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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078575/molecular-imaging-of-atherosclerosis-with-integrated-pet-imaging
#1
Basma Hammad, Nicholas R Evans, James H F Rudd, Ahmed Tawakol
Atherosclerotic diseases account for nearly half of all deaths and are leading causes of adult disability. Our understanding of how atherosclerosis leads to cardiovascular disease events has evolved: from a concept of progressive luminal narrowing, to that of sudden rupture and thrombosis of biologically active atheroma. In concert with this conceptual shift, contemporary imaging techniques now allow imaging of biological processes that associate with plaque instability: active calcification and plaque inflammation...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062614/myocardial-infarction-type-2-and-myocardial-injury
#2
REVIEW
Yader Sandoval, Kristian Thygesen
BACKGROUND: The development and implementation of sensitive and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays has not only expedited the early ruling in and ruling out of acute myocardial infarction, but has also contributed to the identification of patients at risk for myocardial injury with necrosis, as confirmed by the presence of cardiac troponin concentrations above the 99th percentile. Myocardial injury with necrosis may occur either in the presence of overt ischemia from myocardial infarction, or in the absence of overt ischemia from myocardial injury accompanying other conditions...
January 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062501/p2y12-promotes-migration-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-through-cofilin-dephosphorylation-during-atherogenesis
#3
Xuan Niu, Shu-Lan Pi, Suraj Baral, Yuan-Peng Xia, Quan-Wei He, Ya-Nan Li, Hui-Juan Jin, Man Li, Meng-Die Wang, Ling Mao, Bo Hu
OBJECTIVE: P2Y12 is a well-recognized receptor expressed on platelets and the target of thienopyridine-type antiplatelet drugs. However, recent evidence suggests that P2Y12 expressed in vessel wall plays a role in atherogenesis, but the mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanisms of how vessel wall P2Y12 mediates vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) migration and promotes the progression of atherosclerosis. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Using a high-fat diet-fed ApoE knockout mice model, we found that the expression of P2Y12 in VSMCs increased in a time-dependent manner and had a linear relationship with the plaque area...
January 5, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059849/is-age-an-important-factor-for-vascular-response-to-statin-therapy-a-serial-optical-coherence-tomography-and-intravascular-ultrasound-study
#4
Jiannan Dai, Jingbo Hou, Lei Xing, Haibo Jia, Sining Hu, Tsunenari Soeda, Yoshiyasu Minami, Daniel Ong, Rocco Vergallo, Shaosong Zhang, Hang Lee, Bo Yu, Ik-Kyung Jang
OBJECTIVE: Age-related structural and functional changes in vessel wall may affect the time course of vascular response to statin therapy. In this study, we sought to compare the response of lipid-rich plaque to statin therapy in elderly versus younger patients using optical coherence tomography and intravascular ultrasound. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty-nine patients who underwent serial optical coherence tomography and intravascular ultrasound at the time point of baseline, 6, and 12 months were divided into two groups according to median age: group A (age<57 years, n=35) and group B (age≥57 years, n=34)...
January 4, 2017: Coronary Artery Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057275/anatomic-suitability-for-transcaval-access%C3%A2-based-on-computed-tomography
#5
REVIEW
Robert J Lederman, Adam B Greenbaum, Toby Rogers, Jaffar M Khan, Melissa Fusari, Marcus Y Chen
Transcaval access has been used successfully for over 200 transcatheter aortic valve replacements, large-bore percutaneous left ventricular assist devices, and thoracic endovascular aortic aneurysm repairs. This review teaches how to plan transcaval access and closure based on computed tomography. The main planning goals are to: 1) identify calcium-free crossing targets in the abdominal aorta along with optimal fluoroscopic projection angles and level with respect to lumbar vertebrae; 2) identify obstacles such as interposed bowel or pedunculated aortic atheroma; 3) plan covered stent bailout; and 4) identify jeopardized vascular branches such as renal arteries that might be obstructed by bailout covered stents if employed...
January 9, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049202/aortic-atherosclerosis-determines-increased-retrograde-blood-flow-as-a-potential-mechanism-of-retrograde-embolic-stroke
#6
Thomas Wehrum, Felix Guenther, Werner Vach, Beryl Primrose Gladstone, Sarah Wendel, Alexander Fuchs, Kehzong Wu, Christoph Johannes Maurer, Andreas Harloff
BACKGROUND: Retrograde brain embolization from complex plaques of the proximal descending aorta (DAo) has been identified as a new potential mechanism of stroke. Our purpose was to identify predictors of increased retrograde aortic blood flow indicating an elevated risk of brain embolization from the DAo. METHODS: A total of 485 patients with acute ischemic stroke were prospectively included and underwent transesophageal echocardiography. Blood flow velocities in the proximal DAo were studied using 2D pulse-wave Doppler ultrasound...
January 4, 2017: Cerebrovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041913/a-three-dimensional-in-vitro-model-to-demonstrate-the-haptotactic-effect-of-monocyte-chemoattractant-protein-1-on-atherosclerosis-associated-monocyte-migration
#7
Neda Ghousifam, Hamid Mortazavian, Rudra Bhowmick, Yolanda Vasquez, Frank D Blum, Heather Gappa-Fahlenkamp
Monocyte transendothelial migration is a multi-step process critical for the initiation and development of atherosclerosis. The chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is overexpressed during atheroma and its concentration gradients in the extracellular matrix (ECM) is critical for the transendothelial recruitment of monocytes. Based on prior observations, we hypothesize that both free and bound gradients of MCP-1 within the ECM are involved in directing monocyte migration. The interaction between a three-dimensional (3D), cell-free, collagen matrix and MCP-1; and its effect on monocyte migration was measured in this study...
December 29, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031233/quantitative-intravascular-biological-fluorescence-ultrasound-imaging-of-coronary-and-peripheral-arteries-in-vivo
#8
Dmitry Bozhko, Eric A Osborn, Amir Rosenthal, Johan W Verjans, Tetsuya Hara, Stephan Kellnberger, Georg Wissmeyer, Saak V Ovsepian, Jason R McCarthy, Adam Mauskapf, Ashley F Stein, Farouc A Jaffer, Vasilis Ntziachristos
AIMS: (i) to evaluate a novel hybrid near-infrared fluorescence-intravascular ultrasound (NIRF-IVUS) system in coronary and peripheral swine arteries in vivo; (ii) to assess simultaneous quantitative biological and morphological aspects of arterial disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two 9F/15MHz peripheral and 4.5F/40MHz coronary near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF)-IVUS catheters were engineered to enable accurate co-registrtation of biological and morphological readings simultaneously in vivo...
December 27, 2016: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002517/correlations-between-etiological-factors-and-lesion-severity-in-carotid-artery-atheromatosis
#9
Cristian Constantin, Dana Maria Albulescu, Valeria Carmen Albu, Aniela Raluca Danciu, Andrei Constantin Deaconu
Occurrence of atheromatous plaques on the internal wall of large and medium sized arteries represents a widely spread disease. It is especially found in the elderly, but also in individuals belonging to the 4th-6th decade of life with an increasing incidence. Correlating the main etiological factors with morphological change severity, in conjunction with settling the importance of each factor on its own in generating and developing arterial plaques, has an important predictive role in the evolution of atherosclerotic pathology...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001310/the-association-of-fever-with-transfusion-associated-circulatory-overload
#10
N Parmar, J Pendergrast, L Lieberman, Y Lin, J Callum, C Cserti-Gazdewich
BACKGROUND: Fever is described in transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO), reflecting either comprehensive haemovigilance or an inflammatory pathobiology (such as congestion-associated atheroma disruptions). METHODS: Hospital haemovigilance data (1/1/2010-31/12/2012) were reviewed for TACO cases (frequency and mode of referral). TACO with or without fever (TACO+F/-F) was examined for its association with patient age (as a surrogate for atheroma burden) and product age (as a surrogate for storage-related pyrogens)...
December 21, 2016: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993755/clinical-angiographic-ivus-and-oct-predictors-for-irregular-protrusion-after-coronary-stenting
#11
Krzysztof L Bryniarski, Seung-Jea Tahk, So-Yeon Choi, Tsunenari Soeda, Takumi Higuma, Erika Yamamoto, Lei Xing, Jiannan Dai, Thomas Zanchin, Hang Lee, Ik-Kyung Jang
AIMS: Irregular protrusion identified by optical coherence tomography (OCT) immediately following stent implantation has been reported as an independent predictor for adverse cardiac events at 1 year. However, baseline characteristics for development of irregular protrusion are unknown. The aim of the study was to identify predictors for irregular protrusion following stent implantation. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 900 lesions in 786 patients who had post-stent OCT imaging were analyzed...
December 20, 2016: EuroIntervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983695/validating-intravascular-imaging-with-serial-optical-coherence-tomography-and-confocal-fluorescence-microscopy
#12
Pier-Luc Tardif, Marie-Jeanne Bertrand, Maxime Abran, Alexandre Castonguay, Joël Lefebvre, Barbara E Stähli, Nolwenn Merlet, Teodora Mihalache-Avram, Pascale Geoffroy, Mélanie Mecteau, David Busseuil, Feng Ni, Abedelnasser Abulrob, Éric Rhéaume, Philippe L'Allier, Jean-Claude Tardif, Frédéric Lesage
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases are characterized by the formation of a plaque in the arterial wall. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) provides high-resolution images allowing delineation of atherosclerotic plaques. When combined with near infrared fluorescence (NIRF), the plaque can also be studied at a molecular level with a large variety of biomarkers. In this work, we present a system enabling automated volumetric histology imaging of excised aortas that can spatially correlate results with combined IVUS/NIRF imaging of lipid-rich atheroma in cholesterol-fed rabbits...
December 15, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974932/correlations-between-the-semiologic-changes-and-the-imaging-aspects-in-the-lateral-bulbar-infarction
#13
Cristea I, Popa C
The study aimed to evaluate the correlations between the clinical and paraclinical data in the lateral bulbar infarction, benefiting from the access to the semiologic characteristics of a group studied and the MRI angiography, without a contrast agent, through the 3D TOF technique combined with MIP, as an imaging technique for the evaluation of the arterial lesion. The study group included 20 patients with lateral bulbar infarction, 14 men, and 6 women aged between 21 and 80 years, the mean age being 56, 9 years, who were enrolled in the study in the period 2012 and 2014, following the admission in the National Institute of Neurology and Neurovascular Diseases...
July 2016: Journal of Medicine and Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974178/assisted-living-in-the-atheroma-elderly-macrophages-promote-plaques
#14
Peter Libby
Age dominates as a risk factor for human atherosclerosis, yet the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. A recent report described accumulation of senescent cells in atheromata of hypercholesterolemic mice and provides novel insights into how genes expressed by aging cells associate with the characteristics of human plaques implicated in cardiovascular events.
December 13, 2016: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973331/how-and-when-to-suspect-spontaneous-coronary-artery-dissection-novel-insights-from-a-single-center-series-on-prevalence-and-angiographic-appearance
#15
Pascal Motreff, Guilhem Malcles, Nicolas Combaret, Nicolas Barber-Chamoux, Sara Bouajila, Bruno Pereira, Aime Amonchot, Bernard Citron, Jean-René Lusson, Romain Eschalier, Geraud Souteyrand
AIMS: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is an under-diagnosed entity of acute coronary syndrome (ACS); its prevalence remains unclear due to a challenging diagnosis, particularly in instances of intramural hematoma without intimal rupture. METHODS AND RESULTS: From 1999 to 2014, 55 SCAD (all women, mean age 50.1 years) were diagnosed. Regardless of age, 51 (92.7%) had ≤2 cardiovascular risk factors. Thirty-six were diagnosed prospectively during the latter period (2012-2014)...
December 15, 2016: EuroIntervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942589/interleukin-6-regulates-psoriasiform-inflammation-associated-thrombosis
#16
Yunmei Wang, Jackelyn B Golden, Yi Fritz, Xiufen Zhang, Doina Diaconu, Maya I Camhi, Huiyun Gao, Sean M Dawes, Xianying Xing, Santhi K Ganesh, Johann E Gudjonsson, Daniel I Simon, Thomas S McCormick, Nicole L Ward
Psoriasis patients are at increased risk of heart attack and stroke and have elevated MRP8/14 levels that predict heart attack. The KC-Tie2 psoriasiform mouse model exhibits elevated MRP8/14 and is prothrombotic. Mrp14(-/-) mice, in contrast, are protected from thrombosis, but, surprisingly, KC-Tie2xMrp14(-/-) mice remain prothrombotic. Treating KC-Tie2xMrp14(-/-) mice with anti-IL-23p19 antibodies reversed the skin inflammation, improved thrombosis, and decreased IL-6. In comparison, IL-6 deletion from KC-Tie2 animals improved thrombosis despite sustained skin inflammation, suggesting that thrombosis improvements following IL-23 inhibition occur secondary to IL-6 decreases...
December 8, 2016: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941911/adiporedoxin-suppresses-endothelial-activation-via-inhibiting-mapk-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#17
Hui He, Fang Guo, Yong Li, Fatma Saaoud, Brooks D Kimmis, Jeena Sandhu, Michelle Fan, Dev Maulik, Susan Lessner, Christopher J Papasian, Daping Fan, Zhisheng Jiang, Mingui Fu
Adiporedoxin (Adrx) is a recently discovered redox regulatory protein that is preferentially expressed in adipose tissue and plays a critical role in the regulation of metabolism via its modulation of adipocyte protein secretion. We here report that Adrx suppresses endothelial cell activation via inhibiting MAPK and NF-kB signaling pathways. Adrx is constitutively expressed in human vascular endothelial cells, and significantly induced by a variety of stimuli such as TNFα, IL-1β, H2O2 and OxLDL. Overexpression of Adrx significantly attenuated TNFα-induced expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1, and thus reduced monocyte adherence to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
December 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931557/dedicated-bifurcation-stents-mechanistic-hardware-and-technical-aspects
#18
Sundeep Mishra
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in bifurcation lesions is associated with lower success rate, higher acute complication rates and higher event rates in follow-up. The reason for this higher than usual complication rate relates to the relationship between anatomy, flow, and atheroma distribution in bifurcation lesions. Further, stenting these lesions can be a prolonged procedure and can be technically more demanding. The most common complication is the loss of significant side branch (SB). Main vessel (MV) stenting may enhance the carina displacement and atheroma shift across the SB ostium leading to SB ostium narrowing...
November 2016: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924924/pleiotropic-effects-of-acarbose-on-atherosclerosis-development-in-rabbits-are-mediated-via-upregulating-ampk-signals
#19
Kuei-Chuan Chan, Meng-Hsun Yu, Ming-Cheng Lin, Chien-Ning Huang, Dai-Jung Chung, Yi-Ju Lee, Cheng-Hsun Wu, Chau-Jong Wang
Acarbose, an α-glucosidase inhibitor, is reported to reduce the incidence of silent myocardial infarction and slow the progression of intima-media thickening in patients with glucose intolerance. Here we investigate other impacts of acarbose on atherosclerosis development and the underlying mechanisms of atherosclerosis initiation and progression in vivo and in vitro. Rabbits fed a high cholesterol diet (HCD) were treated with acarbose (2.5-5.0 mg kg(-1)). Immunohistochemistry was used to assess the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Ras, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), IL-6, β-galactosidase, and p-AMPK in atherosclerotic lesions...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919638/influence-of-ezetimibe-in-addition-to-high-dose-atorvastatin-therapy-on-plaque-composition-in-patients-with-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction-assessed-by-serial-intravascular-ultrasound-with-imap-the-octivus-trial
#20
Mikkel Hougaard, Henrik Steen Hansen, Per Thayssen, Lisbeth Antonsen, Anders Junker, Karsten Veien, Lisette Okkels Jensen
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the influence of ezetimibe in addition to atorvastatin on plaque composition in patients with first-time ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction treated with primary percutaneous intervention. METHODS: Eighty-seven patients were randomized (1:1) to ezetimibe 10mg or placebo in addition to Atorvastatin 80mg. Intravascular ultrasound with iMap was performed at baseline and after 12months in a non-infarct-related artery...
November 28, 2016: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
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