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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464937/vascular-dysfunction-elicited-by-a-crosstalk-between-periaortic-adipose-tissue-and-the-vascular-wall-is-reversed-by-pioglitazone
#1
Isabel Quesada, Jimena Cejas, Rodrigo García, Beatriz Cannizzo, Analía Redondo, Claudia Castro
AIM: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is in intimate contact with the vessel wall and extravascular PVAT-derived inflammatory mediators may adversely influence atherosclerotic plaque formation and stability through outside-to-inside signalling. We sought to investigate the role of PVAT on the atheroma development in an experimental animal model of Metabolic Syndrome (MS) associated with oxidative stress and low-grade inflammatory state. We also studied the effect of Pioglitazone an insulin sensitizer, on the aortic wall and its surrounding PVAT, considering a bi-directional communication between both layers...
February 21, 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462161/lipoproteins-comprise-at-least-10-different-classes-in-rats-each-of-which-contains-a-unique-set-of-proteins-as-the-primary-component
#2
Tomokazu Konishi, Yoko Takahashi
Although lipoproteins are conventionally separated into a few classes using density gradient centrifugation, there may be a much higher number of physical classes that differ in origin or phase. Comprehensive knowledge of the classes of lipoproteins is rather limited, which hinders both the study of their functions and the identification of the primary causes of related diseases. This study aims to determine the number of classes of lipoproteins that can be practically distinguishable and identify the differences between them...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453675/evaluation-of-carotid-artery-elasticity-in-patients-with-uremia-by-echo-tracking
#3
Hong Liang, Dawei Wang, Guoying Che, Yanxin Su
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the carotid artery wall elasticity between patients with uremia and controls using echo tracking (ET). METHODS: Ninety-three patients with uremia and 35 control subjects (Group A) were enrolled in this study. In the ET mode, the carotid artery elasticity parameters including stiffness index (β), pressure-strain elasticity modulus (EP), arterial compliance (AC), and one-point pulse wave velocity (PWVβ) were measured, and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was measured with B-mode ultrasonography...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434426/reappraisal-of-percutaneous-transluminal-laser-angioplasty
#4
REVIEW
Shoichi D Takekawa
Background and aims: We devised a technique to treat peripheral arterial disease (PAD) with laser, i.e. percutaneous transluminal laser angioplasty (PTLA). Considerable good results were obtained with PTLA, but it is apparently considered obsolete as a technique to treat occlusive arterial disease of peripheral arteries, perhaps because of the development and improvement of stents and the ease of their use compared to the somewhat intricate technique required for PTLA. Although the author admits the usefulness of stents, they are foreign to a human body...
December 31, 2017: Laser Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431856/cerebral-embolization-silent-cerebral-infarction-and-neurocognitive-decline-after-thoracic-endovascular-aortic-repair
#5
A H Perera, N Rudarakanchana, L Monzon, C D Bicknell, B Modarai, O Kirmi, T Athanasiou, M Hamady, R G Gibbs
BACKGROUND: Silent cerebral infarction is brain injury detected incidentally on imaging; it can be associated with cognitive decline and future stroke. This study investigated cerebral embolization, silent cerebral infarction and neurocognitive decline following thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). METHODS: Patients undergoing elective or emergency TEVAR at Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust and Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust between January 2012 and April 2015 were recruited...
February 12, 2018: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427154/genital-epidermal-horn-cyst-atheroma-after-female-genital-mutilation-who-type-iii-b
#6
Dorit Schöller, Christl Reisenauer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413440/pet-mr-imaging-of-atherosclerosis-insights-into-atheroma-structure-and-biology
#7
EDITORIAL
Ahmed Tawakol, David E Sosnovik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407594/overexpression-of-perilipin1-protects-against-atheroma-progression-in-apolipoprotein-e-knockout-mice
#8
Kohei Yamamoto, Hideaki Miyoshi, Kyu Yong Cho, Akinobu Nakamura, Andrew S Greenberg, Tatsuya Atsumi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Perilipin1 (PLIN1), a lipid droplet-associated protein, plays an important role in the regulation of lipolysis and lipid storage in adipocytes. PLIN1 has recently been reported to be expressed in macrophages within atheroma plaques, suggesting PLIN1 may play a role in the accumulation of lipids at the arterial wall and in the development of atherosclerosis. To clarify the role of PLIN1 in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, we assessed the progression of atherosclerosis in PLIN1 transgenic mice (Plin1Tg)...
January 17, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406256/males-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-often-evidence-carotid-atheromas-on-panoramic-imaging-a-risk-indicator-of-future-cardiovascular-events
#9
Urie K Lee, Tina I Chang, Neal Garrett, Arthur H Friedlander
PURPOSE: Males with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at an exceedingly high risk of adverse intraoperative ischemic events, given the role of systemic inflammation in the atherogenic process. We hypothesized that their panoramic images would demonstrate calcified carotid artery atheromas (CCAPs) significantly more often than those from a general population of similarly aged men. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We implemented a retrospective observational study. The sample was composed of male patients older than 55 years of age who had undergone panoramic imaging studies...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396829/characteristics-of-aorto-iliofemoral-arterial-tree-according-to-aortic-valve-morphology-in-chinese-patients-considered-for-tavr
#10
Yuan Wang, Hasan Jilaihawi, Guanyuan Song, Moyang Wang, Bin Lv, Hao Wang, Guannan Niu, Zheng Zhou, Yongjian Wu
To characterize the anatomy of aorto-iliofemoral arterial tree according to aortic valve phenotype by CT in patients referred for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). We retrospectively enrolled 215 patients screened for TAVR who underwent CT. Dimensions, calcification, vascular tortuosity index score and other putative risk features of 13 different regions were evaluated for bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) morphology. The study consisted of 44% BAVs with younger age than TAVs...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396056/inflammation-in-human-carotid-atheroma-plaques
#11
Haize Goikuria, Koen Vandenbroeck, Iraide Alloza
Inflammation in carotid atherosclerotic plaque is linked to plaque rupture and cerebrovascular accidents. The balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators governs development of the plaque, and may mediate enhancement of lesion broadening or, on the contrary, delay progression. In addition to macrophages and endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells (SMCs), which are the dominant cell subset in advanced plaques, are crucial players in carotid atherosclerosis development given their ability to differentiate into distinct phenotypes in reponse to specific signals received from the environment of the lesion...
January 30, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386205/liver-x-receptor-binding-dna-motif-associated-with-atherosclerosis-specific-dna-methylation-profiles-of-alu-elements-and-neighboring-cpg-islands
#12
Fabiola E Tristán-Flores, Plinio Guzmán, Melany S Ortega-Kermedy, Gabriela Cruz-Torres, Carmen de la Rocha, Guillermo A Silva-Martínez, Dalia Rodríguez-Ríos, Yolanda Alvarado-Caudillo, Gloria Barbosa-Sabanero, Sergi Sayols, Gertrud Lund, Silvio Zaina
BACKGROUND: The signals that determine atherosclerosis-specific DNA methylation profiles are only partially known. We previously identified a 29-bp DNA motif (differential methylation motif [DMM]) proximal to CpG islands (CGIs) that undergo demethylation in advanced human atheromas. Those data hinted that the DMM docks modifiers of DNA methylation and transcription. METHODS AND RESULTS: We sought to functionally characterize the DMM. We showed that the DMM overlaps with the RNA polymerase III-binding B box of Alu short interspersed nuclear elements and contains a DR2 nuclear receptor response element...
January 31, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382349/systemic-arteriosclerosis-is-associated-with-left-ventricular-remodeling-but-not-atherosclerosis-a-tascforce-study
#13
Jonathan R Weir-McCall, Matthew Lambert, Stephen J Gandy, Jill J F Belch, Ian Cavin, Shelley A Henderson, Roberta Littleford, Jennifer A Macfarlane, Shona Z Matthew, R Stephen Nicholas, Allan D Struthers, Frank Sullivan, Richard D White, J Graeme Houston
BACKGROUND: Arteriosclerosis (arterial stiffening) is associated with future cardiovascular events, with this effect postulated to be due to its effect on cardiac afterload, atherosclerosis (plaque formation) progression or both, but with limited evidence examining these early in disease formation. The aim of the current study is to examine the association between arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis and ventricular remodelling in a population at low-intermediate cardiovascular risk. METHODS: One thousand six hundred fifty-one subjects free of clinical cardiovascular disease and with a < 20% 10 year cardiovascular risk score underwent a cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) study and whole body CMR angiogram...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361501/synthetic-high-density-lipoprotein-mediated-targeted-delivery-of-liver-x-receptors-agonist-promotes-atherosclerosis-regression
#14
Yanhong Guo, Wenmin Yuan, Bilian Yu, Rui Kuai, Wenting Hu, Emily E Morin, Minerva T Garcia-Barrio, Jifeng Zhang, James J Moon, Anna Schwendeman, Y Eugene Chen
Targeting at enhancing reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) is apromising strategy for treating atherosclerosis via infusion of reconstitute high density lipoprotein (HDL) as cholesterol acceptors or increase of cholesterol efflux by activation of macrophage liver X receptors (LXRs). However, systemic activation of LXRs triggers excessive lipogenesis in the liver and infusion of HDL downregulates cholesterol efflux from macrophages. Here we describe an enlightened strategy using phospholipid reconstituted apoA-I peptide (22A)-derived synthetic HDL (sHDL) to deliver LXR agonists to the atheroma and examine their effect on atherosclerosis regression in vivo...
December 20, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349365/d%C3%A3-bridement-of-atheroma-in-the-proximal-clamp-site-under-hypothermic-circulatory-arrest-for-repair-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-with-severe-atherosclerosis
#15
Takashi Yamauchi, Suguru Kubota, Kosei Hasegawa
Postoperative renal and other ischemic complications due to atheroembolization after clamping of the proximal site of an abdominal aortic aneurysm are catastrophic. We present here a method of débridement of atheroma and clamping under hypothermic circulatory arrest to avoid iatrogenic atheroembolization.
March 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery Cases and Innovative Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311459/-low-continuity-rate-of-sucroferric-oxyhydroxide-among-japanese-hemodialysis-patients-with-high-phosphate-binder-pill-burden
#16
Satoru Mitsuboshi, Hitoshi Yamada, Kazuhiko Nagai, Hideo Okajima
 This prospective observational study was conducted to evaluate the continuity, efficacy, and tolerability of sucroferric oxyhydroxide (SO) among hemodialysis (HD) patients who switched to SO from sevelamer hydrochloride (SH) or bixalomer (BX). Participants were 9 HD patients in Kaetsu Hospital who had been receiving more than 9 tablets/d of SH or BX and were switched to SO 750 mg/d. All the participants were men. Over a 6-month observational period, 6 of the 9 patients (67%) discontinued SO because of adverse events, including diarrhea, atheroma, and polycythemia...
2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298067/high-levels-of-avenanthramides-in-oat-based-diet-further-suppress-high-fat-diet-induced-atherosclerosis-in-ldlr-mice
#17
Michael Thomas, Sharon Kim, Weimin Guo, William F Collins, Mitchell L Wise, Mohsen Meydani
Oats, in addition to cholesterol-lowering properties, contain unique antioxidants called avenanthramides (Avns), which inhibit both inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules in endothelial cells in culture. This study evaluated the effects of Avns of oats on atherosclerosis in Ldlr-/- mice, one of the most commonly used atherosclerosis mouse models with their similar cholesterol distributions to humans. The Ldlr-/- mice were fed a low fat, high fat, high fat containing regular oat brans with low levels of Avns (HFLA), or high fat containing regular oat brans with high levels of Avns (HFHA) diet...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284736/carotid-atheroma-from-men-has-significantly-higher-levels-of-inflammation-and-iron-metabolism-enabled-by-macrophages
#18
Xi-Ming Yuan, Liam J Ward, Claes Forssell, Nabeel Siraj, Wei Li
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Men differ from women in the manifestation of atherosclerosis and iron metabolism. Intraplaque hemorrhage and hemoglobin (Hb) catabolism by macrophages are associated with atherosclerotic lesion instability. The study aims were to investigate sex differences in (1) lesion severity in relation to blood Hb, (2) iron homeostasis in human carotid plaques, and (3) macrophage polarization within atheroma. METHODS: The carotid artery samples from 39 men and 23 women were immunostained with cell markers for macrophages, smooth muscle cells, ferritin, and TfR1 (transferrin receptor 1), which were further analyzed according to sex in relation to iron, Hb, and lipids in circulation...
December 28, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281604/results-of-the-glagov-trial
#19
REVIEW
Steven E Nissen, Stephen J Nicholls
Statins therapy reduces atheroma in proportion to the reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Proprotein convertase subtilisin--kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors are a new class of injectable human monoclonal antibodies shown to lower LDL-C when added to statin therapy. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 968 patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease were treated with statins alone or combined with the PCSK9 inhibitor, evolocumab, and assessed for change in percent, total volume, and regression of coronary atheroma...
December 2017: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249391/risk-factors-of-secondary-intervention-for-type-ii-endoleaks-in-endovascular-aneurysm-repair-an-8-year-single-institution-study
#20
Up Huh, Chung Won Lee, Sung Woon Chung, Sang-Pil Kim, Seunghwan Song, Miju Bae, Jonggeun Lee, Chang Won Kim
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The natural history of type II endoleaks (T2ELs) is still not completely understood; however, it is widely accepted that those associated with aneurysmal sac growth are harmful. We aimed to review our experience with T2ELs in endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed electronic medical records of all patients who underwent EVAR for infrarenal-type abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) at a single institution from August 2007 to November 2015...
December 14, 2017: Asian Journal of Surgery
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