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Nerve AND immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150278/a-hypothetical-role-for-notch-signaling-pathway-in-immunopathogenesis-of-leprosy
#1
Héctor Serrano-Coll, Liliana Acevedo-Saenz, Nora Cardona-Castro
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae mainly affecting skin and peripheral nerves. Leprosy has a broad range of clinical manifestations that range from mild (tuberculoid leprosy) to severe (lepromatous leprosy) forms, and are highly dependent on the host's immune response. Among the immune response elements involved in the pathogenesis of leprosy are the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), vitamin D receptor (VDR), natural killer cells (NK), and T cells. These innate and adaptive immune response elements may be related to the Notch signaling pathway, which is involved in immune cell growth, differentiation, and proliferation...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149212/mycolactone-displays-anti-inflammatory-effects-on-the-nervous-system
#2
Caroline Isaac, Annie Mauborgne, Alfonso Grimaldi, Kemy Ade, Michel Pohl, Cristina Limatola, Yves Boucher, Caroline Demangel, Laure Guenin-Macé
BACKGROUND: Mycolactone is a macrolide produced by the skin pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans, with cytotoxic, analgesic and immunomodulatory properties. The latter were recently shown to result from mycolactone blocking the Sec61-dependent production of pro-inflammatory mediators by immune cells. Here we investigated whether mycolactone similarly affects the inflammatory responses of the nervous cell subsets involved in pain perception, transmission and maintenance. We also investigated the effects of mycolactone on the neuroinflammation that is associated with chronic pain in vivo...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147602/gdnf-secreted-by-nerves-enhances-pd-l1-expression-via-jak2-stat1-signaling-activation-in-hnscc
#3
Chengzhong Lin, Wei Cao, Zhenhu Ren, Yu Tang, Chunye Zhang, Rong Yang, Yiming Chen, Zheqi Liu, Canbang Peng, Lizhen Wang, Xu Wang, Tong Ji
Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) functions as a key immune inhibitory factor by binding with its receptor, programmed death 1 (PD-1), to induce immune cell dysfunction and escape of the immune system. However, the mechanisms of PD-L1 expression under growth factor stimulation are not well characterized. Here, we demonstrate a novel role for glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in upregulating PD-L1 expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The expression and correlation of PD-L1, GDNF and perineural invasion (PNI) status were evaluated by bioinformatics analysis of TCGA database and IHC assays from 145 HNSCC patients...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140923/il-4-mediates-the-analgesia-produced-by-low-intensity-exercise-in-mice-with-neuropathic-pain
#4
Franciane Bobinski, Juliana Maia Teixeira, Kathleen Anne Sluka, Adair Roberto Soares Santos
Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) activates the immune system resulting in increased pro-inflammatory cytokines at the site of injury and in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Exercise modulates the immune system promoting an anti-inflammatory phenotype of macrophages in uninjured muscle, and increases in anti-inflammatory cytokines can promote healing and analgesia. We proposed that PNI will decrease, and treadmill exercise will increase, release of anti-inflammatory cytokines at the site of injury and in the spinal cord...
November 13, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137242/immune-profiling-of-nf1-associated-tumors-reveals-histologic-subtype-distinctions-and-heterogeneity-implications-for-immunotherapy
#5
Kellie B Haworth, Michael A Arnold, Christopher R Pierson, Kwangmin Choi, Nicholas D Yeager, Nancy Ratner, Ryan D Roberts, Jonathan L Finlay, Timothy P Cripe
Successful treatment of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)-associated tumors poses a significant clinical challenge. While the primary underlying genetic defect driving RAS signaling is well described, recent evidence suggests immune dysfunction contributes to tumor pathogenesis and malignant transformation. As immunologic characterizations, prognostic and predictive of immunotherapeutic clinical response in other cancers, are not fully described for benign and malignant NF1-related tumors, we sought to define their immunologic profiles...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134359/anxiety-depression-and-the-microbiome-a-role-for-gut-peptides
#6
REVIEW
Gilliard Lach, Harriet Schellekens, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
The complex bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain is finely orchestrated by different systems, including the endocrine, immune, autonomic, and enteric nervous systems. Moreover, increasing evidence supports the role of the microbiome and microbiota-derived molecules in regulating such interactions; however, the mechanisms underpinning such effects are only beginning to be resolved. Microbiota-gut peptide interactions are poised to be of great significance in the regulation of gut-brain signaling...
November 13, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133179/stage-related-central-corneal-epithelial-transformation-in-congenital-aniridia-associated-keratopathy
#7
Neil Lagali, Bogumil Wowra, Dariusz Dobrowolski, Tor Paaske Utheim, Per Fagerholm, Edward Wylegala
PURPOSE: To relate central corneal epithelial phenotype to degree of keratopathy in a limbal stem cell deficient population. METHODS: 37 patients (67 eyes) with aniridia-associated keratopathy (AAK) underwent corneal examination including slit lamp biomicroscopy to determine the Grade of AAK, Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometry, and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) to assess morphology of the central corneal epithelium and subepithelial region. RESULTS: AAK Grade ranged from 1 (limbal involvement only) to 4 (total conjunctivalisation), with progression from Grade 1 occurring after the age of 20...
November 10, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132542/impact-of-inflammation-on-the-blood-neural-barrier-and-blood-nerve-interface-from-review-to-therapeutic-preview
#8
Stephen D Skaper
A number of nervous system disorders are characterized by a state of inflammation (neuroinflammation) in which members of the innate immune system, most notably mast cells and microglia-acting as single entities and in unison-produce inflammatory molecules that play major roles. A neuroinflammatory environment can weaken not only blood-nerve and blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity but also that of the blood-spinal cord barrier. Mast cells, with their distribution in peripheral nerves and the central nervous system, are positioned to influence blood-nerve barrier characteristics...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115915/neuromodulation-in-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Hesham Abboud, Eddie Hill, Junaid Siddiqui, Alessandro Serra, Benjamin Walter
Neuromodulation, or the utilization of advanced technology for targeted electrical or chemical neuronal stimulation or inhibition, has been expanding in several neurological subspecialties. In the past decades, immune-modulating therapy has been the main focus of multiple sclerosis (MS) research with little attention to neuromodulation. However, with the recent advances in disease-modifying therapies, it is time to shift the focus of MS research to neuromodulation and restoration of function as with other neurological subspecialties...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112586/the-role-of-immunoglobulin-in-the-treatment-of-immune-mediated-peripheral-neuropathies
#10
Alejandro Tobon
Immune-mediated neuropathies are a group of peripheral nerve disorders characterized by motor or sensory deficits caused by inflammation leading to demyelination or axonal injury. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) has been demonstrated to be an effective therapy for the 3 most common immune-mediated neuropathies: Guillain-Barré syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, and multifocal motor neuropathy. This review summarizes current data on the rationale for the use of IVIg in immune-mediated neuropathies, addressing mechanism of action, clinical evidence, and practical considerations for its use...
November 2017: Journal of Infusion Nursing: the Official Publication of the Infusion Nurses Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109681/tenascins-in-retinal-and-optic-nerve-neurodegeneration
#11
REVIEW
Jacqueline Reinhard, Lars Roll, Andreas Faissner
Tenascins represent key constituents of the extracellular matrix (ECM) with major impact on central nervous system (CNS) development. In this regard, several studies indicate that they play a crucial role in axonal growth and guidance, synaptogenesis and boundary formation. These functions are not only important during development, but also for regeneration under several pathological conditions. Additionally, tenascin-C (Tnc) represents a key modulator of the immune system and inflammatory processes. In the present review article, we focus on the function of Tnc and tenascin-R (Tnr) in the diseased CNS, specifically after retinal and optic nerve damage and degeneration...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108503/stress-during-development-of-experimental-endometriosis-influences-nerve-growth-and-disease-progression
#12
Marielly Cuevas, Myrella L Cruz, Antonio E Ramirez, Idhaliz Flores, Kenira J Thompson, Manuel Bayona, Michael W Vernon, Caroline B Appleyard
PURPOSE: We have previously shown that stress prior to induction worsens clinical presentation and inflammatory parameters in a rat model of endometriosis. This study was designed to examine whether stress during the development of endometriosis can affect the growth of endometriotic implants through nerve growth and immune alterations. METHODS: Endometriosis was surgically induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats by suturing uterine horn implants onto the small intestine mesentery...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093707/add-on-pyridostigmine-enhances-cd4-t-cell-recovery-in-hiv-1-infected-immunological-non-responders-a-proof-of-concept-study
#13
Sergio I Valdés-Ferrer, José C Crispín, Pablo F Belaunzarán-Zamudio, Carlos A Rodríguez-Osorio, Bernardo Cacho-Díaz, Jorge Alcocer-Varela, Carlos Cantú-Brito, Juan Sierra-Madero
Background: In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection, persistent T-cell activation leads to rapid turnover and increased cell death, leading to immune exhaustion and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. Stimulation of the vagus nerve increases acetylcholine (ACh) release and modulates inflammation in chronic inflammatory conditions, a neural mechanism known as the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP). Pyridostigmine (PDG), an ACh-esterase inhibitor, increases the half-life of endogenous ACh, therefore mimicking the CAP...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082447/impact-of-herpetic-stromal-immune-keratitis-in-corneal-biomechanics-and-innervation
#14
Manuel Ángel Marcos-Fernández, Sara Sánchez Tabernero, Jose María Herreras, David José Galarreta
PURPOSE: To study corneal innervation in eyes with history of herpetic keratitis and its correlation with corneal sensitivity and biomechanical properties. METHODS: A total of 56 eyes were included, of which 16 had a history of unilateral immune stromal herpetic keratitis, 16 were their contralateral eyes, and 20 were healthy controls. Structural analysis of corneal nerve plexus was performed by confocal microscopy. Biomechanical properties were measured with the Ocular Response Analyzer...
October 29, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081600/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-a-multisystem-pathology-insights-into-the-role-of-tnf%C3%AE
#15
REVIEW
Massimo Tortarolo, Daniele Lo Coco, Pietro Veglianese, Antonio Vallarola, Maria Teresa Giordana, Gabriella Marcon, Ettore Beghi, Marco Poloni, Michael J Strong, Anand M Iyer, Eleonora Aronica, Caterina Bendotti
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is considered a multifactorial, multisystem disease in which inflammation and the immune system play important roles in development and progression. The pleiotropic cytokine TNFα is one of the major players governing the inflammation in the central nervous system and peripheral districts such as the neuromuscular and immune system. Changes in TNFα levels are reported in blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and nerve tissues of ALS patients and animal models. However, whether they play a detrimental or protective role on the disease progression is still not clear...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080793/chemokines-and-cytokines-on-the-neuroimmunoaxis-inner-ear-neurotrophic-cytokines-in-development-and-disease-prospects-for-repair
#16
REVIEW
Kate F Barald, Yu-Chi Shen, Lynne M Bianchi
The earliest stages of neuronal and sensory cell development in vertebrate sensory organs depend on "inflammatory" immune system neurotrophic cytokines/chemokines. Although classical nerve growth factors, brain-derived neurotrophic factors and glial growth factors play critical roles at various stages, the earliest directive roles belong to immune system cytokines. In frogs, fishes, birds and mammals, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) and RANTES, components of the "otocyst-derived factor", are involved in sorting, morphogenesis, providing directional neuronal outgrowth cues as well as survival factors for both neurons and sensory cells...
October 25, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079271/effects-of-neuro-immuno-modulation-on-healing-of-wound-combined-with-local-radiation-injury-in-rats
#17
Qiong Ma, Jin-Ling Cai, Xiu-Jie Pan, Li Du, Xiao-Yun Yang, Yong-Xue Liu, Qing-Lin Zhang, Yu-Fang Cui
PURPOSE: To investigate effects of neuro-immuno-modulation on wound healing by observing changes of cytokines and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hormones in acute stress reaction in rats with wound and combined local radiation injury. METHODS: Sixty female Wistar rats (weighting 200 ± 20 g) were randomly divided into normal control group, wound group and combined wound-local radiation (CWR) group (25 Gy local radiation post wound), 20 rats in each group...
September 23, 2017: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077773/open-housing-drives-the-expression-of-immune-response-genes-in-the-nasal-mucosa-but-not-the-olfactory-bulb
#18
Carolin Piotrowski, Vera Lede, Anne Butthof, Nicole Kaiser, Petra G Hirrlinger, Matthias H Tschöp, Torsten Schöneberg, Ingo Bechmann
Nasal mucosa and olfactory bulb are separated by the cribriform plate which is perforated by olfactory nerves. We have previously demonstrated that the cribriform plate is permissive for T cells and monocytes and that viruses can enter the bulb upon intranasal injection by axonal transportation. Therefore, we hypothesized that nasal mucosa and olfactory bulb are equipped to deal with constant infectious threats. To detect genes involved in this process, we compared gene expression in nasal mucosa and bulb of mice kept under specific pathogen free (SPF) conditions to gene expression of mice kept on non-SPF conditions using RNA deep sequencing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073905/therapeutic-application-of-t-regulatory-cells-in-composite-tissue-allotransplantation
#19
REVIEW
Jeong-Hee Yang, Seok-Chan Eun
With growing number of cases in recent years, composite tissue allotransplantation (CTA) has been improving the quality of life of patient who seeks reconstruction and repair of damaged tissues. Composite tissue allografts are heterogeneous. They are composed of a variety of tissue types, including skin, muscle, vessel, bone, bone marrow, lymph nodes, nerve, and tendon. As a primary target of CTA, skin has high antigenicity with a rich repertoire of resident cells that play pivotal roles in immune surveillance...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073825/myasthenia-gravis-and-chronic-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyneuropathy-in-the-same-patient-a-case-report
#20
Weiwei Quan, Junhui Xia, Qiuling Tong, Jie Lin, Xiaolu Zheng, Xuezhi Yang, Dewei Xie, Yiyun Weng, Xu Zhang
We reported a misdiagnosed case of a 66-year-old man who concomitantly developed chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and myasthenia gravis (MG), which was rarely reported. This man presented with chronic progressive sensory symptoms, flaccid tetraparesis, areflexia and protein-cell dissociation of cerebrospinal fluid. Nerve conduction study was indicative of demyelinating neuropathy. He was suspected as CIDP and treated with high-dose glucocorticoids. However, his condition worsened. Four months later, he was admitted and was diagnosed as combination of CIDP and MG...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
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