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Smad AND Hepatitis

Ajaz Ahmad Ganai, Mohammad Husain
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Genistein is a major isoflavonoid abundantly found in soy. Earlier genistein has been reported to possess protective effect against a multitude of disorders including cancer. Previously we demonstrated the protective effects of Genistein in d-Galactosamine (D-GalN) induced fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) in rats. In present study, we evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of Genistein in rat model of chronic liver damage and liver fibrosis. METHODS: Liver fibrosis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of D-GalN (250 mg/kg BW) twice a week for 12 weeks...
November 19, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Lindsey L Kennedy, Fanyin Meng, Julie K Venter, Tianhao Zhou, Walker A Karstens, Laura A Hargrove, Nan Wu, Konstantina Kyritsi, John Greene, Pietro Invernizzi, Francesca Bernuzzi, Shannon S Glaser, Heather L Francis, Gianfranco Alpini
Cholestasis is a condition that leads to chronic hepatobiliary inflammation, fibrosis, and eventually cirrhosis. Many microRNAs (miRs) are known to have a role in fibrosis progression; however, the role of miR-21 during cholestasis remains unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the role of miR-21 during cholestasis-induced biliary hyperplasia and hepatic fibrosis. Wild-type (WT) and miR-21(-/-) mice underwent Sham or bile duct ligation (BDL) for 1 week, before evaluating liver histology, biliary proliferation, hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation, fibrotic response, and small mothers against decapentaplegic 7 (Smad-7) expression...
December 2016: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Huafeng Wang, Huan Zhang, Yuqing Zhang, Dan Wang, Xixi Cheng, Fengrui Yang, Qi Zhang, Zhenyi Xue, Yan Li, Lijuan Zhang, Luhong Yang, Guolin Miao, Daiqing Li, Zhiyu Guan, Yurong Da, Zhi Yao, Fei Gao, Liang Qiao, Li Kong, Rongxin Zhang
Plumbagin is a quinonoid constituent extracted from Plumbago genus, and it exhibits diverse pharmacological effects. This study thoroughly investigated the effects of plumbagin on thioacetamide-induced acute and chronic liver injury. Results shown that plumbagin increased survival rate, reduced liver congestion and inflammation, and decreased macrophages and neutrophils in the fulminant hepatic failure model, and remarkably diminished liver fibrosis and inflammation in the chronic liver injury model. Furthermore, plumbagin significantly suppress the HSCs/myofibroblasts activation by reduced expression of markers α-SMA and COL-1/3, and reduced macrophage in liver...
October 14, 2016: Oncotarget
Michela Asperti, Tanja Stuemler, Maura Poli, Magdalena Gryzik, Lena Lifshitz, Esther G Meyron-Holtz, Israel Vlodavsky, Paolo Arosio
Hepcidin is the key regulator of systemic iron availability that acts by controlling the degradation of the iron exporter ferroportin. It is expressed mainly in the liver and regulated by iron, inflammation, erythropoiesis and hypoxia. The various agents that control its expression act mainly via the BMP6/SMAD signaling pathway. Among them are exogenous heparins, which are strong hepcidin repressors with a mechanism of action not fully understood but that may involve the competition with the structurally similar endogenous Heparan Sulfates (HS)...
2016: PloS One
Fang Zhang, Catherine Sodroski, Helen Cha, Qisheng Li, T Jake Liang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The signaling molecule and transcriptional regulator SMAD6, which inhibits the transforming growth factor β signaling pathway, is required for infection of hepatocytes by hepatitis C virus (HCV). We investigated the mechanisms by which SMAD6, and another inhibitory SMAD (SMAD7), promote HCV infection in human hepatoma cells and hepatocytes. METHODS: We infected Huh7 and Huh7.5.1 cells and primary human hepatocytes with JFH1 HCVcc; we measured HCV binding, intracellular levels of HCV RNA, and expression of target genes...
September 30, 2016: Gastroenterology
Wencai Shi, Heyang Wang, Xuan Zheng, Xin Jiang, Zheng Xu, Hui Shen, Min Li
Hepcidin synthesis is reported to be inadequate according to the body iron store in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) undergoing hepatic iron overload (HIO). However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesize that hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α (HNF-4α) may negatively regulate hepcidin expression and contribute to hepcidin deficiency in NAFLD patients. The effect of HNF-4α on hepcidin expression was observed by transfecting specific HNF-4α small interfering RNA (siRNA) or plasmids into HepG2 cells...
September 23, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Ganping Bai, Guohe Yan, Guojian Wang, Ping Wan, Ronghua Zhang
Hepatic fibrosis (HF), a wound-healing response to a variety of chronic stimuli, is characterized by the excessive synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins by hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and eventually the development of hepatic cirrhosis. Turtle shell pill (TSP) is a common traditional Chinese medicine used for preventing and treating HF and early hepatic cirrhosis, but its side-effects and the shortage of ingredients limit its clinical application. In addition, its mechanism of action is not clear...
September 9, 2016: Oncology Reports
Hak Chung, Dayong Wu, Donald Smith, Simin Nikbin Meydani, Sung Nim Han
High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity has been reported to result in low hepatic iron storage. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that these obesity-related changes in hepatic iron status could be reversed by decreasing adiposity by feeding a low-fat diet. Five-week-old C57BL/6 mice were assigned to 3 groups: the LL group was fed a control diet for 31 weeks, the HH group was fed a HFD for 31 weeks, and the HL group was fed the HFD for 15 weeks and then switched to the control diet for 16 weeks. The fat mass of the HL group decreased by 3...
September 2016: Nutrition Research
Guangyao Zhou, Wei Lin, Peipei Fang, Xiuzhen Lin, Lu Zhuge, Zhiqiu Hu, Lingxiang Jin
The aim of the present study was to examine the expression variation of the mouse hepatic fibrosis tissue transforming growth factor (TGF)-βl/Smads signal transduction pathway and its correlation with progression of hepatic fibrosis. The promotion effect of microRNA (miR)-10a on hepatic fibrosis and its possible mechanism was also assessed. Forty healthy female 8-week-old C57BL6/J mice were randomly divided into the control group (intraperitoneal injection of 5 µl/g normal saline, twice per week for 8 weeks) and the hepatic fibrosis group (intraperitoneal injection of 5 µl/g 10% CCI4 olive oil, twice per week for 8 weeks), with 20 mice per group...
September 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Juliana Frossard Ribeiro Mendes, Egle Machado de Almeida Siqueira, João Gabriel Marques de Brito E Silva, Sandra Fernandes Arruda
BACKGROUND: Considering that vitamin A deficiency modulates hepcidin expression and consequently affects iron metabolism, we evaluated the effect of vitamin A deficiency in the expression of genes involved in the hemojuvelin (HJV)-bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6)-small mothers against decapentaplegic protein (SMAD) signaling pathway. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were treated: control AIN-93G diet (CT), vitamin A-deficient diet (VAD), iron-deficient diet (FeD), vitamin A- and iron-deficient diet (VAFeD), or 12 mg all-trans retinoic acid (atRA)/kg diet...
2016: Genes & Nutrition
Hai-Li Ma, Xue-Fu Zhao, Guan-Zhi Chen, Rong-Hui Fang, Fu-Ren Zhang
Dermal fibrosis is characterized by collagen accumulation and hyperproliferation of fibroblasts. NLRC5, as the largest member of nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat (NLRs) family, has recently been implicated in the development of hepatic fibrosis. However, the role of NLRC5 in dermal fibrosis remains unknown. Therefore, herein, we investigated the effects of NLRC5 on keloid fibroblasts (KFs) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-induced collagen expression and explored the underlying mechanism...
August 12, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Abdul Soofi, Katherine I Wolf, Egon J Ranghini, Mohammad A Amin, Gregory R Dressler
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common cause of chronic liver disease and is increasing with the rising rate of obesity in the developed world. Signaling pathways known to influence the rate of lipid deposition in liver, known as hepatic steatosis, include the transforming growth factor (TGF) superfamily, which function through the SMAD second messengers. The kielin/chordin-like protein (KCP) is a large secreted protein that can enhance bone morphogenetic protein signaling while suppressing TGF-β signaling in cells and in genetically modified mice...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Hong Cui, Jing Chen, Quan Na
Mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) plays an important role in the chronic carrier state in China. In our studies, the response of trophoblast cell and choriocarcinoma cell to HBV infection regarding the expression of CD133-2 (AC141) was evaluated. Western blot and RT-PCR showed that a high level of CD133-2 protein and mRNA in HTR-8/SVneo cells, but a low level in JEG-3 cells. Lower proliferation and mobility, and higher apoptosis were observed in HTR-8/SVneo cells and JEG-3-CD133-2(+) cells after HBV infection than those in HTR-8-CD133-2(-) cells and JEG-3 cells...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
Alexandra Fullár, Gábor Firneisz, Eszter Regős, József Dudás, Tibor Szarvas, Kornélia Baghy, Giuliano Ramadori, Ilona Kovalszky
Regardless to the exact nature of damage, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and other non-parenchymal liver cells transform to activated myofibroblasts, synthesizing the accumulating extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) plays a crucial role in this process. Later it was discovered that decorin, member of the small leucin rich proteoglycan family is able to inhibit this action of TGF-β1. The aim of our present study was to clarify whether HSCs and activated myofibroblasts of portal region exert identical or different response to TGF-β1 exposure, and the inhibitory action of decorin against the growth factor is a generalized phenomenon on myofibroblast of different origin? To this end we measured mRNA expression and production of major collagen components (collagen type I, III and IV) of the liver after stimulation and co-stimulation with TGF-β1 and decorin in primary cell cultures of HSCs and myofibroblasts (MFs)...
August 5, 2016: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
Eman Wahsh, Nashwa Abu-Elsaad, Amr El-Karef, Tarek Ibrahim
Vitamin D was found to be involved in liver fibrosis modulation through binding to its receptor (VDR) halting many fibrotic pathways. Targeting vitamin D-VDR axis using vitamin D analogs may represent an efficient strategy for liver fibrosis treatment . The study aims at testing the potential ability of the VDR agonist, calcipotriol, to stop fibrosis progression and/or regeneration of hepatocytes in an experimental model of liver fibrosis. Mice (CD-1) were injected with thioacetamide (TAA, 100mg/kg, i.p., 3 times/week) for 8 weeks to induce fibrosis and were treated with calcipotriol (20, 60 or 80µg/kg, i...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Xiao-Lei Huang, Li Zhang, Yu Duan, Yu-Jie Wang, Jiu-Hua Zhao, Jing Wang
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease characterized by fibrosis in the skin and internal organs. The pathogenesis of SSc is not completely understood until now. Recently, many studies have focused on the role of E3 ubiquitin ligases in organ fibrosis. However, the possible regulatory mechanisms of E3 ubiquitin ligases in fibrosis and SSc are not well documented. In this review, we summarized that E3 ubiquitin ligases regulated fibrosis through ubiquitin-mediated degradation of TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway...
August 2016: Cellular Immunology
Yongchen Wang, Zheng Zhao, Yan Yan, Xiaoyan Qiang, Cuisong Zhou, Ruiyan Li, Huan Chen, Yubin Zhang
Demethyleneberberine (DMB) is an essential metabolite of Berberine (BBR) in vivo. Recent reports have revealed multiple novel therapeutic applications of BBR. However, the pharmacological activities of DMB remain to be elucidated. This study aimed to demonstrate the hepatoprotective and anti-fibrotic effects of DMB both in vitro and in vivo. Here we showed that DMB protects against thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice and exhibits a higher safety profile as compared to BBR. Flow cytometry and Western blotting analysis showed that DMB is able to suppress the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and induce cell apoptosis through the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) cascade...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yoon Ok Jang, Mee-Yon Cho, Chae-Ok Yun, Soon Koo Baik, Kyu-Sang Park, Seung-Kuy Cha, Sei Jin Chang, Moon Young Kim, Yoo Li Lim, Sang Ok Kwon
UNLABELLED: : Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are known to have an antifibrotic effect and could be used as vehicles for targeted gene delivery. Decorin plays a protective role against fibrogenesis by modulating the degradation of the extracellular matrix. The aim of this study was to determine whether the antifibrotic effect of a combination treatment consisting of BM-MSCs and decorin on hepatic fibrosis is superior to BM-MSCs alone. The effects of BM-MSCs infected with decorin-expressing adenovirus (DCN-MSCs) on hepatic fibrosis were examined in a rat model of thioacetamide (TAA)-induced cirrhosis...
September 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Takumu Hasebe, Hiroki Tanaka, Koji Sawada, Shunsuke Nakajima, Takaaki Ohtake, Mikihiro Fujiya, Yutaka Kohgo
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is frequently accompanied by iron overload. However, because of the complex hepcidin-regulating molecules, the molecular mechanism underlying iron overload remains unknown. To identify the key molecule involved in NAFLD-associated iron dysregulation, we performed whole-RNA sequencing on the livers of obese mice. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a regular or high-fat diet for 16 or 48 weeks. Internal iron was evaluated by plasma iron, ferritin or hepatic iron content...
June 30, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology
Chang Ho Jang, Kyu Min Kim, Ji Hye Yang, Sam Seok Cho, Seung Jung Kim, Sang Mi Shin, Il Je Cho, Sung Hwan Ki
The adipogenic transcriptional regulation was reported to inhibit transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which constitute the main fibrogenic cell type in the liver. Lipin-1 exhibits a dual function: an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidate to diacylglycerol and a transcriptional regulator. However, the involvement of Lipin-1 in the regulation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling and fibrogenesis in HSCs is not fully understood. Here, we showed that Lipin-1 was downregulated in activated primary HSCs and TGF-β-treated LX-2 cells, immortalized human HSC cell lines...
September 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
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