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Theory of therapeutic action

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286042/the-therapeutic-effects-of-periploca-forrestii-schltr-stem-extracts-on-collagen-induced-arthritis-by-inhibiting-the-activation-of-src-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-in-rats
#1
Lei Chen, Jinsong Li, Xuan Ke, Wei Qu, Jie Zhang, Feng Feng, Wenyuan Liu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Periploca forrestii Schltr. is a classical traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) called Heilonggu (HLG) in China. According to the theory of TCM, it possesses the efficacy of eliminating wind and removing dampness. In clinical practice, it is commonly used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The present work aimed to evaluate the anti-rheumatism activity of HLG ethanol extract and reveal the underlying molecular mechanism by employing an animal model of collagen-induced rheumatoid arthritis (CIA) in rats...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284792/screening-of-the-optimized-prescription-from-suqingwan-in-terms-of-its-therapeutic-effect-on-dss-induced-ulcerative-colitis-by-its-regulation-of-inflammatory-and-oxidative-mediators
#2
Jingxuan Shao, Zhihui Liu, Lin Wang, Zehai Song, Hang Chang, Na Han, Jun Yin
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Suqingwan (SQW), a traditional Chinese medicine used for treating ulcerative colitis (UC), is composed of 13 kinds of Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). According to TCM theory, we investigated whether a simplified prescription composed of the herbs with some functions, would have similar effects to SQW and examined its potential treatment mechanism of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We categorized the herbs in SQW into four groups according to their traditional functions and used an orthogonal experimental design to obtain nine separated prescriptions (SPs) of SQW...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272527/a-network-based-method-for-mechanistic-investigation-of-shexiang-baoxin-pill-s-treatment-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#3
Hai-Yang Fang, Hua-Wu Zeng, Li-Mei Lin, Xing Chen, Xiao-Na Shen, Peng Fu, Chao Lv, Qun Liu, Run-Hui Liu, Wei-Dong Zhang, Jing Zhao
Shexiang Baoxin Pill (SBP), a traditional Chinese medicine formula, is commonly used to treat cardiovascular disease (CVD) in China. However, the complexity of composition and targets has deterred our understanding of its mechanism of action. Using network pharmacology-based approaches, we established the mechanism of action for SBP to treat CVD by analyzing protein-protein interactions and pathways. The computational results were confirmed at the gene expression level in microarray-based studies. Two of the SBP's targets were further confirmed at the protein level by Western blot...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183350/pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-modeling-of-sarafloxacin-against-avian-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-in-muscovy-ducks
#4
Yang Yu, Yu Feng Zhou, Jian Sun, Wei Shi, Xiao Ping Liao, Ya Hong Liu
BACKGROUND: This study focused on utilizing pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) modeling to optimize therapeutic dosage regimens of sarafloxacin against avian pathogenic Escherichia. coli O78 strain in Muscovy ducks. The ex vivo PK/PD study of sarafloxacin was conducted in Muscovy ducks after intravenous (i.v.) and oral (p.o.) administrations at a single dose of 10 mg/kg bodyweight (BW). The serum samples were analyzed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) using a fluorescence detection method...
February 10, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165861/-i-feel-your-disgust-and-relief-can-the-action-understanding-system-mirror-neuron-system-be-recruited-to-induce-disgust-and-relief-from-contamination-vicariously-in-individuals-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-symptoms
#5
Baland Jalal, Vilayanur S Ramachandran
Research has shown that brain regions mediating disgust (e.g., the insula) become activated when viewing others' disgust, a response mediated, perhaps by the mirror neuron system or the Theory of Mind module. In a novel behavioral experiment, we explore vicarious disgust and relief, in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms. Participants (N = 10) provided disgust ratings to self-contamination or watching the contamination of an experimenter; and to the experimenter washing his own hands after the subjects had been contaminated...
February 6, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159880/en-route-to-precision-medicine-through-the-integration-of-biological-sex-into-pharmacogenomics
#6
REVIEW
Lea Gaignebet, Georgios Kararigas
Frequently, pharmacomechanisms are not fully elucidated. Therefore, drug use is linked to an elevated interindividual diversity of effects, whether therapeutic or adverse, and the role of biological sex has as yet unrecognized and underestimated consequences. A pharmacogenomic approach could contribute towards the development of an adapted therapy for each male and female patient, considering also other fundamental features, such as age and ethnicity. This would represent a crucial step towards precision medicine and could be translated into clinical routine...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153641/how-do-antidepressants-work-new-perspectives-for-refining-future-treatment-approaches
#7
REVIEW
Catherine J Harmer, Ronald S Duman, Philip J Cowen
Most currently available antidepressants target monoamine neurotransmitter function. However, a purely neurotransmitter-based explanation for antidepressant drug action is challenged by the delayed clinical onset of most agents and the need to explain how neurochemical changes reverse the many different symptoms of depression. Novel approaches to understanding of antidepressant drug action include a focus on early changes in emotional and social processing and the role of neural plasticity. In this Review, we discuss the ways in which these two different theories reflect different or complementary approaches, and how they might be integrated to offer novel solutions for people with depression...
January 30, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135021/a-conceptual-framework-for-predicting-and-addressing-the-consequences-of-disease-related-microvascular-dysfunction
#8
P Mason McClatchey, Jefferson C Frisbee, Jane E B Reusch
OBJECTIVE: A growing body of evidence indicates that impaired microvascular perfusion plays a pathological role in a number of diseases. This manuscript aims to better define which aspects of microvascular perfusion are important, what mass transport processes (e.g. insulin action, tissue oxygenation) may be impacted, and what therapies might reverse these pathologies. METHODS: We derive a theory of microvascular perfusion and solute flux drawing from established relationships in mass transport and anatomy...
January 30, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131832/treatment-of-obese-asthma-in-a-mouse-model-by-simvastatin-is-associated-with-improving-dyslipidemia-and-decreasing-leptin-level
#9
Wei Han, Jun Li, Huaping Tang, Lixin Sun
Obesity can cause or worsen asthma. Compared with common asthma, obese asthma is difficult to control. Statins are effective serum cholesterol-lowering agents in clinical practice, and they also have anti-inflammatory properties, which in theory are potentially beneficial in asthma. Many studies have shown that simvastatin has good therapeutic effect in animal models of asthma. However, the therapeutic effect and action mechanism of simvastatin for obese asthma remain unclear. Leptin, a satiety hormone, is in positive correlation with total body fat mass and may also play a significant role in the pathogenesis of asthma...
March 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092388/exploration-and-analysis-of-drug-modes-of-action-through-feature-integration
#10
Mingyuan Xin, Jun Fan, Mingyao Liu, Zhenran Jiang
Identifying drug modes of action (MoA) is of paramount importance for having a good grasp of drug indications in clinical tests. Anticipating MoA can help to discover new uses for approved drugs. Here we first used a drug-set enrichment analysis method to discover significant biological activities in every mode of action category. Then, we proposed a new computational model, a probability ensemble approach based on Bayesian network theory, which integrated chemical, therapeutic, genomic and phenotypic properties of over a thousand of FDA approved drugs to assist with the prediction of MoA...
January 16, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068379/the-firepower-of-work-craving-when-self-control-is-burning-under-the-rubble-of-self-regulation
#11
Kamila Wojdylo, Nicola Baumann, Julius Kuhl
Work craving theory addresses how work-addicted individuals direct great emotion-regulatory efforts to weave their addictive web of working. They crave work for two main emotional incentives: to overcompensate low self-worth and to escape (i.e., reduce) negative affect, which is strategically achieved through neurotic perfectionism and compulsive working. Work-addicted individuals' strong persistence and self-discipline with respect to work-related activities suggest strong skills in volitional action control...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993336/toward-a-unified-treatment-for-emotional-disorders-republished-article
#12
David H Barlow, Laura B Allen, Molly L Choate
Over 40 years of development of cognitive behavioral approaches to treating anxiety and related emotional disorders have left us with highly efficacious treatments that are increasingly widely accepted. Nevertheless, these manualized protocols have become numerous and somewhat complex, restricting effective training and dissemination. Deepening understanding of the nature of emotional disorders reveals that commonalities in etiology and latent structure among these disorders supercedes differences. This suggests the possibility of distilling a set of psychological procedures that would comprise a unified intervention for emotional disorders...
November 2016: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859217/feeling-one-s-way-in-the-world-making-a-life
#13
Margaret M Browning
This paper argues for the psychoanalytic relevance of the works of James Gibson and Susanne Langer in explicating the early development of the human child and makes use of this combined formulation of development to think about psychoanalytic theory and practice. From the insights of James Gibson's ecological psychology we can appreciate the embodiment and embeddedness of the child's growing mind within both her physical and social environments. Making use of Susanne Langer's concept of feeling to redefine ecological psychology's perceptual counterpart to action allows us to understand the child's seamless transition into active participation in her culture, as she learns to project her animalian capacity to feel into intersubjectively defined forms of behavior and experience with others...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Psycho-analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858966/changes-in-interleukin-6-levels-during-electroconvulsive-therapy-may-reflect-the-therapeutic-response-in-major-depression
#14
K Järventausta, A Sorri, O Kampman, M Björkqvist, K Tuohimaa, M Hämäläinen, E Moilanen, E Leinonen, J Peltola, K Lehtimäki
OBJECTIVE: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been reported to be elevated in major depressive disorder (MDD) but decreased by antidepressive medication. IL-6 levels are markedly elevated both after epileptic seizures and single electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) session, but long-term changes in IL-6 levels after ECT have not been studied. The correlation between immediate and long-term changes in proinflammatory cytokines and outcome after ECT was investigated. METHOD: Thirty patients suffering from MDD participated in the study...
January 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833896/isolation-and-characterization-of-quinine-from-polygonatum-verticillatum-a-new-marker-approach-to-identify-substitution-and-adulteration
#15
Jaswinder Kaur Virk, Sanjiv Kumar, Ranjit Singh, Avinash C Tripathi, Shailendra K Saraf, Vikas Gupta, Parveen Bansal
Polygonatum verticillatum (Mahameda) is an important ingredient of Ashtawarga and Ayurvedic formulations. Nowadays, it comes under the category of endangered plants due to large scale and indiscriminate collection of wild material. To overcome the scarcity, substitutes of Mahameda are also commonly used in market. These additives are different from the authentic plant by Ayurvedic and pharmacological theory of drug action, thereby resulting in substitution/adulteration. Substitution is a critical issue in isolation and quantification of the therapeutically active ingredients that can be used as markers in the identification of substitution/adulteration...
October 2016: Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811467/genus-epidemicus-are-notions-of-entanglement-relevant-to-the-homeopathic-understanding-of-epidemic-disease
#16
Lionel R Milgrom
BACKGROUND: Patient-practitioner-remedy (PPR) entanglement postulates non-local triadic interaction between patient (Px), practitioner (Pr) and potentised medicine (Rx), resulting in the patient's journey to cure; the in-depth homeopathic interview is considered a major contributing factor in this process. Also, by modelling entelechy, a quantised gyroscopic analogue of the Vital Force (Vf) has been developed. OBJECTIVE: To discover whether entanglement notions explain the mode of action of homeopathy during the treatment of epidemic diseases, when the individualising in-depth homeopathic interview is neither possible nor necessary...
2016: Forschende Komplementärmedizin, Research in Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761807/identification-of-potential-therapeutics-to-conquer-drug-resistance-in-salmonella-typhimurium-drug-repurposing-strategy
#17
Balasundaram Preethi, Veerappapillai Shanthi, Karuppasamy Ramanathan
BACKGROUND: Salmonella typhimurium is the main cause of gastrointestinal illness in humans, and treatment options are decreasing because drug-resistant strains have emerged. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to use computational drug repurposing to identify a novel candidate with an effective mechanism of action to circumvent the drug resistance. METHODS: We used the Mantra 2.0 database to initially screen drug candidates that share similar gene expression profiles to those of quinolones...
December 2016: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687013/becoming-therapeutic-agents-a-grounded-theory-of-mothers-process-when-implementing-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-at-home-with-an-anxious-child
#18
Rana Pishva
The premise of parent-centred programmes for parents of anxious children is to educate and train caregivers in the sustainable implementation of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in the home. The existing operationalization of parent involvement, however, does not address the systemic, parent or child factors that could influence this process. The qualitative approach of grounded theory was employed to examine patterns of action and interaction involved in the complex process of carrying out CBT with one's child in one's home...
September 29, 2016: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648633/a-combination-of-complexation-and-self-nanoemulsifying-drug-delivery-system-for-enhancing-oral-bioavailability-and-anticancer-efficacy-of-curcumin
#19
Mahendra Shukla, Swati Jaiswal, Abhisheak Sharma, Pradeep Kumar Srivastava, Abhishek Arya, Anil Kumar Dwivedi, Jawahar Lal
OBJECTIVE: Curcumin, the golden spice from Indian saffron, has shown chemoprotective action against many types of cancer including breast cancer. However, poor oral bioavailability is the major hurdle in its clinical application. In the recent years, self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) has emerged as a promising tool to improve the oral absorption and enhancing the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. In this context, complexation with lipid carriers like phospholipid has also shown the tremendous potential to improve the solubility and therapeutic efficacy of certain drugs with poor oral bioavailability...
October 6, 2016: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603804/criticism-in-the-self-brain-relationships-and-social-structure-implications-for-psychodynamic-psychiatry
#20
Golan Shahar
An integrative-psychodynamic theory of criticism in self and relationships is presented (Shahar, 2015). My theoretical starting point is the tension between Authenticity (A; our inherited potential, tantamount to Winnicott's True Self) and Self-Knowledge (SK; what we [think] we know about ourselves). Self-criticism, a formidable dimension of vulnerability to a wide array of psychopathologies, is construed as a distorted form of self-knowledge, reducing internal confusion at the expense of widening the gap between A and SK...
December 0: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
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