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avian medicine

Patrick D Slaine, James G Ackford, Andrew M Kropinski, Robert A Kozak, Peter J Krell, Éva Nagy
Fowl aviadenoviruses, many of which are of importance in veterinary medicine, are classified into 5 species. In this study, a pathogenic isolate and a nonpathogenic isolate of fowl aviadenovirus serotype 11 (FAdV-11) of species Fowl aviadenovirus D were characterized. Growth rates were analyzed for the 2 isolates, showing notable differences. The complete genomic sequences of the viruses were fully determined and were analyzed. The genomes of the 2 isolates showed 98.1% sequence identity and revealed 6 nonsynonymous mutations between the Ontario isolates...
December 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Yong Yang, Han Cheng, Hui Yan, Peng-Zhan Wang, Rong Rong, Ying-Ying Zhang, Cheng-Bo Zhang, Rui-Kun Du, Li-Jun Rong
Emerging viruses such as Ebola virus (EBOV), Lassa virus (LASV), and avian influenza virus H5N1 (AIV) are global health concerns. Since there is very limited options (either vaccine or specific therapy) approved for humans against these viruses, there is an urgent need to develop prophylactic and therapeutic treatments. Previously we reported a high-throughput screening (HTS) protocol to identify entry inhibitors for three highly pathogenic viruses (EBOV, LASV, and AIV) using a human immunodeficiency virus-based pseudotyping platform which allows us to perform the screening in a BSL-2 facility...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Irene A Veladiano, Tommaso Banzato, Luca Bellini, Alessandro Montani, Salvatore Catania, Alessandro Zotti
BACKGROUND: The increasing popularity gained by pet birds over recent decades has highlighted the role of avian medicine and surgery in the global veterinary scenario; such a need for speciality avian medical practice reflects the rising expectation for high-standard diagnostic imaging procedures. The aim of this study is to provide an atlas of matched anatomical cross-sections and contrast-enhanced CT images of the coelomic cavity in three highly diffused psittacine species. RESULTS: Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic studies of the coelomic cavity were performed in 5 blue-and-gold macaws, 4 African grey parrots and 6 monk parakeets by means of a 4-multidetector-row CT scanner...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Jennifer J Kilburn, Sherry K Cox, Kay A Backues
Antibiotic usage is a vital component of veterinary medicine but the unique anatomy of some species can make administration difficult. The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of ceftiofur crystalline free acid (CCFA), a long-acting cephalosporin antibiotic, after parenteral administration in American flamingos ( Phoenicopterus ruber ). A dose of 10 mg/kg of CCFA was administered intramuscularly to 11 birds and blood was collected at various time points from 0 to 192 hr. Pharmacokinetic parameters for ceftiofur equivalents were determined and reached levels above minimum inhibitory concentrations of various bacterial organisms in other avian species through 96 hr in 9/11 birds...
June 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Yuan-Liang Xue, Xiang-Qi Meng, Long-Jun Ma, Zhen Yuan
Plumbagin, a naphthoquinone constituent of Plumbago zeylanica L. (Plumbaginaceae) is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine as an antifungal, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory agent. Plumbagin is known to exhibit proapoptotic, antiangiogenic and antimetastatic effects in cancer cells. The transcriptional co-factor four and a half LIM domains 2 (FHL2) is a multifunctional adaptor protein that is involved in the regulation of gene expression, signal transduction and cell proliferation and differentiation, and also acts as a tumor suppressor or oncoprotein depending on the tissue microenvironment...
August 2016: Oncology Letters
Heng-Li Chen, Pei-Yi Su, Chiaho Shih
We previously identified a novel antimicrobial peptide with a broad spectrum bactericidal activity from human hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein (HBc) arginine-rich domain (ARD). We compared the antimicrobial activities of HBcARD peptides from different hepadnaviruses which share similar amino acid sequences. In general, mammalian HBcARD peptides exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity than avian peptides. Using the strategy of D-amino acid substitutions, we improved the antimicrobial efficacy of human HBcARD peptide...
May 30, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Hiroyuki Inagawa, Yutaro Kobayashi, Chie Kohchi, Ran Zhang, Yasuhiro Shibasaki, Gen-Ichiro Soma
BACKGROUND/AIM: Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is involved in the activation of the innate immune responses on monocytes/macrophages in vitro, and by intravenous injection. Although small quantities of LPS are usually found in traditional Chinese medicines, vegetables and fruits, the mode of action of orally administered LPS is still unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: LPS derived from Pantoea agglomerans (LPSp) was orally administered to C3H/HeN or C3H/HeJ mice ad libitum...
May 2016: In Vivo
Cicero Lee-Tian Chang, Cheng-Ying Yang, Thangarasu Muthamilselvan, Wen-Chin Yang
Eimeriosis is a severe protozoan disease in poultry. Because of increasing concern about drug residue and drug resistance with the use of anticoccidial drugs, natural products are emerging as an alternative and complementary approach to control avian eimeriosis. Our previous publication showed that feed supplemented with B. pilosa (BP) was effective at combating chicken eimeriosis in experimental settings. However, its efficacy against chicken eimeriosis under field conditions is not known. Here, we investigated the efficacy of BP against eimeriosis on an organic chicken farm...
2016: Scientific Reports
Ramon Gist, Pia Daniel, Andrew Grock, Chou-Jui Lin, Clarence Bryant, Stephan Kohlhoff, Patricia Roblin, Bonnie Arquilla
UNLABELLED: Introduction The Medical Reserve Corps (MRC) is a national network of community-based volunteer groups created in 2002 by the Office of the United States Surgeon General (Rockville, Maryland USA) to augment the nation's ability to respond to medical and public health emergencies. However, there is little evidence-based literature available to guide hospitals on the optimal use of medical volunteers and hesitancy on the part of hospitals to use them. Hypothesis/Problem This study sought to determine how MRC volunteers can be used in hospital-based disasters through their participation in a full-scale exercise...
June 2016: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Christina D Hildreth
Small animal veterinary hospitals will have exotic animal emergencies. Preparing the hospital space, equipment, and staff will provide optimal exotic animal emergency medicine and care. A well-gathered history can be more valuable in exotic pet medicine than most diagnostics. A gentle, well-planned approach, combined with common sense and focused observational skills, is necessary for avian and exotic patients.
May 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
L Lan, B Zuo, H Ding, Y Huang, X Chen, A Du
The traditional Chinese medicinal plant Brucea javanica has received much attention for its significant antiprotozoal effects in recent years; however, little is known about its potential anticoccidial functions. In the present study, a series of experiments was conducted to investigate the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of ethanol extract from B. javanica on coccidiosis induced by Eimeria tenella in broiler chickens. Chickens infected with E. tenella were treated with B. javanica extract and compared either with broilers treated with the anticoccidial halofuginone hydrobromide (Stenorol) or with control groups that consisted of infected-unmedicated and uninfected-unmedicated broilers...
April 2016: Poultry Science
Asisa Volz, Robert Fux, Martin C Langenmayer, Gerd Sutter
Poxviruses as expression vectors are widely used in medical research for the development of recombinant vaccines and molecular therapies. Here we review recent accomplishments in vaccine research using recombinant modified vaccinia virus ankara (MVA). MVA is a highly attenuated vaccinia virus strain that originated from serial tissue culture passage in chicken embryo fibroblasts more than 40 years ago. Growth adaptation to avian host cells caused deletions and mutations in the viral genome affecting about 15% of the original genetic information...
November 2015: Berliner und Münchener Tierärztliche Wochenschrift
Yu A Desheva, T A Smolonogina, L G Rudenko
In this work, we examined the reassortant influenza virus strain A/17/Quail/Hong Kong/97/84 (H9N2) prepared at the Virology Department, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. The A/ Leningrad/134/17 (H2N2)-based vaccine candidate contained hemagglutinin and the neuraminidase from the nonpathogenic avian influenza A virus A(H9N2) of the G1 antigenic lineage. The vaccine candidate showed the ts-properties and cold adaptation. When administered intranasally to mice, the vaccine strain A(H9N2) was attenuated...
2015: Voprosy Virusologii
Zhong-Wei Zhang, Xiao-Chao Xu, Ting Liu, Shu Yuan
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a crucial role in the inflammatory response and cytokine outbreak, such as during virus infections, diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, antioxidant is an important medicine to ROS-related diseases. For example, ascorbic acid (vitamin C, VC) was suggested as the candidate antioxidant to treat multiple diseases. However, long-term use of high-dose VC causes many side effects. In this review, we compare and analyze all kinds of mitochondrion-permeable antioxidants, including edaravone, idebenone, α-Lipoic acid, carotenoids, vitamin E, and coenzyme Q10, and mitochondria-targeted antioxidants MitoQ and SkQ and propose astaxanthin (a special carotenoid) to be the best antioxidant for ROS-burst-mediated acute diseases, like avian influenza infection and ischemia-reperfusion...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Liqing Chen, Juan Zhang, Hongxiang Sun
BACKGROUND: The larvae of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) have been used traditionally for malnutritional stagnation, decubital necrosis, osteomyelitis, ecthyma and lip scald and also to treat coma and gastric cancer in the traditional Chinese medicine. Its immunomodulatory effects in naïve mice in relation to the traditional uses were also reported. However, the immunological adjuvant potentials of this insect have not yet been studied. METHODS: The peptide fraction from the larvae of Musca domestica L...
2015: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Masahiro Ishikane, Hirofumi Kato, Kunio Kawabata, Hiroaki Ito, Atsuhiro Kanayama, Tamano Matsui, Kazunori Oishi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2015: Nihon Naika Gakkai Zasshi. the Journal of the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine
Alex Akira Nakamura, Marcelo Vasconcelos Meireles
Cryptosporidiosis is one of the main protozoan infections in birds. It manifests as either a respiratory or a digestive illness, and it affects a very large number of avian species across several continents. The aim of this review is to report on the main results of studies on cryptosporidiosis among birds and the importance of these results to veterinary medicine and public health.
July 2015: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
Munazza Fatima, Najam-Us-Sahar Sadaf Zaidi, Deeba Amraiz, Farhan Afzal
Nanoparticles have wide-scale applications in various areas, including medicine, chemistry, electronics, and energy generation. Several physical, biological, and chemical methods have been used for synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using plants provide advantages over other methods as it is easy, efficient, and eco-friendly. Nanoparticles have been extensively studied as potential antimicrobials to target pathogenic and multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Their applications recently extended to development of antivirals to inhibit viral infections...
January 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Sharman M Hoppes, Janice D Boyd, Donald J Brightsmith
For biochemical analysis with a point-of-care biochemical analyzer, standard procedure is to analyze the sample as rapidly as possible (<1 hour) after venipuncture to minimize any changes in analyte concentrations that might occur over time. However, under some circumstances, such as when collecting blood at remote field sites, a longer delay may be unavoidable. This study evaluates the effect of delayed analysis time under unrefrigerated conditions on avian (psittacine) biochemical analyte concentrations obtained with the VetScan VS2 using Avian/Reptilian Profile Plus rotors...
September 2015: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Krista A Keller, David Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, Mark J Acierno, Hugues Beaufrère, Kristin M Sinclair, Sean D Owens, Joanne Paul-Murphy, Thomas N Tully
Thromboelastography (TEG) provides a global assessment of coagulation, including the rate of clot initiation, clot kinetics, achievement of maximum clot strength, and fibrinolysis. Thromboelastography (TEG) is used with increasing frequency in the field of veterinary medicine, although its usefulness in avian species has not been adequately explored. The purpose of this preliminary study was to assess the applicability of TEG in psittacine birds. Kaolin-activated TEG was used to analyze citrated whole blood collected routinely from 8 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis )...
September 2015: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
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