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Nerve AND immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424453/comorbid-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-and-muscle-specific-kinase-musk-myasthenia-gravis-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#1
Michael Sherpa, Ravi K Metai, Viki Kumar, Tinu Hirachan, Kawser U Ahmed, Sharon J Atkinson
BACKGROUND HIV infections with concomitant immunologically-mediated disorders have been frequently described but there has been little research on the association between HIV and myasthenia gravis. MuSK myasthenia gravis coexisting with HIV is an even a rarer entity and can occur as a part of immune restoration disease. We report the case of a patient with asymptomatic HIV infection who presented with new-onset MuSK myasthenia gravis. CASE REPORT A 44-year-old African-American woman with HIV since 2004 and on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) presented to the ED with complains of double vision and difficulty swallowing for 2 weeks...
April 20, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424337/physical-and-chemical-gradients-in-the-tumor-microenvironment-regulate-tumor-cell-invasion-migration-and-metastasis
#2
Madeleine J Oudin, Valerie M Weaver
Cancer metastasis requires the invasion of tumor cells into the stroma and the directed migration of tumor cells through the stroma toward the vasculature and lymphatics where they can disseminate and colonize secondary organs. Physical and biochemical gradients that form within the primary tumor tissue promote tumor cell invasion and drive persistent migration toward blood vessels and the lymphatics to facilitate tumor cell dissemination. These microenvironment cues include hypoxia and pH gradients, gradients of soluble cues that induce chemotaxis, and ions that facilitate galvanotaxis, as well as modifications to the concentration, organization, and stiffness of the extracellular matrix that produce haptotactic, alignotactic, and durotactic gradients...
April 19, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423034/elevated-frequencies-of-cd8-t-cells-expressing-pd-1-ctla-4-and-tim-3-within-tumour-from-perineural-squamous-cell-carcinoma-patients
#3
Richard Linedale, Campbell Schmidt, Brigid T King, Annabelle G Ganko, Fiona Simpson, Benedict J Panizza, Graham R Leggatt
Perineural spread of tumour cells along cranial nerves is a severe complication of primary cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck region. While surgical excision of the tumour is the treatment of choice, removal of all the tumour is often complicated by the neural location and recurrence is frequent. Non-invasive immune treatments such as checkpoint inhibitor blockade may be useful in this set of tumours although little is understood about the immune response to perineural spread of squamous cell carcinomas...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421195/role-of-demyelination-efficiency-within-acellular-nerve-scaffolds-during-nerve-regeneration-across-peripheral-defects
#4
Meiqin Cai, Tengchao Huang, Bo Hou, Ying Guo
Hudson's optimized chemical processing method is the most commonly used chemical method to prepare acellular nerve scaffolds for the reconstruction of large peripheral nerve defects. However, residual myelin attached to the basal laminar tube has been observed in acellular nerve scaffolds prepared using Hudson's method. Here, we describe a novel method of producing acellular nerve scaffolds that eliminates residual myelin more effectively than Hudson's method through the use of various detergent combinations of sulfobetaine-10, sulfobetaine-16, Triton X-200, sodium deoxycholate, and peracetic acid...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420434/the-neuroprotective-effects-of-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-are-dose-dependent-in-tnbs-colitis
#5
Ainsley M Robinson, Ahmed A Rahman, Sarah Miller, Rhian Stavely, Samy Sakkal, Kulmira Nurgali
BACKGROUND: The incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is increasing worldwide with patients experiencing severe impacts on their quality of life. It is well accepted that intestinal inflammation associates with extensive damage to the enteric nervous system (ENS), which intrinsically innervates the gastrointestinal tract and regulates all gut functions. Hence, treatments targeting the enteric neurons are plausible for alleviating IBD and associated complications. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are gaining wide recognition as a potential therapy for many diseases due to their immunomodulatory and neuroprotective qualities...
April 18, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416717/essential-neuroscience-in-immunology
#6
REVIEW
Sangeeta S Chavan, Kevin J Tracey
The field of immunology is principally focused on the molecular mechanisms by which hematopoietic cells initiate and maintain innate and adaptive immunity. That cornerstone of attention has been expanded by recent discoveries that neuronal signals occupy a critical regulatory niche in immunity. The discovery is that neuronal circuits operating reflexively regulate innate and adaptive immunity. One particularly well-characterized circuit regulating innate immunity, the inflammatory reflex, is dependent upon action potentials transmitted to the reticuloendothelial system via the vagus and splenic nerves...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412394/water-soluble-chitosan-inhibits-nerve-growth-factor-and-attenuates-allergic-inflammation-in-mite-allergen-induced-allergic-rhinitis
#7
Pei-Chi Chen, Miao-His Hsieh, PhD Wen-ShuoKuo, Hui-Fan Kao, Chih-Li Hsu, Jiu-Yao Wang
Nerve growth factor induces nasal inflammation by augmenting the existing TH2 immune response, and this can be suppressed bywater-soluble chitosan, a natural, nontoxic product that provides new therapy for allergic rhinitis.
April 12, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400502/cholinergic-agonists-reduce-blood-pressure-in-a-mouse-model-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#8
Amber S Fairley, Keisa W Mathis
Increased inflammation arising from an abnormal immune response can damage healthy tissue and lead to disease progression. An important example of this is the accumulation of inflammatory mediators in the kidney, which can subsequently lead to hypertension and renal injury. The origin of this inflammation may involve neuro-immune interactions. For example, the novel vagus nerve-to-spleen mechanism known as the "cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway" controls inflammation upon stimulation. However, if this pathway is dysfunctional, inflammation becomes less regulated and chronic inflammatory diseases such as hypertension may develop...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400501/contribution-of-minced-muscle-graft-progenitor-cells-to-muscle-fiber-formation-after-volumetric-muscle-loss-injury-in-wild-type-and-immune-deficient-mice
#9
Benjamin T Corona, Beth E P Henderson, Catherine L Ward, Sarah M Greising
Volumetric muscle injury (VML) causes an irrecoverable loss of muscle fibers, persistent strength deficits, and chronic disability. A crucial challenge to VML injury and possible regeneration is the removal of all of the in situ native elements necessary for skeletal muscle regeneration. Our first goal was to establish a reliable VML model in the mouse tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. In adult male wild-type and nude mice, a non-repaired ≈20% VML injury to the TA muscle resulted in an ≈59% loss in nerve evoked muscle strength, ≈33% loss in muscle mass, and ≈29% loss of muscle fibers at 28 day post-injury...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397326/diagnosis-and-management-of-neuropathies-associated-with-plasma-cell-dyscrasias
#10
REVIEW
Evan Rosenbaum, Douglas Marks, Shahzad Raza
Neuropathies associated with plasma cell dyscrasias are a major cause of morbidity for patients managed by medical oncologists. Because of similarities in clinical presentation and on nerve conduction studies, identifying the underlying disease leading to a paraproteinemic neuropathy can often be difficult. In addition, the degree of neurologic deficit does not strictly correlate with the extent of abnormalities on common clinical laboratory testing. Fortunately, with increasing understanding into the biologic mechanisms of underlying hematologic diseases, additional biomarkers have recently been developed, thus improving our diagnostic capacity...
April 10, 2017: Hematological Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396232/treatment-of-osteomyelitis-a-case-for-disruption-of-the-affected-adjacent-periosteum
#11
J W Hudson, Austin P Daly, Michael Foster
PURPOSE: To evaluate the response of mandibular osteomyelitis treated by surgical decortication with disruption of the affected adjacent periosteum in concert with long-term targeted antibiotic therapy. The hypothesis is that, by removing the buccal cortical plate and disrupting the hypertrophically inflamed adjacent periosteum, the medullary bone will be brought in contact with bleeding tissue and circulating immunologic factors and antibiotics, which will promote definitive resolution...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396177/consistent-induction-of-chronic-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-in-c57bl-6-mice-for-the-longitudinal-study-of-pathology-and-repair
#12
Jonathan P C Hasselmann, Hawra Karim, Anna J Khalaj, Subir Ghosh, Seema K Tiwari-Woodruff
BACKGROUND: While many groups use experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as a model to uncover therapeutic targets and understand the pathology underlying multiple sclerosis (MS), EAE protocol variability introduces discrepancies in central nervous system (CNS) pathogenesis and clinical disease, limiting the comparability between studies and slowing much-needed translational research. OPTIMIZED METHOD: Here we describe a detailed, reliable protocol for chronic EAE induction in C57BL/6 mice utilizing two injections of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (35-55) peptide mixed with Complete Freund's Adjuvant and paired with pertussis toxin...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392428/modulation-of-experimental-arthritis-by-vagal-sensory-and-central-brain-stimulation
#13
Gabriel Shimizu Bassi, Daniel Penteado Martins Dias, Marcelo Franchin, Jhimmy Talbot, Daniel Gustavo Reis, Gustavo Batista Menezes, Jaci Airton Castania, Norberto Garcia-Cairasco, Leonardo Barbosa Moraes Resstel, Helio Cesar Salgado, Fernando Queiróz Cunha, Thiago Mattar Cunha, Luis Ulloa, Alexandre Kanashiro
Articular inflammation is a major clinical burden in multiple inflammatory diseases, especially in rheumatoid arthritis. Biological anti-rheumatic drug therapies are expensive and increase the risk of systemic immunosuppression, infections, and malignancies. Here, we report that vagus nerve stimulation controls arthritic joint inflammation by inducing local regulation of innate immune response. Most of the previous studies of neuromodulation focused on vagal regulation of inflammation via the efferent peripheral pathway toward the viscera...
April 6, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392244/the-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway-an-innovative-treatment-strategy-for-neurological-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Bin Han, Xiuping Li, Junwei Hao
Acetylcholine (ACh), as a classical neurotransmitter, regulates the neuronal network in response to internal and external stimuli. In recent decades, the biology of ACh has been endowed with unparalleled new insights, especially with respect to cholinergic anti-inflammatory properties in non-neuronal cells. In fact, a mechanism frequently referred to as the "cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway" has been termed to describe interactions between the central nervous system (CNS) and the immune system via vagus nerve...
April 6, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389721/chemokines-in-neuron-glial-cell-interaction-and-pathogenesis-of-neuropathic-pain
#15
REVIEW
Zhi-Jun Zhang, Bao-Chun Jiang, Yong-Jing Gao
Neuropathic pain resulting from damage or dysfunction of the nervous system is a highly debilitating chronic pain state and is often resistant to currently available treatments. It has become clear that neuroinflammation, mainly mediated by proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, plays an important role in the establishment and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Chemokines were originally identified as regulators of peripheral immune cell trafficking and were also expressed in neurons and glial cells in the central nervous system...
April 7, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388913/diffusion-mri-quantifies-early-axonal-loss-in-the-presence-of-nerve-swelling
#16
Tsen-Hsuan Lin, Chia-Wen Chiang, Carlos J Perez-Torres, Peng Sun, Michael Wallendorf, Robert E Schmidt, Anne H Cross, Sheng-Kwei Song
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging markers have been widely used to detect and quantify white matter pathologies in multiple sclerosis. We have recently developed a diffusion basis spectrum imaging (DBSI) to distinguish and quantify co-existing axonal injury, demyelination, and inflammation in multiple sclerosis patients and animal models. It could serve as a longitudinal marker for axonal loss, a primary cause of permanent neurological impairments and disease progression. METHODS: Eight 10-week-old female C57BL/6 mice underwent optic nerve DBSI, followed by a week-long recuperation prior to active immunization for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385191/stz-causes-depletion-of-immune-cells-in-sciatic-nerve-and-dorsal-root-ganglion-in-experimental-diabetes
#17
Asa S Hidmark, Peter P Nawroth, Thomas Fleming
Streptozotocin (STZ) treatment, a common model for inducing diabetes in rodent models, induces thermal hyperalgesia and neuronal toxicity independently of hyperglycemia by oxidizing and activating TRPA1 and TRPV1. Following treatment with STZ, CD45(+) immune cells were found to be depleted in sciatic nerve (SN) and DRG in mice, prior to hyperglycemia. Macrophages were also lost in DRG and NFκB-p65-activation was increased in SN macrophages. Immune cells were significantly reduced in both SN and DRG up to three weeks, post-treatment...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377039/novel-presentation-of-rosai-dorfman-histiocytosis-with-a-prolonged-course-of-cranial-and-peripheral-neuropathies
#18
Richa Tripathi, Fatema Serajee, Huiyuan Jiang, A H M Mahbubul Huq
BACKGROUND: Rosai-Dorfman disease is a form of histiocytosis affecting the systemic lymph nodes. Intracranial Rosai-Dorfman disease is rare and presents with extra-parenchymal or intraparenchymal proliferative mass lesions. Cranial neuropathy has not been reported in Rosai-Dorfman disease except when caused by mass effect by an adjacent lesion. PATIENT DESCRIPTION: We describe a girl with Rosai-Dorfman disease who presented with peripheral and multiple cranial neuropathies...
March 8, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367411/multiple-sclerosis-pathogenesis-symptoms-diagnoses-and-cell-based-therapy
#19
REVIEW
Nazem Ghasemi, Shahnaz Razavi, Elham Nikzad
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by central nervous system (CNS) lesions that can lead to severe physical or cognitive disability as well as neurological defects. Although the etiology and pathogenesis of MS remains unclear, the present documents illustrate that the cause of MS is multifactorial and include genetic predisposition together with environmental factors such as exposure to infectious agents, vitamin deficiencies, and smoking. These agents are able to trigger a cascade of events in the immune system which lead to neuronal cell death accompanied by nerve demyelination and neuronal dysfunction...
April 2017: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359740/bilateral-tactile-hypersensitivity-and-neuroimmune-responses-after-spared-nerve-injury-in-mice-lacking-vasoactive-intestinal-peptide
#20
Alessandro Gallo, Marjolein Leerink, Benoît Michot, Eman Ahmed, Patrice Forget, André Mouraux, Emmanuel Hermans, Ronald Deumens
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is one of the neuropeptides showing the strongest up-regulation in the nociceptive pathway after peripheral nerve injury and has been proposed to support neuropathic pain. Nevertheless, the story may be more complicated considering the known suppressive effects of the peptide on the immune reactivity of microglial cells, which have been heavily implicated in the onset and maintenance of pain after nerve injury. We here used mice deficient in VIP and the model of spared nerve injury, characterized by persistent tactile hypersensitivity...
March 27, 2017: Experimental Neurology
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