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avian medicine

Maureen Murray, Jianhua Guo, Ian Tizard, Samuel Jennings, H L Shivaprasad, Susan Payne, Julie C Ellis, Arnaud J Van Wettere, Kathleen M O'Brien
During the winter of 2013-14, 22 Canada geese ( Branta canadensis ) were admitted to the Wildlife Clinic at the Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University with nonspecific neurologic abnormalities and emaciation. Five of these geese, along with three geese that were submitted dead, were evaluated via histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) for bornaviruses. Histopathologically, six of the eight birds had lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis. One bird, which also had encephalitis, had a dilated esophagus...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Gediminas Valkiūnas, Tatjana A Iezhova
BACKGROUND: Avian malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) and related haemosporidians (Haemosporida) are responsible for diseases which can be severe and even lethal in avian hosts. These parasites cause not only blood pathology, but also damage various organs due to extensive exo-erythrocytic development all over the body, which is not the case during Plasmodium infections in mammals. However, exo-erythrocytic development (tissue merogony or schizogony) remains the most poorly investigated part of life cycle in all groups of wildlife haemosporidian parasites...
March 3, 2017: Malaria Journal
Daniel Calvo Carrasco, Mikel Sabater González
Backyard poultry and other commonly kept fowl species are often kept for their ability to lay eggs. Reproductive disease is common in fowl species. Despite being classified as food-producing species, they can be considered valuable pets, and the demand for adequate veterinary care is constantly increasing. The clinician should be familiar with the different abnormalities and the potential treatment options. Fowl species have been traditionally an anatomic, physiologic, and experimental model for avian medicine; however, information about treatment options is often limited and extrapolated from other species...
May 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
(no author information available yet)
We would like to acknowledge and extend our sincere gratitude to the following people for contributions of their time, expertise, and guidance as reviewers of manuscripts for the Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery from December 2, 2015 through November 22, 2016.
December 2016: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
S S M Gallo, N B Ederli, F C R Oliveira
Today, blood tests are an indispensable tool in avian medicine. This study aimed to describe and compare hematological and morphometric data of erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes of rhea, Rhea americana. To do so, 58 rheas of both sexes on two farms, one in Cachoeiro do Itapemirim, Espírito Santo (ES), and the other in São Carlos, São Paulo (SP), were selected. Blood samples were taken and their RBC counts, PCV and Hb levels were determined and used in hematimetric index calculations. The total and differentiated leukocyte counts and the TPP and fibrinogen serum levels were also obtained...
January 12, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
YuTao Wang, Beixian Zhou, Jingguang Lu, QiaoLian Chen, Huihui Ti, WanYi Huang, Jing Li, ZiFeng Yang, Zhihong Jiang, XinHua Wang
BACKGROUND: Influenza virus poses serious threats to human health, especially human infection with avian influenza virus. Laggera pterodonta (DC.) Benth is a medicinal plant that is widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, especially in Yunnan province, and has been used to treat influenza, pharyngolaryngitis, and bronchitis. However, the compound(s) responsible for the activity and their mechanisms of action against the influenza virus remain to be elucidated. METHODS: L...
January 6, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Carlos A Loncoman, Paola K Vaz, Mauricio Jc Coppo, Carol A Hartley, Francisco J Morera, Glenn F Browning, Joanne M Devlin
Recombination in alphaherpesviruses was first described more than sixty years ago. Since then, different techniques have been used to detect recombination in natural (field) and experimental settings. Over the last ten years, next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies and bioinformatic analyses have greatly increased the accuracy of recombination detection, particularly in field settings, thus contributing greatly to the study of natural alphaherpesvirus recombination in both human and veterinary medicine...
December 23, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Joon Young Song, Min Joo Choi, Ji Yun Noh, Won Suk Choi, Hee Jin Cheong, Seong-Heon Wie, Jin-Soo Lee, Gyu-Jin Woo, Sang Ho Lee, Woo Joo Kim
Considering the pandemic potential of avian influenza A/H5N1, development of an effective and well-tolerated vaccine is an essential part of pandemic preparedness plans. This phase III, randomized, double-blind study was conducted to assess the immunogenicity and safety profile of an alum-adjuvanted, whole virion, pre-pandemic influenza A/H5N1 vaccine (MG1109). Healthy individuals were randomly assigned, in a 3:1 ratio, to receive two doses of either MG1109 or placebo containing alum gel. Immunogenicity was determined by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization (MN) assays...
May 4, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Daniel Paiva Barros de Abreu, Carlos Henrique Machado, Mário Tatsuo Makita, Camila Flávia Magalhães Botelho, Fernanda Gomes Oliveira, Cristiano Chaves Pessoa da Veiga, Marilena Dos Anjos Martins, Francisco de Assis Baroni
Cryptococcosis is a mycosis caused by yeasts of genus Cryptococcus, mainly the species C. neoformans and C. gattii that can affect humans and animals. These yeasts are widely distributed in the environment and are typically associated with avian droppings and decaying wood. Most infections are related to the respiratory tract, but the central nervous system and cutaneous lesions are also reported in the literature. The present report is a case of cryptococcosis in an 18-month-old unspayed female English Bulldog with the main complaint of weight loss and diarrhea...
June 2017: Mycopathologia
Patrick D Slaine, James G Ackford, Andrew M Kropinski, Robert A Kozak, Peter J Krell, Éva Nagy
Fowl aviadenoviruses, many of which are of importance in veterinary medicine, are classified into 5 species. In this study, a pathogenic isolate and a nonpathogenic isolate of fowl aviadenovirus serotype 11 (FAdV-11) of species Fowl aviadenovirus D were characterized. Growth rates were analyzed for the 2 isolates, showing notable differences. The complete genomic sequences of the viruses were fully determined and were analyzed. The genomes of the 2 isolates showed 98.1% sequence identity and revealed 6 nonsynonymous mutations between the Ontario isolates...
December 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Yong Yang, Han Cheng, Hui Yan, Peng-Zhan Wang, Rong Rong, Ying-Ying Zhang, Cheng-Bo Zhang, Rui-Kun Du, Li-Jun Rong
Emerging viruses such as Ebola virus (EBOV), Lassa virus (LASV), and avian influenza virus H5N1 (AIV) are global health concerns. Since there is very limited options (either vaccine or specific therapy) approved for humans against these viruses, there is an urgent need to develop prophylactic and therapeutic treatments. Previously we reported a high-throughput screening (HTS) protocol to identify entry inhibitors for three highly pathogenic viruses (EBOV, LASV, and AIV) using a human immunodeficiency virus-based pseudotyping platform which allows us to perform the screening in a BSL-2 facility...
May 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
Irene A Veladiano, Tommaso Banzato, Luca Bellini, Alessandro Montani, Salvatore Catania, Alessandro Zotti
BACKGROUND: The increasing popularity gained by pet birds over recent decades has highlighted the role of avian medicine and surgery in the global veterinary scenario; such a need for speciality avian medical practice reflects the rising expectation for high-standard diagnostic imaging procedures. The aim of this study is to provide an atlas of matched anatomical cross-sections and contrast-enhanced CT images of the coelomic cavity in three highly diffused psittacine species. RESULTS: Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic studies of the coelomic cavity were performed in 5 blue-and-gold macaws, 4 African grey parrots and 6 monk parakeets by means of a 4-multidetector-row CT scanner...
September 5, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Jennifer J Kilburn, Sherry K Cox, Kay A Backues
Antibiotic usage is a vital component of veterinary medicine but the unique anatomy of some species can make administration difficult. The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of ceftiofur crystalline free acid (CCFA), a long-acting cephalosporin antibiotic, after parenteral administration in American flamingos ( Phoenicopterus ruber ). A dose of 10 mg/kg of CCFA was administered intramuscularly to 11 birds and blood was collected at various time points from 0 to 192 hr. Pharmacokinetic parameters for ceftiofur equivalents were determined and reached levels above minimum inhibitory concentrations of various bacterial organisms in other avian species through 96 hr in 9/11 birds...
June 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Yuan-Liang Xue, Xiang-Qi Meng, Long-Jun Ma, Zhen Yuan
Plumbagin, a naphthoquinone constituent of Plumbago zeylanica L. (Plumbaginaceae) is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine as an antifungal, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory agent. Plumbagin is known to exhibit proapoptotic, antiangiogenic and antimetastatic effects in cancer cells. The transcriptional co-factor four and a half LIM domains 2 (FHL2) is a multifunctional adaptor protein that is involved in the regulation of gene expression, signal transduction and cell proliferation and differentiation, and also acts as a tumor suppressor or oncoprotein depending on the tissue microenvironment...
August 2016: Oncology Letters
Heng-Li Chen, Pei-Yi Su, Chiaho Shih
We previously identified a novel antimicrobial peptide with a broad spectrum bactericidal activity from human hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein (HBc) arginine-rich domain (ARD). We compared the antimicrobial activities of HBcARD peptides from different hepadnaviruses which share similar amino acid sequences. In general, mammalian HBcARD peptides exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity than avian peptides. Using the strategy of D-amino acid substitutions, we improved the antimicrobial efficacy of human HBcARD peptide...
November 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Hiroyuki Inagawa, Yutaro Kobayashi, Chie Kohchi, Ran Zhang, Yasuhiro Shibasaki, Gen-Ichiro Soma
BACKGROUND/AIM: Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is involved in the activation of the innate immune responses on monocytes/macrophages in vitro, and by intravenous injection. Although small quantities of LPS are usually found in traditional Chinese medicines, vegetables and fruits, the mode of action of orally administered LPS is still unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: LPS derived from Pantoea agglomerans (LPSp) was orally administered to C3H/HeN or C3H/HeJ mice ad libitum...
May 2016: In Vivo
Cicero Lee-Tian Chang, Cheng-Ying Yang, Thangarasu Muthamilselvan, Wen-Chin Yang
Eimeriosis is a severe protozoan disease in poultry. Because of increasing concern about drug residue and drug resistance with the use of anticoccidial drugs, natural products are emerging as an alternative and complementary approach to control avian eimeriosis. Our previous publication showed that feed supplemented with B. pilosa (BP) was effective at combating chicken eimeriosis in experimental settings. However, its efficacy against chicken eimeriosis under field conditions is not known. Here, we investigated the efficacy of BP against eimeriosis on an organic chicken farm...
April 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ramon Gist, Pia Daniel, Andrew Grock, Chou-Jui Lin, Clarence Bryant, Stephan Kohlhoff, Patricia Roblin, Bonnie Arquilla
UNLABELLED: Introduction The Medical Reserve Corps (MRC) is a national network of community-based volunteer groups created in 2002 by the Office of the United States Surgeon General (Rockville, Maryland USA) to augment the nation's ability to respond to medical and public health emergencies. However, there is little evidence-based literature available to guide hospitals on the optimal use of medical volunteers and hesitancy on the part of hospitals to use them. Hypothesis/Problem This study sought to determine how MRC volunteers can be used in hospital-based disasters through their participation in a full-scale exercise...
June 2016: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Christina D Hildreth
Small animal veterinary hospitals will have exotic animal emergencies. Preparing the hospital space, equipment, and staff will provide optimal exotic animal emergency medicine and care. A well-gathered history can be more valuable in exotic pet medicine than most diagnostics. A gentle, well-planned approach, combined with common sense and focused observational skills, is necessary for avian and exotic patients.
May 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
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