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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411089/evidence-for-polymicrobial-communities-in-explanted-vascular-filters-and-atheroma-debris
#1
Jeremy E Ellis, Richard Heuser, Dara S Missan, Delyn Martinez, Avory Heningburg, Matthew Shabilla, Renata Schwartz, Stephen Fry
RATIONALE: Microbial communities have been implicated in a variety of disease processes and have been intermittently observed in arterial disease; however, no comprehensive unbiased community analysis has been performed. We hypothesize that complex microbial communities may be involved in chronic vascular diseases as well and may be effectively characterized by molecular assays. OBJECTIVE: The main objective is to survey vascular debris, atheroma, and vascular filters for polymicrobial communities consisting of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes, specifically eukaryotic microbes...
April 11, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Probes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407989/prevalence-of-calcified-carotid-artery-atheromas-on-digital%C3%A2-panoramic-images-among-perimenopausal-and%C3%A2-postmenopausal-african-american-women
#2
Nona Aghazadehsanai, Tina I Chang, Neal R Garrett, Arthur H Friedlander
OBJECTIVE: Health care disparities, often of an obscure nature, result in African American women (AAw) having enhanced risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of calcified carotid artery atheromas (CCAA), a validated risk indicator of these events, on their digital panoramic images. STUDY DESIGN: Comprehensive electronic medical records and digital panoramic images of self-identified AAw aged ≥45 years treated between 2007 and 2014 were retrieved from a Veterans Affairs Dental Service...
May 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387800/molecular-characterization-of-chlamydia-pneumoniae-associated-to-atherosclerosis
#3
Loubna El Yazouli, Alexis Criscuolo, Hicham Hejaji, Mohamed Bouaaza, Naima Elmdaghri, Aziz Aroussi Alami, Abderahim Amraoui, Nadia Dakka, Fouzia Radouani
Chlamydia pneumoniae is a respiratory pathogen associated with chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma and atherosclerosis, and its detection in human carotid and coronary atheroma suggests some support for its involvement in atherogenesis. The main objective of our study was to evaluate the association between Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclerosis in Moroccan patients through a case/control approach and detected strain genotyping. A total of 137 cases and 124 controls were enrolled, nested PCR was performed for Chlamydia pneumoniae screening of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of both cases and controls as well as atheroma plaques from 37 cases, and positive samples were subjected to sequencing for genotyping and phylogenetic analysis...
April 6, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379388/prevalence-of-obstructive-coronary-artery-disease-and-prognosis-in-patients-with-stable-symptoms-and-a-zero-coronary-calcium-score
#4
Tarun K Mittal, Alison Pottle, Ed Nicol, Mahmoud Barbir, Ben Ariff, Saeed Mirsadraee, Michael Dubowitz, Diana A Gorog, Piers Clifford, Soroosh Firoozan, Robert Smith, Simon Dubrey, Harmeet Chana, Jaymin Shah, Nigel Stephens, Christopher Travill, Andrew Kelion, Mini Pakkal, Adam Timmis
Aims: CT calcium scoring (CTCS) and CT cardiac angiography (CTCA) are widely used in patients with stable chest pain to exclude significant coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to resolve uncertainty about the prevalence of obstructive coronary artery disease and long-term outcomes in patients with a zero-calcium score (ZCS). Methods and results: Consecutive patients with stable cardiac symptoms referred for CTCS or CTCS and CTCA from chest pain clinics to a tertiary cardiothoracic centre were prospectively enrolled...
March 31, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362975/gstm1-polymorphism-in-patients-with-clinical-manifestations-of-atherosclerosis
#5
D A Rodrigues, J V M Martins, K S F E Silva, I R Costa, M H Lagares, F L Campedelli, A M Barbosa, M P de Morais, K K V O Moura
Atherosclerosis is characterized by lesions, called atheroma or atheromatous plaques, in the inner layer of blood vessels, which block the vascular lumen and weaken the underlying tunica media. Several modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis exist. The modifiable risk factors include hypertension, smoking, obesity, high LDL and low HDL cholesterol levels, sedentary lifestyle, and stress; the non-modifiable factors include diabetes mellitus, family history of hypertension and heart disease, thrombophilia, sex, age, and genetic factors...
March 15, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350877/exposure-to-atheroma-relevant-7-oxysterols-causes-proteomic-alterations-in-cell-death-cellular-longevity-and-lipid-metabolism-in-thp-1-macrophages
#6
Liam J Ward, Stefan A Ljunggren, Helen Karlsson, Wei Li, Xi-Ming Yuan
The 7-oxysterols are recognised as strong enhancers of inflammatory processes in foamy macrophages. Atheroma-relevant 7-oxysterol mixtures induce a mixed type of cell death in macrophages, and trigger cellular oxidative stress responses, which mimic oxidative exposures observed in atherosclerotic lesions. However, the macrophage proteome has not previously been determined in the 7-oxysterol treated cell model. The aim of the present study was to determine the specific effects of an atheroma-relevant 7-oxysterol mixture on human macrophage proteome...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324943/overcoming-spatio-temporal-limitations-using-dynamically-scaled-in-vitro-pc-mri-a-flow-field-comparison-to-true-scale-computer-simulations-of-idealized-stented-and-patient-specific-left-main-bifurcations
#7
Susann Beier, John Ormiston, Mark Webster, John Cater, Stuart Norris, Pau Medrano-Gracia, Alistair Young, Kathleen Gilbert, Brett Cowan
The majority of patients with angina or heart failure have coronary artery disease. Left main bifurcations are particularly susceptible to pathological narrowing. Flow is a major factor of atheroma development, but limitations in imaging technology such as spatio-temporal resolution, signal-to-noise ratio (SNRv), and imaging artefacts prevent in vivo investigations. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling is a common numerical approach to study flow, but it requires a cautious and rigorous application for meaningful results...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292862/molecular-imaging-of-atheroma-deciphering-how-and-when-to-use-18-f-sodium-fluoride-and-18-f-fluorodeoxyglucose
#8
EDITORIAL
Ahmed Tawakol, Michael T Osborne, Zahi A Fayad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292859/-18-f-fluoride-and-18-f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-after-transient-ischemic-attack-or-minor-ischemic-stroke-case-control-study
#9
Alex T Vesey, William S A Jenkins, Agnese Irkle, Alastair Moss, Greg Sng, Rachael O Forsythe, Tim Clark, Gemma Roberts, Alison Fletcher, Christophe Lucatelli, James H F Rudd, Anthony P Davenport, Nicholas L Mills, Rustam Al-Shahi Salman, Martin Dennis, William N Whiteley, Edwin J R van Beek, Marc R Dweck, David E Newby
BACKGROUND: Combined positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) can assess both anatomy and biology of carotid atherosclerosis. We sought to assess whether (18)F-fluoride or (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose can identify culprit and high-risk carotid plaque. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed (18)F-fluoride and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT in 26 patients after recent transient ischemic attack or minor ischemic stroke: 18 patients with culprit carotid stenosis awaiting carotid endarterectomy and 8 controls without culprit carotid atheroma...
March 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280493/t-cells-specific-for-a-self-peptide-of-apob-100-exacerbate-aortic-atheroma-in-murine-atherosclerosis
#10
Michael K Shaw, Kevin Y Tse, Xiaoqing Zhao, Kathryn Welch, Daniel T Eitzman, Raghavendar R Thipparthi, Paul C Montgomery, Ryan Thummel, Harley Y Tse
On the basis of mouse I-A(b)-binding motifs, two sequences of the murine apolipoprotein B-100 (mApoB-100), mApoB-1003501-3515 (designated P3) and mApoB-100978-992 (designated P6), were found to be immunogenic. In this report, we show that P6 is also atherogenic. Immunization of Apoe(-/-) mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) with P6 resulted in enhanced development of aortic atheroma as compared to control mice immunized with an irrelevant peptide MOG35-55 or with complete Freund's adjuvant alone. Adoptive transfer of lymph node cells from P6-immunized donor mice to recipients fed an HFD caused exacerbated aortic atheromas, correlating P6-primed cells with disease development...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276564/dietary-fatty-acids-on-aortic-root-calcification-in-mice-with-metabolic-syndrome
#11
Maria C Naranjo, Beatriz Bermudez, Indara Garcia, Sergio Lopez, Rocio Abia, Francisco J G Muriana, Sergio Montserrat-de la Paz
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with obesity, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, and chronic low-grade inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the role of high-fat low-cholesterol diets (HFLCDs) rich in SFAs (HFLCD-SFAs), MUFAs (HFLCD-MUFAs) or MUFAs plus omega-3 long-chain PUFAs (HFLCD-PUFAs) on vascular calcification by the modulation of the RANKL/RANK/OPG system in the aortic roots of Lep(ob/ob)LDLR(-/-) mice. Animals fed with HFLCD-SFAs had increased weight and a greater atheroma plaque size, calcification, and RANKL/CATHK expression in the aortic root than mice on MUFA-enriched diets, with an increasing OPG expression in the aortic roots of the latter...
April 19, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260035/screening-of-potential-gene-markers-for-predicting-carotid-atheroma-plaque-formation-using-bioinformatics-approaches
#12
Guiming Wang, Dong Kuai, Yudong Yang, Gaochao Yang, Zhigang Wei, Wenbo Zhao
The present study aimed to investigate potential gene markers for predicting the formation of carotid atheroma plaques using high‑throughput bioinformatics methods. The GSE43292 gene expression profile was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Following data processing, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened using a paired t‑test in the Linear Models for Microarray Data package with the criteria of a false discovery rate of P<0.05 and |log2 fold‑change| ≥0.58, followed by functional enrichment, protein‑protein interaction (PPI) network construction, key node and module analysis, and prediction of transcription factors (TFs) targeting genes in the significant modules...
April 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243806/influence-of-erythrocyte-membrane-stability-in-atherosclerosis
#13
REVIEW
Mario da Silva Garrote-Filho, Morun Bernardino-Neto, Nilson Penha-Silva
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this study is to show how an excess of cholesterol in the erythrocyte membrane contributes stochastically to the progression of atherosclerosis, leading to damage in blood rheology and O2 transport, deposition of cholesterol (from trapped erythrocytes) in an area of intraplaque hemorrhage, and local exacerbation of oxidative stress. RECENT FINDINGS: Cholesterol contained in the membrane of erythrocytes trapped in an intraplaque hemorrhage contributes to the growth of the necrotic nucleus...
April 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240525/infrapopliteal-calcification-patterns-in-critical-limb-ischemia-diagnostic-pathologic-and-therapeutic-implications-in-the-search-for-the-endovascular-holy-grail
#14
REVIEW
Jihad A Mustapha, Larry J Diaz-Sandoval, Fadi Saab
Critical limb ischemia (CLI) represents the terminal stage of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and is characterized by multilevel and multivessel disease. Amongst patients with infrainguinal disease, approximately one third have predominantly isolated infrapopliteal disease and the remaining two thirds, a combination of femoropopliteal and infrapopliteal disease. Isolated infrapopliteal disease is mainly seen in the elderly, diabetic, or dialysis-dependent patients. These patients have higher risk of amputation and shorter amputation-free survival...
June 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226721/overcoming-spatio-temporal-limitations-using-dynamically-scaled-in-vitro-pc-mri-a-flow-field-comparison-to-true-scale-computer-simulations-of-idealized-stented-and-patient-specific-left-main-bifurcations
#15
Susann Beier, John Ormiston, Mark Webster, John Cater, Stuart Norris, Pau Medrano-Gracia, Alistair Young, Kathleen Gilbert, Brett Cowan, Susann Beier, John Ormiston, Mark Webster, John Cater, Stuart Norris, Pau Medrano-Gracia, Alistair Young, Kathleen Gilbert, Brett Cowan, Stuart Norris, Brett Cowan, Pau Medrano-Gracia, Kathleen Gilbert, Mark Webster, Alistair Young, Susann Beier, John Cater, John Ormiston
The majority of patients with angina or heart failure have coronary artery disease. Left main bifurcations are particularly susceptible to pathological narrowing. Flow is a major factor of atheroma development, but limitations in imaging technology such as spatio-temporal resolution, signal-to-noise ratio (SNRv), and imaging artefacts prevent in vivo investigations. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling is a common numerical approach to study flow, but it requires a cautious and rigorous application for meaningful results...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223301/unstable-saphenous-vein-graft-atheroma-in-patients-with-stable-angina-pectoris
#16
Fumiyasu Seike, Shuntaro Ikeda, Hideo Kawakami, Toru Miyoshi, Akira Oshita, Shinji Inaba, Takafumi Okura, Jitsuo Higaki, Hiroshi Matsuoka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223221/the-atheroma-plaque-secretome-stimulates-the-mobilization-of-endothelial-progenitor-cells-ex-vivo
#17
Francisco M Vega, Violette Gautier, Cecilia M Fernandez-Ponce, M J Extremera, A F M Altelaar, Jaime Millan, Juan C Tellez, Jose A Hernandez-Campos, Rosario Conejero, Jorge Bolivar, Ricardo Pardal, Francisco J Garcia-Cózar, Enrique Aguado, Albert J R Heck, Mª Carmen Duran-Ruiz
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) constitute a promising alternative in cardiovascular regenerative medicine due to their assigned role in angiogenesis and vascular repair. In response to injury, EPCs promote vascular remodeling by replacement of damaged endothelial cells and/or by secreting angiogenic factors over the damaged tissue. Nevertheless, such mechanisms need to be further characterized. In the current approach we have evaluated the initial response of early EPCs (eEPCs) from healthy individuals after direct contact with the factors released by carotid arteries complicated with atherosclerotic plaques (AP), in order to understand the mechanisms underlying the neovascularization and remodeling properties assigned to these cells...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220621/a-low-prevalence-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-is-associated-to-decreased-subclinical-cardiovascular-disease
#18
Enric Serra-Planas, Eva Aguilera, Laura Castro, Raúl Rodríguez, Isabel Salinas, Anna Lucas, Clara Joaquín, Rocio Puig, Dídac Mauricio, Manel Puig-Domingo
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been proposed as an independent cardiovascular risk factor. This study evaluated the prevalence of NAFLD in a cohort of Type 1 Diabetic (T1D) patients and its potential relationship with subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: Cross-sectional study in which 100 T1D patients (39.4 ± 7.8 years, 54% male, all Caucasian, disease duration 21.7 ± 8.6 years, HbA1c 8.1 ± 1.0 % (64.2 ± 7...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215108/antithrombotic-therapy-in-aortic-diseases-a-narrative-review
#19
Francois Caron, Sonia S Anand
Aortic diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders, including atherothrombotic conditions like aortic atheroma, cholesterol embolization syndrome, aortic mural thrombus, thrombus within an aneurysm, and large vessel vasculitis. In this review, we provide a summary of the current evidence regarding atherothrombotic diseases of the aorta, focusing on therapeutic avenues. In patients with previous stroke, aortic arch atheroma is recognized as a strong predictor of recurrent atheroembolism, and antiplatelet therapy alone is still associated with a high (11...
February 2017: Vascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214453/reciprocal-regulation-of-enos-h2s-and-co-synthesizing-enzymes-in-human-atheroma-correlation-with-plaque-stability-and-effects-of-simvastatin
#20
Fragiska Sigala, Panagiotis Efentakis, Dimitra Karageorgiadi, Konstadinos Filis, Paraskevas Zampas, Efstathios K Iliodromitis, George Zografos, Andreas Papapetropoulos, Ioanna Andreadou
The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying plaque destabilization remain obscure. We sought to elucidate the correlation between NO, H2S and CO-generating enzymes, nitro-oxidative stress and plaque stability in carotid arteries. Carotid atherosclerotic plaques were collected from 62 patients who had undergone endarterectomy due to internal artery stenosis. Following histological evaluation the plaques were divided into stable and unstable ones. To investigate the impact of simvastatin we divided patients with stable plaques, into those receiving and to those not receiving simvastatin...
February 12, 2017: Redox Biology
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