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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346801/early-gene-expression-profile-in-retinal-ganglion-cell-layer-after-optic-nerve-crush-in-mice
#1
Satoru Ueno, Azusa Yoneshige, Yoshiki Koriyama, Man Hagiyama, Yoshikazu Shimomura, Akihiko Ito
Purpose: Optic nerve crush (ONC) induces retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death, which causes vision loss in glaucoma. To investigate early events leading to apoptosis of RGCs, we performed gene expression analysis of injured retinas in the period before RGC loss. Methods: The temporal changes of gene profiles at 0, 1, and 4 days after ONC were determined by DNA microarray. To verify the gene expression changes in RGCs, we enriched RGCs by laser-captured microdissection and performed real-time RT-PCR of 14 selected genes...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346716/neuropeptide-af-induces-piecemeal-degranulation-in-murine-mucosal-mast-cells-a-new-mediator-in-neuro-immune-communication-in-the-intestinal-lamina-propria
#2
Nada Abdellah, Samuel Van Remoortel, Omnia Mohey-Elsaeed, Mohamed-Nabil Mostafa, Yasser A Ahmed, Jean-Pierre Timmermans, Roeland Buckinx
Neuropeptides AF (NPAF), FF (NPFF) and SF (NPSF) are RFamide neuropeptides known to be widely expressed in the mammalian central nervous system, where they fulfill a wide range of functions with pain modulation being the most prominent one. Recent evidence indicates that RFamides act as mediators in mast cell-sensory nerve communications related to allergic disease. Previous work by our group has shown that the expression levels of some members of the Mas-related gene receptor (Mrgpr) family in both enteric neurons and mucosal mast cells change during intestinal inflammation...
January 18, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343258/mass-spectrometric-profiling-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-reveals-metabolite-biomarkers-for-cns-involvement-in-varicella-zoster-virus-reactivation
#3
Maike Kuhn, Kurt-Wolfram Sühs, Manas K Akmatov, Frank Klawonn, Junxi Wang, Thomas Skripuletz, Volkhard Kaever, Martin Stangel, Frank Pessler
BACKGROUND: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation spans the spectrum from uncomplicated segmental herpes zoster to life-threatening disseminated CNS infection. Moreover, in the absence of a small animal model for this human pathogen, studies of pathogenesis at the organismal level depend on analysis of human biosamples. Changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) metabolites may reflect critical aspects of host responses and end-organ damage in neuroinfection and neuroinflammation. We therefore applied a targeted metabolomics screen of CSF to three clinically distinct forms of VZV reactivation and infectious and non-infectious disease controls in order to identify biomarkers for CNS involvement in VZV reactivation...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338928/immunoproteomic-identification-of-antigenic-candidate-campylobacter-jejuni-and-human-peripheral-nerve-proteins-involved-in-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome
#4
Aida Loshaj-Shala, Mara Colzani, Katerina Brezovska, Ana Poceva Panovska, Ljubica Suturkova, Giangiacomo Beretta
Immunoproteomics is become a potent methodology used for identifying immunoreactive proteins. In this study, an immunoproteomic approach based on 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and immunoblotting combined with high resolution mass spectrometry (MS) was used to identify immunoreactive proteins that might be involved in mechanisms of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) development, regardless of their potential reciprocal molecular mimicry. Proteins isolated from C. jejuni and human peripheral nerve tissue (HPN) were separated with 2D SDS-PAGE and subjected to western blotting using serum samples from GBS patients...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336783/bronchiectasis-is-highly-prevalent-in-anti-mpo-anca-associated-vasculitis-and-is-associated-with-a-distinct-disease-presentation
#5
Antoine Néel, Alexandra Espitia-Thibault, Pierre-Paul Arrigoni, Christelle Volteau, Marie Rimbert, Agathe Masseau, Christian Agard, Fadi Fakhouri, Renan Liberge, Mohamed Hamidou
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of bronchiectasis in a Western cohort with ANCA-positive granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) or microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) and its correlations with disease presentation and outcome. METHODS: Retrospective study of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) patients followed at Nantes University Hospital (2005-2015). Clinical, biological, and follow-up data were collected through chart review. Two experienced radiologists blinded to the clinical data interpreted chest high-resolution CTs according to the Feischner Society criteria...
December 7, 2017: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331768/the-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway-an-innovative-treatment-strategy-for-respiratory-diseases-and-their-comorbidities
#6
REVIEW
Mitsuhiro Yamada, Masakazu Ichinose
Over the past few decades, it has been clarified that the nervous system and immune system have overlapping distributions and their interactions are critical in the regulation of immunological and inflammatory responses. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, including the parasympathetic nerve systems and humoral factors orchestrate the immune responses to protect the body during infection and tissue injury. Recent investigations have attempted to clarify how the parasympathetic nerve systems attenuate the systemic inflammatory responses and identified the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) as a crucial target for attenuating the release of inflammatory cytokines from inflammatory cells including macrophages and dendritic cells...
January 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328022/-endometriosis-a-new-approach-to-etiology-and-pathogenesis-review
#7
A Solopova, A Makacarya, E Chukanova
Endometriosis is a dyshormonal immune-dependent genetically determined disease, which appears as an endometrioid tissue that grows outside the uterine. Endometriosis is one of the most urgent problems of medicine. To date, new concepts of the endometriosis etiology and pathogenesis have been developed, but, despite their abundance, there is no unified theory. Genetic and epigenetic factors result in changes in an expression of aromatase, steroidogenic factor 1, and estrogen receptors are suggested to be the main cause of endometriosis...
December 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323138/whole-mount-adult-ear-skin-imaging-reveals-defective-neuro-vascular-branching-morphogenesis-in-obese-and-type-2-diabetic-mouse-models
#8
Tomoko Yamazaki, Wenling Li, Ling Yang, Ping Li, Haiming Cao, Sei-Ichiro Motegi, Mark C Udey, Elise Bernhard, Takahisa Nakamura, Yoh-Suke Mukouyama
Obesity and type 2 diabetes are frequently associated with peripheral neuropathy. Though there are multiple methods for diagnosis and analysis of morphological changes of peripheral nerves and blood vessels, three-dimensional high-resolution imaging is necessary to appreciate the pathogenesis with an anatomically recognizable branching morphogenesis and patterning. Here we established a novel technique for whole-mount imaging of adult mouse ear skin to visualize branching morphogenesis and patterning of peripheral nerves and blood vessels...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323053/roles-of-neural-stem-cells-in-the-repair-of-peripheral-nerve-injury
#9
REVIEW
Chong Wang, Chang-Feng Lu, Jiang Peng, Cheng-Dong Hu, Yu Wang
Currently, researchers are using neural stem cell transplantation to promote regeneration after peripheral nerve injury, as neural stem cells play an important role in peripheral nerve injury repair. This article reviews recent research progress of the role of neural stem cells in the repair of peripheral nerve injury. Neural stem cells can not only differentiate into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, but can also differentiate into Schwann-like cells, which promote neurite outgrowth around the injury...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318796/recurrent-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-following-urinary-tract-infection-by-escherichia-coli
#10
Yoon Sik Jo, Jin Yong Choi, Hong Chung, Yuseok Kim, Sang Jun Na
Recurrent Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rare, immune-mediated disease of the peripheral nervous system. It has been reported to occur at intervals ranging from four months to 10 years; published case studies suggest that 1%-6% of patients who have had GBS will experience recurrent attacks. The most commonly identified infections coinciding with GBS are Campylobacter jejuni, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumonia, and cytomegalovirus, while an antecedent infection with Escherichia coli is very uncommon...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317574/-role-of-immune-related-gtpase-m1-in-cortical-neurons-autophagy-of-mice-with-sepsis-induced-brain-injury
#11
Qun Huang, Bin Chen, Yafei Li, Xihong Li
To investigate the role of immune-related GTPase M1 (IRGM1) in cortical neurons autophagy in mice with sepsis induced brain injury (SIBI).
 Methods: Sixty wild-type C57BL/6 mice and sixty IRGM1 gene knockout C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: a sham-operated wild-type (SWT) group, a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model wild-type (MWT) group, a sham-operated knockout (SKO) group, and a CLP model knockout (MKO) group. Models of mice with sepsis were established by CLP. Six hours of after CLP, the neurobehavioral scores for mice were recorded...
December 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313275/microbiome-immunomodulation-and-the-neuronal-system
#12
REVIEW
Eric Marietta, Irina Horwath, Veena Taneja
Vertebrates harbor both symbiotic and pathogenic bacteria on the body and various mucosal surfaces. Of these surfaces, the intestine has the most diverse composition. This composition is dependent upon various environmental and genetic factors, with diet exerting the maximum influence. Significant roles of the intestinal bacteria are to stimulate the development of a competent mucosal immune system and to maintain tolerance within the intestine. One manner in which this is achieved is by the establishment of epithelial integrity by microbiota found in healthy individuals (healthy microbiota); however, in the case of a disrupted intestinal microbiome (dysbiosis), which can be caused by various conditions, the epithelial integrity is compromised...
January 8, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306937/the-effects-of-stress-and-meditation-on-the-immune-system-human-microbiota-and-epigenetics
#13
Ayman Mukerji Househam, Christine Tara Peterson, Paul J Mills, Deepak Chopra
Context • Globally, more than 25% of individuals are affected by anxiety and depression disorders. Meditation is gaining popularity in clinical settings and its treatment efficacy is being studied for a wide array of psychological and physiological ailments. An exploration of stress physiology is an essential precursor to delineation of the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of meditation practices. Objective • The review outlines a model of interconnected physiological processes that might support the continued inclusion and expansion of meditation in the treatment of diverse medical conditions and to investigate the role that gut microbiota may play in realizing well-being through meditation...
October 2017: Advances in Mind-body Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306322/curcumin-attenuates-collagen-induced-inflammatory-response-through-the-gut-brain-axis
#14
Yannong Dou, Jinque Luo, Xin Wu, Zhifeng Wei, Bei Tong, Juntao Yu, Ting Wang, Xinyu Zhang, Yan Yang, Xusheng Yuan, Peng Zhao, Yufeng Xia, Huijuan Hu, Yue Dai
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that oral administration of curcumin exhibited an anti-arthritic effect despite its poor bioavailability. The present study aimed to explore whether the gut-brain axis is involved in the therapeutic effect of curcumin. METHODS: The collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat model was induced by immunization with an emulsion of collagen II and complete Freund's adjuvant. Sympathetic and parasympathetic tones were measured by electrocardiographic recordings...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301512/epithelial-changes-with-corneal-punctate-epitheliopathy-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-their-correlation-with-time-to-healing
#15
Jing-Hao Qu, Li Li, Lei Tian, Xiao-Yu Zhang, Ravi Thomas, Xu-Guang Sun
BACKGROUND: To study basal epithelial cell (BEC), sub-basal nerve plexus (SBN) and Langerhans cell (LC) density in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with corneal punctate epitheliopathy (CPE) and to assess their association with time to healing of CPE. METHODS: Retrospective study of in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) in 160 eyes from 160 patients with T2DM diagnosed with CPE due to a single cause. Key exclusion criteria included multiple-causes for CPE or treatment with autologous serum...
January 4, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299392/rapid-neurophysiological-screening-for-sensory-ganglionopathy-a-novel-approach
#16
Panagiotis Zis, Marios Hadjivassiliou, Ptolemaios Georgios Sarrigiannis, Alexander St John Edward Barker, Dasappaiah Ganesh Rao
Background and Aim: Pure sensory neuropathies involving the dorsal root ganglia are commonly referred to as sensory ganglionopathies (SG). Causes of SG can be inherited (as seen in Friedreich's ataxia) or acquired (e.g. immune-mediated or paraneoplastic). Diagnostic criteria for confirming SG have been published and consist of a combination of clinical and neurophysiological parameters. The aim of our study was to develop a neurophysiological method for rapid screening for diagnosis of SG...
December 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298542/the-role-of-alpha7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-involvement-of-different-cellular-pathways
#17
Mohammad Seyedabadi, Reza Rahimian, Jean-Eric Ghia
Autonomic imbalance plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The central nervous system (CNS) cooperates dynamically with the immune system to regulate inflammation through humoral and neural pathways. In particular, acetylcholine (Ach), the main neurotransmitter in the vagus nerve, decreases the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines through a mechanism dependent on the α7 nicotinic Ach receptors (α7nAChRs). Areas covered: Here, we review the evidence for involvement of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) in IBD...
January 3, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286468/analysis-of-immune-cells-in-single-sciatic-nerves-and-dorsal-root-ganglion-from-a-single-mouse-using-flow-cytometry
#18
Asa S Hidmark, Peter P Nawroth, Thomas Fleming
Nerve-resident immune cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) are essential to maintaining neuronal integrity in a healthy nerve. The immune cells of the PNS are affected by injury and disease, affecting the nerve function and the capacity for regeneration. Neuronal immune cells are commonly analyzed by immunofluorescence (IF). While IF is essential for determining the location of the immune cells in the nerve, IF is only semi-quantitative and the method is limited to the number of markers that can be analyzed simultaneously and the degree of surface expression...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283518/digestive-and-nondigestive-functions-of-rodents-salivary-glands
#19
V V Ivanova, I V Milto, I V Sukhodolo, O N Serebryakova, A V Buzenkova
Major salivary glands play a role not only in digestion, but also in regulation of other functions in rodents. In this review, we analyzed and summarized the data about the rodents' parotid, submandibular and sublingual salivary glands functions, which is not limited to the production of saliva and action of its hydrolytic enzymes on food in the oral cavity. In recent decades significantly expanded understanding of major salivary glands nondigestive functions. They are involved in excretion of metabolic products, maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance...
January 2017: Uspekhi Fiziologicheskikh Nauk
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283023/neuroinflammation-mast-cells-and-glia-dangerous-liaisons
#20
Stephen D Skaper, Laura Facci, Morena Zusso, Pietro Giusti
The perspective of neuroinflammation as an epiphenomenon following neuron damage is being replaced by the awareness of glia and their importance in neural functions and disorders. Systemic inflammation generates signals that communicate with the brain and leads to changes in metabolism and behavior, with microglia assuming a pro-inflammatory phenotype. Identification of potential peripheral-to-central cellular links is thus a critical step in designing effective therapeutics. Mast cells may fulfill such a role...
October 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
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