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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911430/-clinical-presentations-of-herpes-zoster-ophthalmicus-diagnosis-and-therapy
#1
G M Chernakova, E A Kleshcheva, T B Semenova
: Approximately a quarter of the world's population at some point in life is at risk of developing shingles (Herpes Zoster). In 10-20% of cases the first branch of the trigeminal nerve gets involved (Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus, HZO). Ophthalmic complications of HZO are able to cause a significant reduction in visual function. AIM: To study and summarize clinical features of HZO (including the rate of complications and their nature) and to determine the relationship between clinical and laboratory data from these patients...
2016: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908212/are-crh-ngf-as-psychoneuroimmune-regulators-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#2
F Z Zangeneh, M M Naghizadeh, M Bagheri, M Jafarabadi
PURPOSE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects quality of life and can worsen anxiety and depression either due to the features of PCOS or due to the diagnosis of a chronic disease. Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and nerves growth factor (NGF) are the modulator for the actions of the sympathetic nervous and immune systems. METHODS: In total, 171 women divided into two groups: study and control groups. Serum CRH, NGF, and interleukins: IL-1α. IL-1β, 17A, and TNFα were determined by ELISA Kits in both groups...
December 2, 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891521/food-derived-natural-compounds-for-pain-relief-in-neuropathic-pain
#3
REVIEW
Eun Yeong Lim, Yun Tai Kim
Neuropathic pain, defined as pain caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory nervous system, is characterized by dysesthesia, hyperalgesia, and allodynia. The number of patients with this type of pain has increased rapidly in recent years. Yet, available neuropathic pain medicines have undesired side effects, such as tolerance and physical dependence, and do not fully alleviate the pain. The mechanisms of neuropathic pain are still not fully understood. Injury causes inflammation and immune responses and changed expression and activity of receptors and ion channels in peripheral nerve terminals...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886260/mtor-regulates-neuroprotective-effect-of-immunized-cd4-foxp3-t-cells-in-optic-nerve-ischemia
#4
Guochun Chen, Luosheng Tang, Wei Wei, Zhuo Li, Yunping Li, Xuanchu Duan, Huihui Chen
The therapeutic potential of targeting CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) remains controversial under the condition of neuroinflammation. This study aims to explore the neuroprotective role of Tregs in optic nerve ischemia (ONI) and evaluate the therapeutic strategy of Tregs transfer with a focus on targeting the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Intraocular pressure was transiently increased in adult C57BL/6 mice to induce ONI. Mucosal tolerance of myelin basic protein (MBP) markedly increased retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival after ONI through enhanced Tregs suppression...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878436/peripheral-nerve-ultrasound-scoring-systems-benchmarking-and-comparative-analysis
#5
Alexander Grimm, Tim W Rattay, Natalie Winter, Hubertus Axer
Ultrasound of the nerves is an additive diagnostic tool to evaluate polyneuropathy. Recently, the need for standardized scoring systems has widely been discussed; different scores are described so far. Therefore, 327 patients with polyneuropathy were analyzed by ultrasound in our laboratory. Consequently, several ultrasound scoring tools were applied, i.e., the nerve pattern classification according to Padua et al. in all patients with CIDP and variants, the Bochum ultrasound score (BUS) and the neuritis ultrasound protocol in immune-mediated neuritis, the ultrasound pattern sum score, the homogeneity score, and the nerve enlargement distribution score in all neuropathies if possible...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876619/inhibition-of-the-potassium-channel-kca3-1-by-senicapoc-reverses-tactile-allodynia-in-rats-with-peripheral-nerve-injury
#6
Roland G W Staal, Tanzilya Khayrullina, Hong Zhang, Scott Davis, Shaun M Fallon, Manuel Cajina, Megan E Nattini, Andrew Hu, Hua Zhou, Suresh Babu Poda, Stevin Zorn, Gamini Chandrasena, Elena Dale, Brian Cambpell, Lars Christian B Rønn, Gordon Munro, Thomas Mӧller
Neuropathic pain is a debilitating, chronic condition with a significant unmet need for effective treatment options. Recent studies have demonstrated that in addition to neurons, non-neuronal cells such as microglia contribute to the initiation and maintenance of allodynia in rodent models of neuropathic pain. The Ca(2+)- activated K(+) channel, KCa3.1 is critical for the activation of immune cells, including the CNS-resident microglia. In order to evaluate the role of KCa3.1 in the maintenance of mechanical allodynia following peripheral nerve injury, we used senicapoc, a stable and highly potent KCa3...
November 19, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872863/attention-deficit-disorder-and-allergic-rhinitis-are-they-related
#7
Isaac Melamed, Melinda Heffron
The association between ADHD and allergy remains controversial. Our previous findings suggest that nerve growth factor may link the nervous and immune systems. The primary objective of this study was to determine if a combination of cetirizine + methylphenidate is effective in children with comorbid ADHD and allergic rhinitis. We also examined the role of nerve growth factor in these comorbidities. Our randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study enrolled 38 children diagnosed with comorbid ADHD and allergy using cetirizine (n = 12), sustained-release methylphenidate (n = 12), or cetirizine + methylphenidate (n = 14)...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872007/the-role-of-pde5-inhibitors-and-the-no-cgmp-pathway-in-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Taylor C Peak, Ashley Richman, Serap Gur, Faysal A Yafi, Wayne J G Hellstrom
INTRODUCTION: Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors (PDE5i) have been used clinically for the treatment of erectile dysfunction, acting on the nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO/cGMP) signaling pathway. Simultaneously, researchers have elucidated the roles that this pathway plays in the regulation of cell proliferation, tumor development, and progression. As a result, our knowledge of PDE5i and cancer biology has expanded and provides an integration that holds great promise for some, but concern for others...
January 2016: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864046/acute-colitis-chronically-alters-immune-infiltration-mechanisms-and-sensory-neuro-immune-interactions
#9
Melissa A Campaniello, Chris Mavrangelos, Samuel Eade, Andrea M Harrington, L Ashley Blackshaw, Stuart M Brierley, Scott D Smid, Patrick A Hughes
OBJECTIVE: Little is understood regarding how disease progression alters immune and sensory nerve function in colitis. We investigated how acute colitis chronically alters immune recruitment and the impact this has on re-activated colitis. To understand the impact of disease progress on sensory systems we investigated the mechanisms underlying altered colonic neuro-immune interactions after acute colitis. DESIGN: Inflammation was compared in mouse models of health, acute tri-nitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) colitis, Remission and Reactivated colitis...
November 15, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862119/increased-expression-of-nerve-growth-factor-correlates-with-visceral-hypersensitivity-and-impaired-gut-barrier-function-in-diarrhoea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-preliminary-explorative-study
#10
X J Xu, Y L Zhang, L Liu, L Pan, S K Yao
BACKGROUND: Neural-immune-endocrine network mechanism has attracted increased attention in diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). Pre-clinical evidence indicates that nerve growth factor (NGF) mediates visceral hypersensitivity and gut barrier dysfunction, via interactions with mast cells and sensory nerve fibres. AIM: To explore the role of nerve growth factor, as well as mast cell-nerve growth factor-nerve interaction in IBS-D pathophysiology...
January 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861905/attenuation-of-experimental-autoimmune-neuritis-with-locally-administered-lovastatin-encapsulating-plga-nanoparticles
#11
Kelly A Langert, Bruktawit Goshu, Evan B Stubbs
Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) is an aggressive antibody- and T cell-mediated variant of Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS), a prominent and debilitating autoimmune disorder of the peripheral nervous system. Despite advancements in clinical management, treatment of patients with AIDP/GBS and its chronic variant CIDP remains palliative and relies on the use of non-specific immune-modulating therapies. Our laboratory has previously reported that therapeutic administration of statins safely attenuates the clinical severity of experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN), a well-characterized animal model of AIDP/GBS, by restricting the migration of autoreactive leukocytes across peripheral nerve microvascular endoneurial endothelial cells (PNMECs) that form the blood-nerve barrier...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856965/hedgehog-pathway-mediated-vascular-alterations-following-trigeminal-nerve-injury
#12
N Moreau, W Dieb, A Mauborgne, S Bourgoin, L Villanueva, M Pohl, Y Boucher
Whereas neurovascular interactions in spinal neuropathic pain models have been well characterized, little attention has been given to such neurovascular interactions in orofacial neuropathic pain models. This study investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rats the vascular changes following chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the infraorbital nerve (IoN), a broadly validated preclinical model of orofacial neuropathic pain. Following IoN-CCI, an early downregulation of tight junction proteins Claudin-1 and Claudin-5 was observed within the endoneurium and perineurium, associated with increased local accumulation of sodium fluorescein (NaFlu) within the IoN parenchyma, as compared with sham animals...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856318/sympathetic-nerve-repulsion-inhibited-by-designer-molecules-in-vitro-and-role-in-experimental-arthritis
#13
Julia Kunath, Nicolas Delaroque, Michael Szardenings, Ines Neundorf, Rainer H Straub
AIMS: In rheumatoid arthritis and collagen type II arthritis (CIA), sympathetic nerve fibers get lost in inflamed tissue. The process is probably induced by nerve repellent factors like semaphorin 3F (SEMA3F). Repulsion of sympathetic nerve fibers in inflamed tissue has proinflammatory effects due to the loss of anti-inflammatory neurotransmitters. We hypothesized that design molecules like antibodies and specific peptides that inhibit nerve fiber repulsion can ameliorate CIA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two blocking antibodies were used and four blocking peptides were generated using the phage display technique with the targets of SEMA3F and plexin-A2...
November 14, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854511/a-negative-feedback-loop-between-autophagy-and-immune-responses-in-mycobacterium-leprae-infection
#14
Yuelong Ma, Li Zhang, Jie Lu, Tiejun Shui, Jia Chen, Jun Yang, Joanna Yuan, Yeqiang Liu, Degang Yang
The obligate intracellular bacterium Mycobacterium leprae is the causative agent of leprosy and primarily infects macrophages, leading to irreversible nerve damage and deformities. So far, the underlying reasons allowing M. leprae to persist and propagate in macrophages, despite the presence of cellular immunity, are still a mystery. Here, we investigated the role of autophagy, a cellular process that degrades cytosolic materials and intracellular pathogens, in M. leprae infection. We found that live M. leprae infection of macrophages resulted in significantly elevated autophagy level...
November 17, 2016: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854251/nociceptive-trp-channels-sensory-detectors-and-transducers-in-multiple-pain-pathologies
#15
REVIEW
Aaron D Mickle, Andrew J Shepherd, Durga P Mohapatra
Specialized receptors belonging to the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of ligand-gated ion channels constitute the critical detectors and transducers of pain-causing stimuli. Nociceptive TRP channels are predominantly expressed by distinct subsets of sensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system. Several of these TRP channels are also expressed in neurons of the central nervous system, and in non-neuronal cells that communicate with sensory nerves. Nociceptive TRPs are activated by specific physico-chemical stimuli to provide the excitatory trigger in neurons...
November 14, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847128/effective-g-protein-coupling-of-y2-receptors-along-axonal-fiber-tracts-and-its-relevance-for-epilepsy
#16
Elisabeth Dum, Sabine Fürtinger, Elisabeth Gasser, Anneliese Bukovac, Meinrad Drexel, Ramon Tasan, Günther Sperk
Neuropeptide Y (NPY)-Y2 receptors are G-protein coupled receptors and, upon activation, induce opening of potassium channels or closing of calcium channels. They are generally presynaptically located. Depending on the neuron in which they are expressed they mediate inhibition of release of NPY and of the neuron's classical transmitter GABA, glutamate or noradrenaline, respectively. Here we provide evidence that Y2 receptor binding is inhibited dose-dependently by GTPγS along Schaffer collaterals, the stria terminalis and the fimbria indicating that Y2 receptors are functionally coupled to G-proteins along these fiber tracts...
October 26, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846033/brush-cells-the-newly-identified-gatekeepers-of-the-urinary-tract
#17
Wolfgang Kummer, Klaus Deckmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A specialized epithelial cell with chemosensory properties of taste cells known from the mouth has been newly identified in the urethra and linked to pathogen recognition. We here describe its properties and its link to defence mechanisms, showing parallels to similar sentinel cells in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. RECENT FINDINGS: In the urethra, slender epithelial cells with apical microvilli ('brush cells') express bitter and umami taste receptors and the downstream signalling cascade known from oropharyngeal gustation, utilizing it to monitor for bacterial products and bacterial growth facilitating conditions...
November 14, 2016: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834190/differentiated-smooth-muscle-cells-generate-a-subpopulation-of-resident-vascular-progenitor-cells-in-the-adventitia-regulated-by-klf4
#18
Mark W Majesky, Henrick Horita, Allison Ostriker, Sizhao Lu, Jenna N Regan, Ashim K Bagchi, Xiu R Dong, Joanna M Poczobutt, Raphael A Nemenoff, Mary C Weiser-Evans
RATIONALE: The vascular adventitia is a complex layer of the vessel wall consisting of vasa vasorum microvessels, nerves, fibroblasts, immune cells, and resident progenitor cells. Adventitial progenitors express the stem cell markers, Sca1 and CD34 (AdvSca1 cells), have the potential to differentiate in vitro into multiple lineages, and potentially contribute to intimal lesions in vivo. OBJECTIVE: While emerging data support the existence of AdvSca1 cells, the goal of this study was to determine their origin, degree of multipotency and/or heterogeneity, and contribution to vessel remodeling...
November 9, 2016: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832936/feeding-the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-diet-microbiome-and-neuropsychiatry
#19
REVIEW
Kiran V Sandhu, Eoin Sherwin, Harriët Schellekens, Catherine Stanton, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
The microbial population residing within the human gut represents one of the most densely populated microbial niche in the human body with growing evidence showing it playing a key role in the regulation of behavior and brain function. The bidirectional communication between the gut microbiota and the brain, the microbiota-gut-brain axis, occurs through various pathways including the vagus nerve, the immune system, neuroendocrine pathways, and bacteria-derived metabolites. This axis has been shown to influence neurotransmission and the behavior that are often associated with neuropsychiatric conditions...
October 21, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832488/adhesion-gpcr-related-protein-networks
#20
Barbara Knapp, Uwe Wolfrum
Adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (aGPCRs/ADGRs) are unique receptors that combine cell adhesion and signaling functions. Protein networks related to ADGRs exert diverse functions, e.g., in tissue polarity, cell migration, nerve cell function, or immune response, and are regulated via different mechanisms. The large extracellular domain of ADGRs is capable of mediating cell-cell or cell-matrix protein interactions. Their intracellular surface and domains are coupled to downstream signaling pathways and often bind to scaffold proteins, organizing membrane-associated protein complexes...
2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
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