percutaneous transhepatic portal embolization (PTPE) in pigs and humans. METHODS: As a preliminary study, we performed pathological examinations of liver specimens from five pigs that had undergone PTPE in a time-dependent model of liver atrophy. In specimens from embolized lobes (EMB) and nonembolized lobes (controls), we measured the portal vein to central vein distance (PV-CV), the area and number of hepatocytes per lobule, and apoptotic activity using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay...
November 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157367/a-multilevel-study-of-the-environmental-determinants-of-swine-ascariasis-in-england
#11
Ângelo Joel Mendes, Ana Isabel Ribeiro, Milton Severo, João Niza-Ribeiro
Ascariasis is considered a common parasitosis of swine worldwide. The disease causes significant economic losses due to its effect on feed conversion ratio and liver condemnations at slaughter (liver milk spots). This study aimed to characterise the between-farm and spatial variance in porcine ascariasis in England and to assess the association between the percentage of infected animals and potential environmental risk factors, including production system, socioeconomic deprivation, soil characteristics (pH, topsoil bulk density, topsoil organic matter, topsoil texture class, soil water regime, topsoil available water capacity, and elevation), and climatic conditions (relative humidity, air temperature, and rainfall) before slaughter...
December 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156155/leukotriene-b4-indicates-lung-injury-and-on-going-inflammatory-changes-after-severe-trauma-in-a-porcine-long-term-model
#12
Philipp Störmann, Birgit Auner, Lukas Schimunek, Rafael Serve, Klemens Horst, Tim-P Simon, Roman Pfeifer, Kernt Köhler, Frank Hildebrand, Sebastian Wutzler, Hans-Christoph Pape, Ingo Marzi, Borna Relja
BACKGROUND: Recognizing patients at risk for pulmonary complications (PC) is of high clinical relevance. Migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) to inflammatory sites plays an important role in PC, and is tightly regulated by specific chemokines including interleukin (IL)-8 and other mediators such as leukotriene (LT)B4. Previously, we have reported that LTB4 indicated early patients at risk for PC after trauma. Here, the relevance of LTB4 to indicating lung integrity in a newly established long-term porcine severe trauma model (polytrauma, PT) was explored...
December 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135099/tissue-injury-of-the-remnant-liver-following-radiofrequency-assisted-partial-hepatectomy
#13
Petros Ypsilantis, Maria Lambropoulou, Anastasios Karayiannakis, Miroslav Milicevic, Predrag Bulajic, Dimitrios Zacharoulis, Eleni Sioka, Constantinos Simopoulos
PURPOSE: To evaluate remnant liver tissue damage in a pig model of radiofrequency (RF)-assisted liver resection employing either the sequential coagulate cut (SCC) Belgrade technique using a monopolar RF electrode or the one using the bipolar Habib-4x device. METHODS: Sixteen pigs underwent either a) resection of part of the left lateral and left median hepatic lobes employing the SCC (SCC group), the Habib-4X (H group) or the "crushclamp" technique (CC group) or b) sham operation (Sham group)...
September 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127105/epor2-%C3%A3-cr2-independendent-effects-of-low-dose-epoetin-a-in-porcine-liver-transplantation
#14
Linus Kebschull, Leon Franz Christoph Theilmann, Annika Mohr, Wencke Uennigmann, Sandra Stoeppeler, Barbara Heitplatz, Hans-Ullrich Spiegel, Ralf Bahde, Daniel Michael Palmes, Felix Becker
Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) remains the key component of graft damage during transplantation. Erythropoietin (EPO) induces anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects via the EPOR2/ßcR2-complex, with the potential risk of thrombosis. Previous work indicates that EPO has EPOR2/ßcR2-independent protective effects via direct effects on the endothelium. As the EPOR2/ßcR2-receptor has a very low affinity for EPO, we aimed to test the hypothesis that EPO doses below the level that stimulate this receptor elicit cytoprotective effects via endothelial stimulation in a porcine liver transplantation model...
November 10, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125848/early-decreased-tlr2-expression-on-monocytes-is-associated-with-their-reduced-phagocytic-activity-and-impaired-maturation-in-a-porcine-polytrauma-model
#15
Lukas Schimunek, Rafael Serve, Michel P J Teuben, Philipp Störmann, Birgit Auner, Mathias Woschek, Roman Pfeifer, Klemens Horst, Tim-P Simon, Miriam Kalbitz, Ramona Sturm, Hans-C Pape, Frank Hildebrand, Ingo Marzi, Borna Relja
In their post-traumatic course, trauma patients suffering from multiple injuries have a high risk for immune dysregulation, which may contribute to post-injury complications and late mortality. Monocytes as specific effector cells of the innate immunity play a crucial role in inflammation. Using their Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs), notably Toll-Like Receptors (TLR), the monocytes recognize pathogens and/or pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and organize their clearance. TLR2 is the major receptor for particles of gram-positive bacteria, and initiates their phagocytosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124781/vascular-input-function-correction-of-inflow-enhancement-for-improved-pharmacokinetic-modeling-of-liver-dce-mri
#16
Jia Ning, Tilman Schubert, Kevin M Johnson, Alejandro Roldán-Alzate, Huijun Chen, Chun Yuan, Scott B Reeder
PURPOSE: To propose a simple method to correct vascular input function (VIF) due to inflow effects and to test whether the proposed method can provide more accurate VIFs for improved pharmacokinetic modeling. METHODS: A spoiled gradient echo sequence-based inflow quantification and contrast agent concentration correction method was proposed. Simulations were conducted to illustrate improvement in the accuracy of VIF estimation and pharmacokinetic fitting. Animal studies with dynamic contrast-enhanced MR scans were conducted before, 1 week after, and 2 weeks after portal vein embolization (PVE) was performed in the left portal circulation of pigs...
November 10, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109530/a-clinical-scale-bioartificial-liver-developed-for-gmp-improved-clinical-parameters-of-liver-function-in-porcine-liver-failure
#17
Clare Selden, James Bundy, Eloy Erro, Eva Puschmann, Malcolm Miller, Delawir Kahn, Humphrey Hodgson, Barry Fuller, Jordi Gonzalez-Molina, Aurelie Le Lay, Stephanie Gibbons, Sherri Chalmers, Sunil Modi, Amy Thomas, Peter Kilbride, Agnes Isaacs, Richard Ginsburg, Helen Ilsley, David Thomson, Galya Chinnery, Ncedile Mankahla, Lizel Loo, C Wendy Spearman
Liver failure, whether arising directly from acute liver failure or from decompensated chronic liver disease is an increasing problem worldwide and results in many deaths. In the UK only 10% of individuals requiring a liver transplant receive one. Thus the need for alternative treatments is paramount. A BioArtificial Liver machine could temporarily replace the functions of the liver, buying time for the patient's liver to repair and regenerate. We have designed, implemented and tested a clinical-scale BioArtificial Liver machine containing a biomass derived from a hepatoblastoma cell-line cultured as three dimensional organoids, using a fluidised bed bioreactor, together with single-use bioprocessing equipment, with complete control of nutrient provision with feedback BioXpert recipe processes, and yielding good phenotypic liver functions...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101678/liver-bioengineering-using-decellularized-whole-liver-scaffolds
#18
Iris Pla-Palacín, Pilar Sainz-Arnal, Sara Morini, Manuel Almeida, Pedro M Baptista
Currently, due to the progress made in the field of regenerative medicine, whole-organ bioengineering is becoming a valid alternative to cope with the shortages of organs for transplantation. In this chapter, we describe the main techniques carried out for pig liver bioengineering, which serves as an essential model for future human liver bioengineering. These include porcine whole-liver decellularization, endothelial and mesenchymal stem cell isolation, porcine ES-derived hepatoblasts, and scaffold recellularization using a bioreactor perfusion system...
November 4, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080878/-possible-use-of-the-growing-liver-biological-set-for-hepatic-recovery-after-toxic-damage-an-experimental-study
#19
E I Gal Perin, R I Ataullakhanov, T G Dyuzheva, L V Platonova, T M Melnikova, M Yu Monakov, A M Dudchenko, A V Lyundup, I D Klabukov
The lack of acceptable pharmacological approaches for restoration of the injured liver is associated with complex of mechanisms involved in hepatic regeneration and with difficulty of the target selection. The aim of this research was to study the hepatoprotective function of the extract from both the growing and regenerating liver containing a natural set of factors crucial for the hepatic restoration. Extracts from both regenerating liver of rats after 70% hepatic resection and the growing liver of neonatal pigs were obtained using own original technique...
October 2017: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067741/synthetic-liver-function-is-detectable-in-transgenic-porcine-livers-perfused-with-human-blood
#20
Arielle Cimeno, Beth M French, Jessica M Powell, Carol Phelps, David Ayares, Natalie A O'Neill, Christopher T Laird, Richard N Pierson, Agnes M Azimzadeh, Rolf N Barth, John C LaMattina
In addition to immune barriers, molecular incompatibilities between species are predicted to limit pig liver survival in primate xenotransplantation models. Assessment and measurement of synthetic function of genetically modified porcine livers after ex vivo perfusion with human blood have not previously been described. Eight porcine livers from α1,3-galactosyl transferase knockout and human membrane cofactor (GalTKO.hCD46), six livers from GalTKO.hCD46 and N-glycolylneuraminic acid knockout (GalTKO.hCD46...
October 25, 2017: Xenotransplantation
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