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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157367/a-multilevel-study-of-the-environmental-determinants-of-swine-ascariasis-in-england
#1
Ângelo Joel Mendes, Ana Isabel Ribeiro, Milton Severo, João Niza-Ribeiro
Ascariasis is considered a common parasitosis of swine worldwide. The disease causes significant economic losses due to its effect on feed conversion ratio and liver condemnations at slaughter (liver milk spots). This study aimed to characterise the between-farm and spatial variance in porcine ascariasis in England and to assess the association between the percentage of infected animals and potential environmental risk factors, including production system, socioeconomic deprivation, soil characteristics (pH, topsoil bulk density, topsoil organic matter, topsoil texture class, soil water regime, topsoil available water capacity, and elevation), and climatic conditions (relative humidity, air temperature, and rainfall) before slaughter...
December 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156155/leukotriene-b4-indicates-lung-injury-and-on-going-inflammatory-changes-after-severe-trauma-in-a-porcine-long-term-model
#2
Philipp Störmann, Birgit Auner, Lukas Schimunek, Rafael Serve, Klemens Horst, Tim-P Simon, Roman Pfeifer, Kernt Köhler, Frank Hildebrand, Sebastian Wutzler, Hans-Christoph Pape, Ingo Marzi, Borna Relja
BACKGROUND: Recognizing patients at risk for pulmonary complications (PC) is of high clinical relevance. Migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) to inflammatory sites plays an important role in PC, and is tightly regulated by specific chemokines including interleukin (IL)-8 and other mediators such as leukotriene (LT)B4. Previously, we have reported that LTB4 indicated early patients at risk for PC after trauma. Here, the relevance of LTB4 to indicating lung integrity in a newly established long-term porcine severe trauma model (polytrauma, PT) was explored...
December 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135099/tissue-injury-of-the-remnant-liver-following-radiofrequency-assisted-partial-hepatectomy
#3
Petros Ypsilantis, Maria Lambropoulou, Anastasios Karayiannakis, Miroslav Milicevic, Predrag Bulajic, Dimitrios Zacharoulis, Eleni Sioka, Constantinos Simopoulos
PURPOSE: To evaluate remnant liver tissue damage in a pig model of radiofrequency (RF)-assisted liver resection employing either the sequential coagulate cut (SCC) Belgrade technique using a monopolar RF electrode or the one using the bipolar Habib-4x device. METHODS: Sixteen pigs underwent either a) resection of part of the left lateral and left median hepatic lobes employing the SCC (SCC group), the Habib-4X (H group) or the "crushclamp" technique (CC group) or b) sham operation (Sham group)...
September 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127105/epor2-%C3%A3-cr2-independendent-effects-of-low-dose-epoetin-a-in-porcine-liver-transplantation
#4
Linus Kebschull, Leon Franz Christoph Theilmann, Annika Mohr, Wencke Uennigmann, Sandra Stoeppeler, Barbara Heitplatz, Hans-Ullrich Spiegel, Ralf Bahde, Daniel Michael Palmes, Felix Becker
Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) remains the key component of graft damage during transplantation. Erythropoietin (EPO) induces anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects via the EPOR2/ßcR2-complex, with the potential risk of thrombosis. Previous work indicates that EPO has EPOR2/ßcR2-independent protective effects via direct effects on the endothelium. As the EPOR2/ßcR2-receptor has a very low affinity for EPO, we aimed to test the hypothesis that EPO doses below the level that stimulate this receptor elicit cytoprotective effects via endothelial stimulation in a porcine liver transplantation model...
November 10, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125848/early-decreased-tlr2-expression-on-monocytes-is-associated-with-their-reduced-phagocytic-activity-and-impaired-maturation-in-a-porcine-polytrauma-model
#5
Lukas Schimunek, Rafael Serve, Michel P J Teuben, Philipp Störmann, Birgit Auner, Mathias Woschek, Roman Pfeifer, Klemens Horst, Tim-P Simon, Miriam Kalbitz, Ramona Sturm, Hans-C Pape, Frank Hildebrand, Ingo Marzi, Borna Relja
In their post-traumatic course, trauma patients suffering from multiple injuries have a high risk for immune dysregulation, which may contribute to post-injury complications and late mortality. Monocytes as specific effector cells of the innate immunity play a crucial role in inflammation. Using their Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs), notably Toll-Like Receptors (TLR), the monocytes recognize pathogens and/or pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and organize their clearance. TLR2 is the major receptor for particles of gram-positive bacteria, and initiates their phagocytosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124781/vascular-input-function-correction-of-inflow-enhancement-for-improved-pharmacokinetic-modeling-of-liver-dce-mri
#6
Jia Ning, Tilman Schubert, Kevin M Johnson, Alejandro Roldán-Alzate, Huijun Chen, Chun Yuan, Scott B Reeder
PURPOSE: To propose a simple method to correct vascular input function (VIF) due to inflow effects and to test whether the proposed method can provide more accurate VIFs for improved pharmacokinetic modeling. METHODS: A spoiled gradient echo sequence-based inflow quantification and contrast agent concentration correction method was proposed. Simulations were conducted to illustrate improvement in the accuracy of VIF estimation and pharmacokinetic fitting. Animal studies with dynamic contrast-enhanced MR scans were conducted before, 1 week after, and 2 weeks after portal vein embolization (PVE) was performed in the left portal circulation of pigs...
November 10, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109530/a-clinical-scale-bioartificial-liver-developed-for-gmp-improved-clinical-parameters-of-liver-function-in-porcine-liver-failure
#7
Clare Selden, James Bundy, Eloy Erro, Eva Puschmann, Malcolm Miller, Delawir Kahn, Humphrey Hodgson, Barry Fuller, Jordi Gonzalez-Molina, Aurelie Le Lay, Stephanie Gibbons, Sherri Chalmers, Sunil Modi, Amy Thomas, Peter Kilbride, Agnes Isaacs, Richard Ginsburg, Helen Ilsley, David Thomson, Galya Chinnery, Ncedile Mankahla, Lizel Loo, C Wendy Spearman
Liver failure, whether arising directly from acute liver failure or from decompensated chronic liver disease is an increasing problem worldwide and results in many deaths. In the UK only 10% of individuals requiring a liver transplant receive one. Thus the need for alternative treatments is paramount. A BioArtificial Liver machine could temporarily replace the functions of the liver, buying time for the patient's liver to repair and regenerate. We have designed, implemented and tested a clinical-scale BioArtificial Liver machine containing a biomass derived from a hepatoblastoma cell-line cultured as three dimensional organoids, using a fluidised bed bioreactor, together with single-use bioprocessing equipment, with complete control of nutrient provision with feedback BioXpert recipe processes, and yielding good phenotypic liver functions...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101678/liver-bioengineering-using-decellularized-whole-liver-scaffolds
#8
Iris Pla-Palacín, Pilar Sainz-Arnal, Sara Morini, Manuel Almeida, Pedro M Baptista
Currently, due to the progress made in the field of regenerative medicine, whole-organ bioengineering is becoming a valid alternative to cope with the shortages of organs for transplantation. In this chapter, we describe the main techniques carried out for pig liver bioengineering, which serves as an essential model for future human liver bioengineering. These include porcine whole-liver decellularization, endothelial and mesenchymal stem cell isolation, porcine ES-derived hepatoblasts, and scaffold recellularization using a bioreactor perfusion system...
November 4, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080878/-possible-use-of-the-growing-liver-biological-set-for-hepatic-recovery-after-toxic-damage-an-experimental-study
#9
E I Gal Perin, R I Ataullakhanov, T G Dyuzheva, L V Platonova, T M Melnikova, M Yu Monakov, A M Dudchenko, A V Lyundup, I D Klabukov
The lack of acceptable pharmacological approaches for restoration of the injured liver is associated with complex of mechanisms involved in hepatic regeneration and with difficulty of the target selection. The aim of this research was to study the hepatoprotective function of the extract from both the growing and regenerating liver containing a natural set of factors crucial for the hepatic restoration. Extracts from both regenerating liver of rats after 70% hepatic resection and the growing liver of neonatal pigs were obtained using own original technique...
October 2017: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067741/synthetic-liver-function-is-detectable-in-transgenic-porcine-livers-perfused-with-human-blood
#10
Arielle Cimeno, Beth M French, Jessica M Powell, Carol Phelps, David Ayares, Natalie A O'Neill, Christopher T Laird, Richard N Pierson, Agnes M Azimzadeh, Rolf N Barth, John C LaMattina
In addition to immune barriers, molecular incompatibilities between species are predicted to limit pig liver survival in primate xenotransplantation models. Assessment and measurement of synthetic function of genetically modified porcine livers after ex vivo perfusion with human blood have not previously been described. Eight porcine livers from α1,3-galactosyl transferase knockout and human membrane cofactor (GalTKO.hCD46), six livers from GalTKO.hCD46 and N-glycolylneuraminic acid knockout (GalTKO.hCD46...
October 25, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064302/study-of-chest-injuries-to-3yo-child-occupants-seated-in-impact-shield-and-5-point-harness-crss
#11
Yong Han, Di Pan, Jun Ouyang, Lei Qian, Koji Mizuno, Anguo Cang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the 5-point harness or the impact shield CRS or both has the potential to cause chest injuries to children. This is determined by examining whether the loading to the chest reaches the internal organ injury threshold for children. METHOD: The chest injury risk to a child occupant in a child restraint system (CRS) was investigated using Q3 dummy tests, finite element (FE) simulations (Q3 dummy and human models) and animal tests. The investigation was done for two types of CRSs (i...
October 24, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059459/molecular-cloning-and-tissue-distribution-of-a-novel-marmoset-abc-transporter
#12
Shotaro Uehara, Yasuhiro Uno, Takashi Inoue, Erika Sasaki, Hiroshi Yamazaki
Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) have been recognized as a useful small non-human primate model in preclinical testing for drug development. In this study, a cDNA of novel ATP-dependent efflux transporter ABCB1 was cloned from marmoset liver tissue. Marmoset ABCB1 cDNA encodes a protein of 1,279 amino acid residues (MW = 141.4 kDa) containing characteristic regions of an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein, two hydrophobic transmembrane regions, and two cytoplasmic nucleotide-binding regions, similar to human ABCB1...
October 23, 2017: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046729/long-term-feeding-of-high-fat-plus-high-fructose-diet-induces-isolated-impaired-glucose-tolerance-and-skeletal-muscle-insulin-resistance-in-miniature-pigs
#13
Meng-Chieh Hsu, Mu-En Wang, Yi-Fan Jiang, Hung-Chang Liu, Yi-Chen Chen, Chih-Hsien Chiu
BACKGROUND: During the prediabetic development, the changes in β-cell function and tissue-specific insulin resistance have been described. However, there are conflicting views in insulin secretory capacity between early clinical observation and recent proposed mathematical model. On the basis of digestive and metabolic similarities with humans, swine have great potential as an animal model to investigate the progressive mechanisms of prediabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the insulin secretory response and tissue-specific insulin resistance in a dietary-induced prediabetic porcine model...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045236/a-microvascular-compartment-model-validated-using-sup-11-sup-c-methylglucose-liver-pet-in-pigs
#14
Ole Lajord Munk, Susanne Keiding, Charles Baker, Ludvik Bass
The standard compartment model (CM) is widely used to analyze dynamic PET data. The CM is fitted to time-activity curves to estimate rate constants that describe the transport of tracer between well-mixed compartments. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a more realistic microvascular compartment model (MCM) that includes capillary tracer concentration gradients, backflux from cells into the perfused capillaries, and multiple re-uptakes during the passage through a capillary. The MCM incorporates only parameters with clear physiological meaning, it is easy to implement and it does not require numerical solution...
October 18, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032589/microscopic-assessment-of-the-tissue-sparing-potential-of-radiofrequency-assisted-liver-resection-techniques-in-a-porcine-model
#15
Petros Ypsilantis, Maria Lambropoulou, Miroslav Milicevic, Predrag Bulajic, Anastasios Karayiannakis, Dimitrios Zacharoulis, Constantinos Simopoulos
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to microscopically assess the tissue-sparing potential of contemporary radiofrequency-assisted liver resection (RF-LR) techniques. METHODS: Twenty-four pigs were subjected to either (1) partial hepatectomy (PH) using the sequential-coagulate-cut (SCC) technique (group SCC, n = 6) using a monopolar electrode, the technique using the bipolar electrode Habib-4X (group H, n = 6) or the "crush-clamp" technique (group CC, n = 6); or (2) sham operation (group Sham, n = 6)...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Hepato-biliary-pancreatic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975653/analysis-of-skeletal-muscle-microcirculation-in-a-porcine-polytrauma-model-with-haemorrhagic-shock
#16
Zhi Qiao, Klemens Horst, Michel Teuben, Johannes Greven, Luxu Yin, Yannik Kalbas, René H Tolba, Hans-Christoph Pape, Frank Hildebrand, Roman Pfeifer
Polytraumatised patients with haemorrhagic shock are prone to develop systemic complications, such as SIRS (systemic inflammatory response syndrome), ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome) and MOF (multiple organ failure). The pathomechanism of severe complications following trauma is multifactorial, and it is believed that microcirculatory dysfunction plays an important role. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in the microcirculation in musculature over time during shock and subsequent resuscitation in a porcine model of haemorrhagic shock and polytrauma...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968251/hypothermia-does-not-influence-liver-damage-and-function-in-a-porcine-polytrauma-model
#17
D Eschbach, K Horst, M Sassen, J Andruszkow, J Mohr, F Debus, N Vogt, T Steinfeldt, F Hildebrand, K Schöller, E Uhl, H Wulf, S Ruchholtz, H Pape, M Frink
BACKGROUND: Previous studies revealed evidence that induced hypothermia attenuates ischemic organ injuries after severe trauma. In the present study, the effect of hypothermia on liver damage was investigated in a porcine long term model of multi-system injury, consisting of blunt chest trauma, penetrating abdominal trauma, musculoskeletal injury, and hemorrhagic shockMETHODS: In 30 pigs, a standardized polytrauma including blunt chest trauma, penetrating abdominal trauma, musculoskeletal injury, and hemorrhagic shock of 45% of total blood volume was induced...
September 15, 2017: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958773/pathophysiological-central-nervous-system-changes-in-a-porcine-model-of-acetaminophen-induced-acute-liver-failure
#18
Christian Thiel, Johannes Lauber, Wilfried Klingert, Kathrin Klingert, Matthias H Morgalla, Rudi Beschorner, Andreas Peter, Christian Grasshoff, Alfred Königsrainer, Martin Schenk, Karolin Thiel
BACKGROUND: Critical care management of patients suffering from acute liver failure (ALF) continues to be challenging. Animal models studying the pathophysiological central nervous system alterations during the course of ALF provide an opportunity to improve diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The aim of this study was to analyse the course of cerebral oxygenation in addition to conventional neuromonitoring during the course of acetaminophen-induced ALF. METHODS: ALF was induced by intrajejunal acetaminophen administration in 20 German landrace pigs...
November 5, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951864/establishing-a-porcine-model-of-small-for-size-syndrome-following-liver-resection
#19
Mohammad Golriz, Maryam Ashrafi, Elias Khajeh, Ali Majlesara, Christa Flechtenmacher, Arianeb Mehrabi
BACKGROUND: Small for size syndrome (SFSS) is responsible for a high proportion of mortalities and morbidities following extended liver resection. AIM: The aim of this study was to establish a porcine model of SFSS. METHODS: Twenty-four Landrace pigs underwent liver resection with a remnant liver volume of 50% (group A, n = 8), 25% (group B, n = 8), and 15% (group C, n = 8). After resection, the animals were followed up for 8 days and clinical, laboratory, and histopathological outcomes were evaluated...
2017: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940313/n-glycolylneuraminic-acid-knockout-reduces-erythrocyte-sequestration-and-thromboxane-elaboration-in-an-ex-vivo-pig-to-human-xenoperfusion-model
#20
Arielle Cimeno, Wessam Hassanein, Beth M French, Jessica M Powell, Lars Burdorf, Olga Goloubeva, Xiangfei Cheng, Dawn M Parsell, Jagdeece Ramsoondar, Kasinath Kuravi, Todd Vaught, Mehmet C Uluer, Emily Redding, Natalie O'Neill, Christopher Laird, Alena Hershfeld, Ivan Tatarov, Kathryn Thomas, David Ayares, Agnes M Azimzadeh, Richard N Pierson, Rolf N Barth, John C LaMattina
BACKGROUND: Wild-type pigs express several carbohydrate moieties on their cell surfaces that differ from those expressed by humans. This difference in profile leads to pig tissue cell recognition of human blood cells causing sequestration, in addition to antibody-mediated xenograft injury. One such carbohydrate is N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), a sialic acid molecule synthesized in pigs but not in humans. Here, we evaluate livers with and without Neu5Gc in an ex vivo liver xeno perfusion model...
September 22, 2017: Xenotransplantation
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