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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906915/the-value-of-ct-cardiac-angiography-and-ct-calcium-score-testing-in-a-modern-cardiology-service-in-new-zealand-a-report-of-a-single-centre-eight-year-experience-from-5-237-outpatient-procedures
#1
Chris Ellis, Greg Gamble, Colin Edwards, Niels van Pelt, Ruvin Gabriel, Boris Lowe, Jonathan Christiansen, Andrew To, Helen Winch, Mark Osborne, John Ormiston, Malcolm Legget
BACKGROUND: Computed tomographic (CT) cardiac angiography is of increasing value in several areas of patient management in cardiology. We assessed the ability of CT cardiac angiography to effectively 'rule out' severe coronary stenoses in patients presenting with 'atypical' symptoms and/or an equivocal stress test, which offers a new approach to the management of coronary artery disease. We also examined the use of the CT calcium score test in cardiovascular (CVS) risk assessment. METHODS: From a large single centre (Mercy Hospital) in Auckland, using a prospectively acquired, comprehensive database, we audited the entire eight-year experience of 5,169 patients (7/8/06 to 31/1/14) who underwent 5,237 64-slice computed tomographic (CT) cardiac angiogram or CT calcium score tests (GE Lightspeed scanner)...
December 2, 2016: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888640/chronotherapy-versus-conventional-statins-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-hyperlipidaemia
#2
REVIEW
Jose Manuel Izquierdo-Palomares, Jesus Maria Fernandez-Tabera, Maria N Plana, Almudena Añino Alba, Pablo Gómez Álvarez, Inmaculada Fernandez-Esteban, Luis Carlos Saiz, Pilar Martin-Carrillo, Óscar Pinar López
BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein play an important role in the development of atheromas and, therefore, in cardiovascular diseases. Cholesterol biosynthesis follows a circadian rhythm and is principally produced at night (between 12:00 am and 6:00 am). The adjustment of hypolipaemic therapy to biologic rhythms is known as chronotherapy. Chronotherapy is based on the idea that medication can have different effects depending on the hour at which it is taken...
November 26, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884129/in-vivo-optical-coherence-tomography-visualization-of-intraplaque-neovascularization-at-the-site-of-coronary-vasospasm-a-case-report
#3
Kenichi Tsujita, Koichi Kaikita, Satoshi Araki, Toshihiro Yamada, Suguru Nagamatsu, Kenshi Yamanaga, Kenji Sakamoto, Sunao Kojima, Seiji Hokimoto, Hisao Ogawa
BACKGROUND: Coronary plaques in patients with coronary vasospastic angina have been characterized by diffuse intima-media thickening with homogeneous fibrous tissue, without confluent necrotic tissue. However, coronary vasospasm can trigger coronary thrombosis, and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute coronary syndromes, though the precise morphological mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. CASE PRESENTATION: A 43-year-old man with a history of multivessel coronary vasospastic angina had been treated with long-acting diltiazem and fluvastatin since 2004...
November 25, 2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881291/assessment-of-carotid-plaque-inflammation-in-diabetic-and-nondiabetic-patients-an-exploratory-ultrasmall-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#4
Ammara Usman, Andrew J Patterson, Umar Sadat, Tjun Y Tang, Martin J Graves, Jonathan H Gillard
BACKGROUND: Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO)-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging enables the identification of inflammation within the atheroma, predominantly by USPIO uptake by macrophages present in atherosclerotic tissue. Diabetic patients, however, may have dysfunctional macrophage activity, which may affect utilization of USPIO in identifying plaque inflammation in this patient cohort. METHODS: Fifteen diabetic and fifteen nondiabetic patients underwent USPIO-enhanced carotid MR imaging using 1...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870652/fatty-acid-metabolism-in-macrophages-a-target-in-cardio-metabolic-diseases
#5
Louise Ménégaut, Charles Thomas, Laurent Lagrost, David Masson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent studies have highlighted that macrophages dynamically and autonomously handle all the facets of fatty acid (FA) metabolism including FA oxidation and FA synthesis as well as the synthesis of monounsaturated FAs and long chain n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated FAs. RECENT FINDINGS: Macrophage M2 polarization is associated with an increase of FA oxidation. However, whether increased FA oxidation simply correlates with or is required for M2 polarization needs to be further evaluated...
November 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867291/ubiquitous-nature-of-distal-athero-thromboembolic-events-during-lower-extremity-atherectomy-procedures-involving-the-superficial-femoral-artery
#6
Najam Wasty, M Z Khakwani, Spas Kotev, Catalin Boiangiu, Omar Hasan, Manjusha Anna, Rajiv Tayal, Khalil Kaid, Gail Baker, Marc Cohen
This study aims to evaluate occurrence, size, composition, and clinical significance of embolized debris during superficial femoral artery atherectomy using all commercially available atherectomy devices. Distal athero/thromboembolic events (DATE) are a universal phenomenon in lower extremity atherectomy procedures (LEAPs) due to the sheer volume of atheroma and the thrombus burden in peripheral arterial disease. Some of these events can be clinically significant. We prospectively gathered clinical and histopathological data on all commercially available atherectomy devices by using embolic protection devices (EPD) in every case...
December 2016: International Journal of Angiology: Official Publication of the International College of Angiology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865168/peristrut-microhemorrhages-a-possible-cause-of-in-stent-neoatherosclerosis
#7
Zaven Terzian, T Christian Gasser, Francis Blackwell, Fabien Hyafil, Liliane Louedec, Catherine Deschildre, Walid Ghodbane, Richard Dorent, Antonino Nicoletti, Marion Morvan, Mohammed Nejjari, Laurent Feldman, Graciela Pavon-Djavid, Jean-Baptiste Michel
BACKGROUND: In-stent neoatherosclerosis is characterized by the delayed appearance of markers of atheroma in the subintima, but the pathophysiology underlying this new disease entity remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: We collected 20 human coronary artery stents by removal from explanted hearts. The mean duration of stent implantation was 34 months. In all samples, neoatherosclerosis was detected, particularly in peristrut areas. It consisted of foam cells and cholesterol clefts, with or without calcification, associated with neovascularization...
August 29, 2016: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864166/perivascular-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-coronary-artery-disease-an-autopsy-study-protocol
#8
Daniela Souza Farias-Itao, Carlos Augusto Pasqualucci, Aline Nishizawa, Luiz Fernando Ferraz Silva, Fernanda Marinho Campos, Karen Cristina Souza da Silva, Renata Elaine Paraizo Leite, Lea Tenenholz Grinberg, Renata Eloah Lucena Ferretti-Rebustini, Wilson Jacob Filho, Claudia Kimie Suemoto
BACKGROUND: Perivascular adipose tissue (PAT) inflammation may have a role in coronary artery disease (CAD) pathophysiology. However, most evidence has come from samples obtained during surgical procedures that may imply in some limitations. Moreover, the role of B lymphocytes and inflammation in PAT that is adjacent to unstable atheroma plaques has not been investigated in humans using morphometric measurements. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate the inflammation in PAT, subcutaneous, and perirenal adipose tissues (SAT and PrAT) among chronic CAD, acute CAD, and control groups in an autopsy study...
November 18, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863350/arterial-calcification-a-new-perspective
#9
REVIEW
R Nicoll, M Henein
Arterial calcification is commonly seen in atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes and has long been considered a natural progression of atherosclerosis. Yet it is a systemic condition, occurring in a wide and diverse range of disease states and no medical treatment for cardiovascular disease has yet found a way to regress it; on the contrary, lipid-lowering therapy may worsen its progression. Although numerous studies have found associations between calcification and biomarkers, none has yet found a unifying mechanism that explains the calcification found in atherosclerosis, CKD or diabetes and many of the biomarkers are equally associated with atheroma development and cardiovascular events...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861380/atheroma-of-the-facial-artery-mimicking-a-parotid-gland-tumor-a-case-report
#10
Dong Hoon Lee, Tae Mi Yoon, Joon Kyoo Lee, Sang Chul Lim
INTRODUCTION: Atheroma of the facial artery is an extremely rare disease. CLINICAL FINDINGS/PATIENT CONCERNS: Herein, we report an extremely rare case of an atheroma arising from the facial artery, mimicking a parotid gland tumor. DIAGNOSES: The preoperative diagnosis was a right-sided parotid gland tumor. INTERVENTIONS: We performed removal of the right parotid gland tumor, via a modified face-lift incision. OUTCOMES: Histological examination of the specimen revealed an atheroma of the facial artery...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847396/prevalence-of-pathologic-findings-in-panoramic-radiographs-calcified-carotid-artery-atheroma
#11
Jéssica Rodrigues da Silva Noll Gonçalves, Juliana Laís Yoshie Yamada, Cristina Berrocal, Fernando Henrique Westphalen, Ademir Franco, Ângela Fernandes
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of images suggestive of calcified carotid artery atheromas (ISCCAA) in panoramic radiographs of patients under dental treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 8.338 panoramic radiographs from female (n=5.049) and male (n=3.289) patients under dental treatment between 4 and 94 years of age. The panoramic radiographs were evaluated searching for ISCCAA. The obtained findings were statistically associated with sex and age...
September 2016: Acta Stomatologica Croatica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846344/effect-of-evolocumab-on-progression-of-coronary-disease-in-statin-treated-patients-the-glagov-randomized-clinical-trial
#12
Stephen J Nicholls, Rishi Puri, Todd Anderson, Christie M Ballantyne, Leslie Cho, John J P Kastelein, Wolfgang Koenig, Ransi Somaratne, Helina Kassahun, Jingyuan Yang, Scott M Wasserman, Robert Scott, Imre Ungi, Jakub Podolec, Antonius Oude Ophuis, Jan H Cornel, Marilyn Borgman, Danielle M Brennan, Steven E Nissen
Importance: Reducing levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) with intensive statin therapy reduces progression of coronary atherosclerosis in proportion to achieved LDL-C levels. Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors produce incremental LDL-C lowering in statin-treated patients; however, the effects of these drugs on coronary atherosclerosis have not been evaluated. Objective: To determine the effects of PCSK9 inhibition with evolocumab on progression of coronary atherosclerosis in statin-treated patients...
November 15, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837151/atrial-fibrillation-progression-of-coronary-atherosclerosis-and-myocardial-infarction
#13
Ozgur Bayturan, Rishi Puri, E Murat Tuzcu, Mingyuan Shao, Kathy Wolski, Paul Schoenhagen, Samir Kapadia, Steven E Nissen, Prashanthan Sanders, Stephen J Nicholls
BACKGROUND: Despite atrial fibrillation representing an established risk factor for stroke, the association between atrial fibrillation and both progression of coronary atherosclerosis and major adverse cardiovascular events is not well characterized. We assessed the serial measures of coronary atheroma burden and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with and without atrial fibrillation. METHODS: Data were analyzed from nine clinical trials involving 4966 patients with coronary artery disease undergoing serial intravascular ultrasonography at 18-24 month intervals to assess changes in percent atheroma volume (PAV)...
November 11, 2016: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822890/comparison-of-the-endothelial-coverage-in-everolimus-and-zotarolimus-eluting-stents-in-normal-atherosclerotic-and-bifurcation-rabbit-iliac-arteries
#14
Sho Torii, Gaku Nakazawa, Takeshi Ijichi, Ayako Yoshikawa, Yohei Ohno, Yuji Ikari
The aim of this study is to evaluate differences in stent endothelial coverage among the second generation of drug-eluting stents. Incomplete stent coverage is one of the major causes of late stent thrombosis. Rabbits fed a normal diet received an everolimus (Xience Prime; EES) and a zotarolimus-eluting stent (Resolute Integrity; R-ZES) in each iliac artery, followed by sacrifice at 14 and 28 days after stent implantation. In addition, a group of atherosclerotic rabbits similarly received EES and R-ZES, and were sacrificed at 28 days...
November 7, 2016: Cardiovascular Intervention and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804168/the-fifth-takotsubo-variant
#15
Paul G Bridgman, Christina W Chan
We document the fifth pattern of takotsubo cardiomyopathy, in which the mid-LV is hyperdynamic but the apex and base are akinetic or hypokinetic. This is a reverse mid-ventricular takotsubo. The patient is a 79-year-old woman admitted with chest pain and initially a normal EKG. Her troponin I rose to 5.4 μg/L (0.02-0.03 μg/L) and she developed QT prolongation and widespread T-wave inversion. Coronary angiography showed only very mild atheroma. Follow-up echocardiogram six weeks later showed normal left ventricular function...
November 2, 2016: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792651/comparison-of-vascular-responses-following-new-generation-biodegradable-and-durable-polymer-based-drug-eluting-stent-implantation-in-an-atherosclerotic-rabbit-iliac-artery-model
#16
Gaku Nakazawa, Sho Torii, Takeshi Ijichi, Hirofumi Nagamatsu, Yohei Ohno, Fumi Kurata, Ayako Yoshikawa, Masataka Nakano, Norihiko Shinozaki, Fuminobu Yoshimachi, Yuji Ikari
BACKGROUND: Incomplete endothelialization is the primary substrate of late stent thrombosis; however, recent reports have revealed that abnormal vascular responses are also responsible for the occurrence of late stent failure. The aim of the current study was to assess vascular response following deployment of biodegradable polymer-based Synergy (Boston Scientific) and Nobori (Terumo) drug-eluting stents and the durable polymer-based Resolute Integrity stent (Medtronic) in an atherosclerotic rabbit iliac artery model...
October 19, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789842/senescent-intimal-foam-cells-are-deleterious-at-all-stages-of-atherosclerosis
#17
Bennett G Childs, Darren J Baker, Tobias Wijshake, Cheryl A Conover, Judith Campisi, Jan M van Deursen
Advanced atherosclerotic lesions contain senescent cells, but the role of these cells in atherogenesis remains unclear. Using transgenic and pharmacological approaches to eliminate senescent cells in atherosclerosis-prone low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr(-/-)) mice, we show that these cells are detrimental throughout disease pathogenesis. We find that foamy macrophages with senescence markers accumulate in the subendothelial space at the onset of atherosclerosis, where they drive pathology by increasing expression of key atherogenic and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines...
October 28, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786334/cd70-limits-atherosclerosis-and-promotes-macrophage-function
#18
Holger Winkels, Svenja Meiler, Esther Smeets, Dirk Lievens, David Engel, Charlotte Spitz, Christina Bürger, Petteri Rinne, Linda Beckers, Angelika Dandl, Sigrid Reim, Maiwand Ahmadsei, Jan Van den Bossche, Lesca M Holdt, Remco T A Megens, Martin Schmitt, Menno de Winther, Eric A Biessen, Jannie Borst, Alexander Faussner, Christian Weber, Esther Lutgens, Norbert Gerdes
The co-stimulatory molecule CD70 is expressed on activated immune cells and is known to modulate responses of T, B, and NK cells via its receptor CD27. Until now, there is only limited data describing the role of CD70 in atherosclerosis. We observed that ruptured human carotid atherosclerotic plaques displayed higher CD70 expression than stable carotid atherosclerotic plaques, and that CD70 expression in murine atheroma localized to macrophages. Lack of CD70 impaired the inflammatory capacity (e. g. reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide production) of bone marrow-derived macrophages, increased both M1-like and M2-like macrophage markers, and rendered macrophages metabolically inactive and prone to apoptosis...
October 27, 2016: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765555/magnetic-resonance-imaging-based-assessment-of-carotid-atheroma-a-comparative-study-of-patients-with-and-without-coronary-artery-disease
#19
Ammara Usman, Umar Sadat, Zhongzhao Teng, Martin J Graves, Jonathan R Boyle, Kevin Varty, Paul D Hayes, Jonathan H Gillard
BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of atheroma using contrast media enables assessment of the systemic severity of atherosclerosis in different arterial beds. Whether black-blood imaging has similar ability remains widely unexplored. In this study, we evaluate whether black-blood imaging can differentiate carotid plaques of patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD) in terms of morphological and biomechanical features of plaque vulnerability, thereby allowing assessment of the systemic severity nature of atherosclerosis in different arterial beds...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762264/trem-1-links-dyslipidemia-to-inflammation-and-lipid-deposition-in-atherosclerosis
#20
Daniel Zysset, Benjamin Weber, Silvia Rihs, Jennifer Brasseit, Stefan Freigang, Carsten Riether, Yara Banz, Adelheid Cerwenka, Cedric Simillion, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Adrian F Ochsenbein, Leslie Saurer, Christoph Mueller
Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) is a potent amplifier of pro-inflammatory innate immune responses, but its significance in non-infectious diseases remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that TREM-1 promotes cardiovascular disease by exacerbating atherosclerosis. TREM-1 is expressed in advanced human atheromas and is highly upregulated under dyslipidemic conditions on circulating and on lesion-infiltrating myeloid cells in the Apoe(-/-) mouse model. TREM-1 strongly contributes to high-fat, high-cholesterol diet (HFCD)-induced monocytosis and synergizes with HFCD serum-derived factors to promote pro-inflammatory cytokine responses and foam cell formation of human monocyte/macrophages...
October 20, 2016: Nature Communications
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