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Nerve AND immunity

SeungHwan Lee, Xiang Qun Shi, Anni Fan, Brian West, Ji Zhang
Introduction Neuropathic pain is a debilitating condition. The importance of neuroimmune interactions in neuropathic pain has been evidenced by the involvement of different immune cells in peripheral and central sensitization of pathological pain. Macrophages and microglia are the most abundant immune cells activated in injured nerves and spinal cord, respectively. Several lines of evidence showed that macrophage/microglia survival, activation, proliferation, and differentiation require the involvement of macrophage-colony stimulating factor...
January 2018: Molecular Pain
Christine D Plant, Giles W Plant
Schwann cells are the primary inducers of regeneration of the peripheral nervous system. Schwann cells can be isolated from adult peripheral nerves, expanded in large numbers, and genetically transduced by viral vectors in vitro prior to their use in vivo. Here we describe how to use lentiviral vectors to transduce primary Schwann cells in vitro. We also describe how cultured Schwann cells can be used in conjunction with decellularized peripheral nerve sheaths prepared by multiple freeze thawing of peripheral nerve tissue...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Xin-Peng Dun, David B Parkinson
Injury to the peripheral nervous system triggers a series of well-defined events within both neurons and the Schwann cells to allow efficient axonal regeneration, remyelination, and functional repair. The study of these events has previously been done using sections of nerve material to analyze axonal regrowth, cell migration, and immune cell infiltration following injury. This approach, however, has the obvious disadvantage that it is not possible to follow, for instance, the path of regenerating axons in three dimensions within the nerve trunk or the nerve bridge...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Marion Griton, Jan Pieter Konsman
Although the immune and nervous systems have long been considered independent biological systems, they turn out to mingle and interact extensively. The present review summarizes recent insights into the neural pathways activated by and involved in infection-induced inflammation and discusses potential clinical applications. The simplest activation concerns a reflex action within C-fibers leading to neurogenic inflammation. Low concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines or bacterial fragments may also act on these afferent nerve fibers to signal the central nervous system and bring about early fever, hyperalgesia and sickness behavior...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
C G Bien
The paraneoplastic and autoimmune encephalitides are now well-established entities. Detection of neural autoantibodies enables specific diagnoses, provides information on the underlying disease pathophysiology, immunological treatability and the likelihood of a tumor being the underlying cause. This is true for the "high ranking" neural antibodies that have been established in the context of circumscribed clinical images and in consideration of large control groups, have been found in the same way by other laboratories and they respond to immunotherapy...
March 13, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
Rosa de Hoz, Ana I Ramírez, Rosa González-Martín, Daniel Ajoy, Blanca Rojas, Elena Salobrar-Garcia, Francisco J Valiente-Soriano, Marcelino Avilés-Trigueros, Maria P Villegas-Pérez, Manuel Vidal-Sanz, Alberto Triviño, José M Ramírez, Juan J Salazar
The immune system plays an important role in glaucomatous neurodegeneration. Retinal microglial reactivation associated with ganglion cell loss could reportedly contribute to the glaucoma progression. Recently we have described signs of microglia activation both in contralateral and ocular hypertension (OHT) eyes involving all retinal layers 15 days after OHT laser induction in mice. However, no works available have analyzed the microglial activation at earliest time points after OHT induction (24 h) in this experimental model...
March 9, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Marie-Nathalie Kolopp-Sarda, Pierre Miossec
Cryoglobulins are immunoglobulins precipitating in cold condition. They are classified in 3 types according to the Brouet classification and may lead to vasculitis of small and medium size vessels. Vasculitis is related to vessel obstruction by monoclonal cryoglobulin aggregates in type I cryoglobulins and immune complex deposition in type II and III mixed cryoglobulins. This phenomenon is favored by low temperature, especially in skin, joints, and peripheral nerves, or increased cryoglobulin concentration in kidneys...
March 8, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
Chisa Nakashima, Atsushi Otsuka, Kenji Kabashima
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by chronic, eczematous, severe pruritic skin lesions caused by skin barrier dysfunction and T helper (Th)2 cell-mediated immunity. Interleukin (IL)-31 is a potent pruritogenic cytokine primarily produced by Th2 cells. Both IL-31 transgenic mice and wild-type mice treated with IL-31 exhibit AD-like skin lesions and scratching behaviour. IL-31 receptor α-chain (IL-31RA) are also expressed in peripheral nerves and epidermal keratinocytes, and the roles of IL-31 on pruritus and skin barrier have been investigated...
March 9, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Neil H Riordan, Isabela Morales, Giselle Fernández, Nicole Allen, Neal E Fearnot, Michael E Leckrone, Dedra Jones Markovich, Darla Mansfield, Dorita Avila, Amit N Patel, Santosh Kesari, Jorge Paz Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressively debilitating neurological condition in which the immune system abnormally erodes the myelin sheath insulating the nerves. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been used in the last decade to safely treat certain immune and inflammatory conditions. METHODS: A safety and feasibility study was completed on the use of umbilical cord MSC (UCMSC) as a treatment for MS. In this 1-year study, consenting subjects received seven intravenous infusions of 20 × 106 UCMSC over 7 days...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
I Mori
The blood-nerve barrier (BNB) shields peripheral nerves from the blood in order to maintain the homeostasis of the nervous system. In the field of infectious diseases, little information is currently available concerning the BNB. Recently documented evidence in virology suggests that elevated permeability of the BNB by immune cells and the natural absence of the BNB in the olfactory mucosa play significant roles in neuroprotection as well as neuropathogenesis. Importantly, the BNB can behave more flexibly than previously thought...
2018: Acta Virologica
Katherine D Walton, Darcy Mishkind, Misty R Riddle, Clifford J Tabin, Deborah L Gumucio
Efficient absorption of nutrients by the intestine is essential for life. In mammals and birds, convolution of the intestinal surface into finger-like projections called villi is an important adaptation that ensures the massive surface area for nutrient contact that is required to meet metabolic demands. Each villus projection serves as a functional absorptive unit: it is covered by a simple columnar epithelium that is derived from endoderm and contains a mesodermally derived core with supporting vasculature, lacteals, enteric nerves, smooth muscle, fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, and immune cells...
March 7, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Toshio Takahashi, Akira Shiraishi, Jun Murata
Cholinergic signaling, which modulates cell activities via nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (n- and mAChRs) in response to internal or external stimuli, has been demonstrated in mammalian non-neuronal cells that synthesize acetylcholine (ACh). One of the major pathways of excitatory transmission in the enteric nervous system (ENS) is mediated by cholinergic transmission, with the transmitter ACh producing excitatory potentials in postsynaptic effector cells. In addition to ACh-synthesizing and ACh-metabolizing elements in the ENS, the presence of non-neuronal ACh machinery has been reported in epithelial cells of the small and large intestines of rats and humans...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Priyanka Chauhan, Wen S Sheng, Shuxian Hu, Sujata Prasad, James R Lokensgard
BACKGROUND: Peripheral neuropathy is currently the most common neurological complication in HIV-infected individuals, occurring in 35-50% of patients undergoing combination anti-retroviral therapy. Data have shown that distal symmetric polyneuropathy develops in mice by 6 weeks following infection with the LP-BM5 retrovirus mixture. Previous work from our laboratory has demonstrated that glial cells modulate antiviral T-cell effector responses through the programmed death (PD)-1: PD-L1 pathway, thereby limiting the deleterious consequences of unrestrained neuroinflammation...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Y Zheng, T Song, Ll Zhang, N Wei
The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between cerebral ischemia and immune effects. A total of 70 Kunming mice were randomly divided into two groups: a model group (60 mice) and a sham group (10 mice). The model group was divided into six subgroups (10 mice per group) which were categorized according to the following time periods of treatment: 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 5 days. The temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) mouse model was established using intracavitary suture...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Mark J Bucsek, Thejaswini Giridharan, Cameron R MacDonald, Bonnie L Hylander, Elizabeth A Repasky
Stress in patients and pre-clinical research animals plays a critical role in disease progression Activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) by stress results in secretion of the catecholamines epinephrine (Epi) and norepinephrine (NE) from the adrenal gland and sympathetic nerve endings. Adrenergic receptors for catecholamines are present on immune cells and their activity is affected by stress and the accompanying changes in levels of these neurotransmitters. In this short review, we discuss how this adrenergic stress impacts two categories of immune responses, infections and autoimmune diseases...
March 2018: International Journal of Hyperthermia
Antonio Vallarola, Francesca Sironi, Massimo Tortarolo, Noemi Gatto, Roberta De Gioia, Laura Pasetto, Massimiliano De Paola, Alessandro Mariani, Supurna Ghosh, Richard Watson, Andreas Kalmes, Valentina Bonetto, Caterina Bendotti
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects the motor neuromuscular system leading to complete paralysis and premature death. The multifactorial nature of ALS that involves both cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous processes contributes to the lack of effective therapies, usually targeted to a single pathogenic mechanism. RNS60, an experimental drug containing oxygenated nanobubbles generated by modified Taylor-Couette-Poiseuille flow with elevated oxygen pressure, has shown anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties in different experimental paradigms...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Isadora Caruso Fontana Oliveira, Adriana Dalla Mora, Jairo Braga Neto, Ákila Lara de Oliveira, Carolina Harder, Valquíria Miwa Hanai-Yoshida, José Carlos Cogo, Rafael Stuani Floriano, Waldemar Bonventi Junior, Sara de Jesus Oliveira, Yoko Oshima-Franco
Bothrops jararacussu venom's (Bj2015) batch was biomonitored quarterly for one year to assess phospholipase A2 (PLA2 ) activity, immunogenicity, neurotoxicity, and myotoxicity. In silico models were applied to evaluate losses using decay model and recoveries by predictive trend analysis. Mice were immunized with Bj2015. Antibodies were detected by double-immunodiffusion and total protein and albumin were measured. Neuromuscular blockade-induced by 40 μg mL-1 venom solution was carried out using mouse nerve phrenic-diaphragm preparation...
March 2, 2018: Natural Product Research
Devin S McDougald, Kimberly E Dine, Alexandra U Zezulin, Jean Bennett, Kenneth S Shindler
Purpose: Optic neuritis is a condition defined by autoimmune-mediated demyelination of the optic nerve and death of retinal ganglion cells. SIRT1 and NRF2 stimulate anti-inflammatory mechanisms and have previously demonstrated therapeutic value in preclinical models of neurodegenerative disease. Here we investigated the neuroprotective potential of SIRT1 or NRF2 gene transfer using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of multiple sclerosis...
March 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Sushma Bommanavar, Yashwant Ingale, Manjusha Ingale, Sanyukta Ingale
Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous infection caused by Mycobacterium leprae , a bacillus that presents a peculiar tropism for the skin and peripheral nerves. Leprosy instigates various types of clinical presentation and exerts influence on the patient's immune response. The clinical gamut of leprosy ranges from the tuberculoid form (TT) to the disseminative and progressive lepromatous form (LL). Oral lesions are uncommon but, when present, occur in the lepromatous form and are broadly divided into nonspecific and specific lesions...
January 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
Marco Alonso Martinez-Guzman, Anabell Alvarado-Navarro, Vidal Delgado-Rizo, Alejandra Garcia-Orozco, Jorge Arturo Mayorga-Rodríguez, Ana Laura Pereira-Suarez, Mary Fafutis-Morris
Leprosy is a chronic disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae that affects the skin and peripheral nerves. It may present as one of two distinct poles: the self-limiting tuberculoid leprosy and the highly infectious lepromatous leprosy (LL) characterized by M. leprae -specific absence of cellular immune response. The pro-inflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) enhance the bactericide activities of macrophages after interaction with its receptor, CD74. Importantly, MIF also possesses chemoattractant properties, and it is a key factor in situ for the activation of macrophages and in blood to promote leukocytes migration...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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