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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529918/advances-in-dyslipidemia-management-for-prevention-of-atherosclerosis-pcsk9-monoclonal-antibody-therapy-and-beyond
#1
REVIEW
Nathan D Wong, Paul D Rosenblit, Robert S Greenfield
In 2003, select families with familial hypercholesterolemia were first identified to have gain-of-function mutations for proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) followed, in 2006, by the identification of those with lifelong low levels of LDL-C and lowered atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk who had loss-of-function PCSK9 mutations. These discoveries led to the rapid development of PSCK9-targeted monoclonal antibody (PCSK9 mAb) therapies and, in 2015, 2 'fully-humanized' PCSK9 mAbs (alirocumab and evolocumab) were marketed in the United States, Europe, and other countries...
April 2017: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522312/intravascular-imaging-in-cardiovascular-ageing
#2
REVIEW
Christos V Bourantas, Tom Crake, Yao-Jun Zhang, Mick Ozkor, Javed Ahmed, Hector M Garcia-Garcia, Patrick W Serruys
Ageing is related to complex molecular, inflammatory and biochemical changes that affect coronary pathology and often lead to coronary artery disease and cardiovascular events. Intravascular imaging is considered as the ideal technique to study coronary plaque morphology and assess its burden. Over the recent years several studies have been performed that investigated the association between pathophysiological mechanisms that promote vascular ageing and plaque morphology. In addition, several reports have compared plaque pathology in different age groups and a few studies included serial intravascular imaging to assess changes in the atheroma burden and compositional characteristics of the plaque...
May 15, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512547/vascular-labeling-of-the-head-and-neck-vessels-technique-advantages-and-limitations
#3
Alba Gálvez, José-Leonardo Caraballo, María-Cristina Manzanares-Céspedes, Iván Valdivia-Gandur, Rui Figueiredo, Eduard Valmaseda-Castellón
BACKGROUND: Vascular staining techniques have been used to describe the vascular structures of several anatomic areas. However, few reports have described this procedure in the head and neck region. This paper describes a head and neck vascular labeling procedure, and describes some of the technical complications that may occur. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen specimen cadaver heads were prepared. After drying the vascular system, the internal carotid arteries were ligated and a solution with latex and a gelling agent was injected into the internal carotid arteries and external jugular veins...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511903/novel-role-of-the-nutraceutical-bioactive-compound-berberine-in-lectin-like-oxldl-receptor-1-mediated-endothelial-dysfunction-in-comparison-to-lovastatin
#4
C Caliceti, P Rizzo, R Ferrari, F Fortini, G Aquila, E Leoncini, L Zambonin, B Rizzo, D Calabria, P Simoni, M Mirasoli, M Guardigli, S Hrelia, A Roda, A F G Cicero
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) or pro-inflammatory stimuli lead to increased oxidative stress linked to endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. The oxLDL receptor-1 (LOX1) is elevated within atheromas and cholesterol-lowering statins inhibit LOX1 expression. Berberine (BBR), an alkaloid extracted from plants of gender Berberis, has lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory activity. However, its role in regulating LOX1-mediated signaling is still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of BBR on oxLDL- and TNFα-induced endothelial dysfunction in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and to compare it with that of lovastatin (LOVA)...
April 19, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511572/mtor-drives-cerebral-blood-flow-and-memory-deficits-in-ldlr-mice-modeling-atherosclerosis-and-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#5
Jordan B Jahrling, Ai-Ling Lin, Nicholas DeRosa, Stacy A Hussong, Candice E Van Skike, Milena Girotti, Martin Javors, Qingwei Zhao, Leigh Ann Maslin, Reto Asmis, Veronica Galvan
We recently showed that mTOR attenuation blocks progression and abrogates established cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse models. These outcomes were associated with the restoration of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and brain vascular density (BVD) resulting from relief of mTOR inhibition of NO release. Recent reports suggested a role of mTOR in atherosclerosis. Because mTOR drives aging and vascular dysfunction is a universal feature of aging, we hypothesized that mTOR may contribute to brain vascular and cognitive dysfunction associated with atherosclerosis...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503484/prophylactic-dual-catheter-technique-to-prevent-side-branch-snowplowing-complications-during-angioplasty-and-stenting
#6
Leonard Ll Yeo, W M Wu, Y L Chen, C H Yeh, H F Wong
OBJECTIVE: Angioplasty and Stenting of intracranial atherosclerotic lesions have a higher complication rate and a large proportion of this is attributable to side branch arterial occlusion from forceful displacement of the atheroma into the ostia or snowplowing effect. This can result in severe disabilities when it result in small infarcts involving eloquent areas in the posterior circulation or the motor tracts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present a series of 6 cases utilizing a new dual catheter technique for maintaining the patency of at-risk vessels during angioplasty and stenting...
March 2017: Journal of Cerebrovascular and Endovascular Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502498/mature-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-9-coronary-atheroma-burden-and-vessel-remodeling-in-heterozygous-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#7
Yu Kataoka, Mariko Harada-Shiba, Kazuhiro Nakao, Takahiro Nakashima, Shoji Kawakami, Masashi Fujino, Tomoaki Kanaya, Toshiyuki Nagai, Yoshio Tahara, Yasuhide Asaumi, Mika Hori, Masatsune Ogura, Yoichi Goto, Teruo Noguchi, Satoshi Yasuda
BACKGROUND: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), an important contributor to low-density lipoprotein metabolism in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH), exhibits direct proatherogenic effects. PCSK9 circulates as mature and furin-cleaved forms, which differ in its biological activity. However, it remains to be elucidated whether each PCSK9 subtype has different atherogenic properties. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of each PCSK9 subtype with coronary atherosclerosis in HeFH...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487316/atheroma-susceptible-to-thrombosis-exhibit-impaired-endothelial-permeability-in-vivo-as-assessed-by-nanoparticle-based-fluorescence-molecular-imaging
#8
Ashley F Stein-Merlob, Tetsuya Hara, Jason R McCarthy, Adam Mauskapf, James A Hamilton, Vasilis Ntziachristos, Peter Libby, Farouc A Jaffer
BACKGROUND: The role of local alterations in endothelial functional integrity in atherosclerosis remains incompletely understood. This study used nanoparticle-enhanced optical molecular imaging to probe in vivo mechanisms involving impaired endothelial barrier function in experimental atherothrombosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Atherosclerosis was induced in rabbits (n=31) using aortic balloon injury and high-cholesterol diet. Rabbits received ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (CLIO) derivatized with a near-infrared fluorophore (CyAm7) 24 hours before near-infrared fluorescence imaging...
May 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484308/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-the-mediterranean-diet-in-the-early-and-late-stages-of-atheroma-plaque-development
#9
Rosa Casas, Mireia Urpi-Sardà, Emilio Sacanella, Sara Arranz, Dolores Corella, Olga Castañer, Rosa-María Lamuela-Raventós, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, José Lapetra, Maria P Portillo, Ramón Estruch
Objective. To evaluate the long-term effects of a Mediterranean diet (MeDiet) intervention on the plasma concentrations of inflammatory and plaque stability-related molecules in elderly people at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Design and Setting. 66 participants from primary care centers affiliated with the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona were randomized into 3 groups: MeDiet plus extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) or nuts and a low-fat diet (LFD). At baseline and at 3 and 5 years, we evaluated the changes in the plasma concentrations of 24 inflammatory biomarkers related to the different stages of the atherosclerotic process by Luminex®...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473100/coronary-artery-calcification-from-mechanism-to-molecular-imaging
#10
REVIEW
Takehiro Nakahara, Marc R Dweck, Navneet Narula, David Pisapia, Jagat Narula, H William Strauss
Vascular calcification is a hallmark of atherosclerosis. The location, density, and confluence of calcification may change portions of the arterial conduit to a noncompliant structure. Calcifications may also seed the cap of a thin cap fibroatheroma, altering tensile forces on the cap and rendering the lesion prone to rupture. Many local and systemic factors participate in this process, including hyperlipidemia, ongoing inflammation, large necrotic cores, and diabetes. Vascular cells can undergo chondrogenic or osteogenic differentiation, causing mineralization of membranous bone and formation of endochondral bone...
May 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472818/excimer-laser-facilitated-coronary-angioplasty-of-a-heavy-calcified-lesion-treated-with-bioresorbable-scaffolds
#11
Antonio Mangieri, Richard J Jabbour, Akihito Tanaka, Andrea Aurelio, Antonio Colombo, Azeem Latib
: Excimer coronary laser atherectomy (ECLA) has been shown to be both well tolerated and effective for plaque modification. Its technology is based on ultraviolet energy and is capable of disintegrating atheroma, without burning or grossly fragmenting it. ELCA has proven effective in the percutaneous treatment of a variety of complex lesions. Here we present a case of multiple heavy calcified lesions successfully prepared with ELCA and finally treated with the implantation of multiple bioresorbable scaffolds...
December 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453721/apheresis-as-novel-treatment-for-refractory-angina-with-raised-lipoprotein-a-a-randomized-controlled-cross-over-trial
#12
Tina Z Khan, Li-Yueh Hsu, Andrew E Arai, Samantha Rhodes, Alison Pottle, Ricardo Wage, Winston Banya, Peter D Gatehouse, Shivraman Giri, Peter Collins, Dudley J Pennell, Mahmoud Barbir
Aims: To determine the clinical impact of lipoprotein apheresis in patients with refractory angina and raised lipoprotein(a) > 500 mg/L on the primary end point of quantitative myocardial perfusion, as well as secondary end points including atheroma burden, exercise capacity, symptoms, and quality of life. Methods: We conducted a single-blinded randomized controlled trial in 20 patients with refractory angina and raised lipoprotein(a) > 500 mg/L, with 3 months of blinded weekly lipoprotein apheresis or sham, followed by crossover...
May 21, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450836/renal-denervation-promotes-atherosclerosis-in-hypertensive-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-mice-infused-with-angiotensin-ii
#13
Yutang Wang, Tam N Dinh, Alexander Nield, Smriti M Krishna, Kate Denton, Jonathan Golledge
Objective: To determine the effect of renal denervation (RDN) on the severity of atherosclerosis and aortic aneurysm in hypertensive mice. Methods: Hypertension, atherosclerosis and aortic aneurysm were induced by subcutaneous infusion of angiotensin II (1 μg/kg/min) for 28 days in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. RDN was conducted using combined surgical and local chemical denervation. The norepinephrine concentration in the kidney was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Blood pressure was measured by the tail-cuff method...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438734/total-thrombus-formation-analysis-system-predicts-periprocedural-bleeding-events-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-undergoing-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#14
Yu Oimatsu, Koichi Kaikita, Masanobu Ishii, Tatsuro Mitsuse, Miwa Ito, Yuichiro Arima, Daisuke Sueta, Aya Takahashi, Satomi Iwashita, Eiichiro Yamamoto, Sunao Kojima, Seiji Hokimoto, Kenichi Tsujita
BACKGROUND: Periprocedural bleeding events are common after percutaneous coronary intervention. We evaluated the association of periprocedural bleeding events with thrombogenicity, which was measured quantitatively by the Total Thrombus-formation Analysis System equipped with microchips and thrombogenic surfaces (collagen, platelet chip [PL]; collagen plus tissue factor, atheroma chip [AR]). METHODS AND RESULTS: Between August 2013 and March 2016, 313 consecutive patients with coronary artery disease undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention were enrolled...
April 24, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411089/evidence-for-polymicrobial-communities-in-explanted-vascular-filters-and-atheroma-debris
#15
Jeremy E Ellis, Richard Heuser, Dara S Missan, Delyn Martinez, Avory Heningburg, Matthew Shabilla, Renata Schwartz, Stephen Fry
RATIONALE: Microbial communities have been implicated in a variety of disease processes and have been intermittently observed in arterial disease; however, no comprehensive unbiased community analysis has been performed. We hypothesize that complex microbial communities may be involved in chronic vascular diseases as well and may be effectively characterized by molecular assays. OBJECTIVE: The main objective is to survey vascular debris, atheroma, and vascular filters for polymicrobial communities consisting of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes, specifically eukaryotic microbes...
April 11, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Probes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407989/prevalence-of-calcified-carotid-artery-atheromas-on-digital%C3%A2-panoramic-images-among-perimenopausal-and%C3%A2-postmenopausal-african-american-women
#16
Nona Aghazadehsanai, Tina I Chang, Neal R Garrett, Arthur H Friedlander
OBJECTIVE: Health care disparities, often of an obscure nature, result in African American women (AAw) having enhanced risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of calcified carotid artery atheromas (CCAA), a validated risk indicator of these events, on their digital panoramic images. STUDY DESIGN: Comprehensive electronic medical records and digital panoramic images of self-identified AAw aged ≥45 years treated between 2007 and 2014 were retrieved from a Veterans Affairs Dental Service...
May 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387800/molecular-characterization-of-chlamydia-pneumoniae-associated-to-atherosclerosis
#17
Loubna El Yazouli, Alexis Criscuolo, Hicham Hejaji, Mohamed Bouaaza, Naima Elmdaghri, Aziz Aroussi Alami, Abderahim Amraoui, Nadia Dakka, Fouzia Radouani
Chlamydia pneumoniae is a respiratory pathogen associated with chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma and atherosclerosis, and its detection in human carotid and coronary atheroma suggests some support for its involvement in atherogenesis. The main objective of our study was to evaluate the association between Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclerosis in Moroccan patients through a case/control approach and detected strain genotyping. A total of 137 cases and 124 controls were enrolled, nested PCR was performed for Chlamydia pneumoniae screening of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of both cases and controls as well as atheroma plaques from 37 cases, and positive samples were subjected to sequencing for genotyping and phylogenetic analysis...
April 6, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379388/prevalence-of-obstructive-coronary-artery-disease-and-prognosis-in-patients-with-stable-symptoms-and-a-zero-coronary-calcium-score
#18
Tarun K Mittal, Alison Pottle, Ed Nicol, Mahmoud Barbir, Ben Ariff, Saeed Mirsadraee, Michael Dubowitz, Diana A Gorog, Piers Clifford, Soroosh Firoozan, Robert Smith, Simon Dubrey, Harmeet Chana, Jaymin Shah, Nigel Stephens, Christopher Travill, Andrew Kelion, Mini Pakkal, Adam Timmis
Aims: CT calcium scoring (CTCS) and CT cardiac angiography (CTCA) are widely used in patients with stable chest pain to exclude significant coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to resolve uncertainty about the prevalence of obstructive coronary artery disease and long-term outcomes in patients with a zero-calcium score (ZCS). Methods and results: Consecutive patients with stable cardiac symptoms referred for CTCS or CTCS and CTCA from chest pain clinics to a tertiary cardiothoracic centre were prospectively enrolled...
March 31, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362975/gstm1-polymorphism-in-patients-with-clinical-manifestations-of-atherosclerosis
#19
D A Rodrigues, J V M Martins, K S F E Silva, I R Costa, M H Lagares, F L Campedelli, A M Barbosa, M P de Morais, K K V O Moura
Atherosclerosis is characterized by lesions, called atheroma or atheromatous plaques, in the inner layer of blood vessels, which block the vascular lumen and weaken the underlying tunica media. Several modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis exist. The modifiable risk factors include hypertension, smoking, obesity, high LDL and low HDL cholesterol levels, sedentary lifestyle, and stress; the non-modifiable factors include diabetes mellitus, family history of hypertension and heart disease, thrombophilia, sex, age, and genetic factors...
March 15, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350877/exposure-to-atheroma-relevant-7-oxysterols-causes-proteomic-alterations-in-cell-death-cellular-longevity-and-lipid-metabolism-in-thp-1-macrophages
#20
Liam J Ward, Stefan A Ljunggren, Helen Karlsson, Wei Li, Xi-Ming Yuan
The 7-oxysterols are recognised as strong enhancers of inflammatory processes in foamy macrophages. Atheroma-relevant 7-oxysterol mixtures induce a mixed type of cell death in macrophages, and trigger cellular oxidative stress responses, which mimic oxidative exposures observed in atherosclerotic lesions. However, the macrophage proteome has not previously been determined in the 7-oxysterol treated cell model. The aim of the present study was to determine the specific effects of an atheroma-relevant 7-oxysterol mixture on human macrophage proteome...
2017: PloS One
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