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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898922/influence-of-pork-and-pork-by-products-on-macronutrient-and-energy-digestibility-and-palatability-in-large-exotic-felids
#1
C J Iske, C L Morris, K L Kappen
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate digestibility and palatability of a new commercial pork-based raw diet for zoo-managed felids. Currently 2 protein sources (beef or horse) comprise the majority of commercial raw meat diet formulations for exotic carnivores in zoological institutions. Pork-based diets have traditionally not been widely utilized and thus nutrient digestibility of pork has not been adequately evaluated in exotic carnivores. The objectives of this study were 1) to determine if a pork-based diet had similar apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility and fecal scores as standard zoo carnivore diets formulated with either horse or beef, in large exotic felids and 2) evaluate palatability of pork for use in zoos...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894847/pcr-screening-of-tick-borne-agents-in-sensitive-conservation-areas-southeast-portugal
#2
Maria Margarida Santos-Silva, Pedro Melo, Nuno Santos, Sandra Antunes, Luís Raposo Duarte, Joana Ferrolho, Natacha Milhano, Patrícia Tavares Santos, Ana Domingos, Ana Sofia Santos
The Southeast region of Portugal, particularly the Guadiana valley, is currently the reintroduction territory of Lynx pardinus (Iberian lynx), one of the most endangered felids in the world that is only found in the Iberian Peninsula. Over the last century, populations have declined, placing L. pardinus at extremely high risk of extinction in the wild and relying on reintroduction projects. Among the aspects taken into account in the establishment of new populations is the sanitary status of the selected habitats, especially concerning infectious diseases, including tick-borne pathogens (TBPs)...
November 25, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Probes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852814/spontaneous-proliferative-and-neoplastic-lesions-in-thyroid-and-parathyroid-glands-of-nondomestic-felids
#3
Jenny P Pope, James Steeil, Edward C Ramsay, Danielle Reel, Shelley J Newman
Based on microscopic and immunohistochemical characterization, we documented spontaneous proliferative and neoplastic lesions in the thyroid and parathyroid glands of nondomestic felids. Ten animals (4 leopards, 3 tigers, and 3 cougars), all with a previous diagnosis of thyroid neoplasia were identified from the University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine database. The mean age of affected animals was 15.9 y. Twelve neoplasms were identified; 2 animals had 2 concurrent neoplasms. After immunohistochemical characterization using a panel of chromogranin A, thyroglobulin, and calcitonin, 7 of the former thyroid neoplasms were diagnosed as thyroid adenomas, 1 was diagnosed as a thyroid carcinoma, and 4 were diagnosed as parathyroid adenomas...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812324/big-cat-coalitions-a-comparative-analysis-of-regional-brain-volumes-in-felidae
#4
Sharleen T Sakai, Bradley M Arsznov, Ani E Hristova, Elise J Yoon, Barbara L Lundrigan
Broad-based species comparisons across mammalian orders suggest a number of factors that might influence the evolution of large brains. However, the relationship between these factors and total and regional brain size remains unclear. This study investigated the relationship between relative brain size and regional brain volumes and sociality in 13 felid species in hopes of revealing relationships that are not detected in more inclusive comparative studies. In addition, a more detailed analysis was conducted of four focal species: lions (Panthera leo), leopards (Panthera pardus), cougars (Puma concolor), and cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807913/retained-fertilizing-capability-in-cryopreserved-feline-spermatozoa
#5
K Chatdarong
Sperm cryopreservation offers a long-term preservation of male genetic materials for future assisted reproductive technologies. However, dramatic changes in temperature during freezing and thawing injure sperm cells. While motility is essential for AI and membrane integrity is crucial for in vitro fertilization (IVF), sperm DNA integrity is a common index of fertilizing capability required for AI, IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In endangered felids died unexpectedly, attempts have been made to recover as many DNA intact spermatozoa as possible from epididymis and testis to increase the opportunity to produce offspring in future...
November 3, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807895/deciphering-the-mechanisms-involving-cenexin-ninein-and-centriolin-in-sperm-maturation-during-epididymal-transit-in-the-domestic-cat
#6
T Rowlison, M A Ottinger, P Comizzoli
The sperm centrosome is an essential organelle with a key role in organizing the sperm aster for proper syngamy and formation of the first mitotic spindle. The sperm cell acquires the functional capability during epididymal transit by incorporation of key factors. The objective of the study was to identify these key maturation proteins, such as ninein and centriolin as well as cenexin-a scaffold protein that serves to bind ninein and centriolin. Epididymal samples were dissected from 17 adult cat testes (>1 year old) and spermatozoa were extracted from the different regions, including rete testis, caput, corpus, cauda and vas deferens...
November 3, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807883/urethral-catheterization-and-sperm-vitrification-for-simplified-semen-banking-in-felids
#7
W F Swanson, H L Bateman, L M Vansandt
Semen banking of domestic cats and wild felids represents a vital resource for their long-term conservation, but current methods require access to advanced training and specialized equipment. A newer method of semen collection, urethral catheterization of medetomidine-treated cats, allows recovery of high sperm numbers, but it is unclear if this approach permits maximal sperm recovery or is feasible using less expensive alpha-2 agonists. Similarly, a newer sperm preservation approach, vitrification, offers advantages of simplicity and minimal equipment needs, but its efficacy in combination with urethral catheterization has not been investigated...
November 3, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802837/comparison-of-carnivore-omnivore-and-herbivore-mammalian-genomes-with-a-new-leopard-assembly
#8
Soonok Kim, Yun Sung Cho, Hak-Min Kim, Oksung Chung, Hyunho Kim, Sungwoong Jho, Hong Seomun, Jeongho Kim, Woo Young Bang, Changmu Kim, Junghwa An, Chang Hwan Bae, Youngjune Bhak, Sungwon Jeon, Hyejun Yoon, Yumi Kim, JeHoon Jun, HyeJin Lee, Suan Cho, Olga Uphyrkina, Aleksey Kostyria, John Goodrich, Dale Miquelle, Melody Roelke, John Lewis, Andrey Yurchenko, Anton Bankevich, Juok Cho, Semin Lee, Jeremy S Edwards, Jessica A Weber, Jo Cook, Sangsoo Kim, Hang Lee, Andrea Manica, Ilbeum Lee, Stephen J O'Brien, Jong Bhak, Joo-Hong Yeo
BACKGROUND: There are three main dietary groups in mammals: carnivores, omnivores, and herbivores. Currently, there is limited comparative genomics insight into the evolution of dietary specializations in mammals. Due to recent advances in sequencing technologies, we were able to perform in-depth whole genome analyses of representatives of these three dietary groups. RESULTS: We investigated the evolution of carnivory by comparing 18 representative genomes from across Mammalia with carnivorous, omnivorous, and herbivorous dietary specializations, focusing on Felidae (domestic cat, tiger, lion, cheetah, and leopard), Hominidae, and Bovidae genomes...
October 11, 2016: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770758/the-role-of-ticks-in-transmission-cycle-of-toxoplasma-gondii
#9
Bogumiła Skotarczak
Toxoplasmosis is globally distributed, water- and food borne zoonosis caused by the single protozoan Toxoplasma gondii and probably one-third of the world’s human population is infected with this pathogen. Domestic and wild felids are definitive hosts of this pathogen and intermediate hosts for great variety of other homoeothermic animals. Human as other of the intermediate hosts may become infected in the main route of infection; it is the ingestion of parasite oocysts in contaminated water or soil and undercooked meat...
October 1, 2016: Annals of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752769/sarcocystis-entzerothi-n-sp-from-the-european-roe-deer-capreolus-capreolus
#10
Petras Prakas, Eglė Rudaitytė, Dalius Butkauskas, Liuda Kutkienė
In the present study, we describe Sarcocystis entzerothi n. sp. from the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) based on the microscopical and DNA analysis. By light microscopy (LM), cysts of S. entzerothi were spindle-shaped with pointed tips, 950-1900 × 70-150 μm in size and had 5-6 μm long finger-like cyst wall protrusions. Cyst wall of S. entzerothi by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was type 10a-like; villar protrusions were up to 1.2 μm wide, densely packed, lying about 0.1 μm between each other, had profuse microgranules and microfilaments, parasitophorous vacuolar membrane had many minute invaginations, and the ground substance layer measured up to 0...
October 18, 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743039/bioaccumulation-of-pcbs-in-a-wild-north-american-felid
#11
Esmarie Boyles, Clayton K Nielsen
Organohalogenated compounds (OHCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are of global concern due to their environmental persistence, bioaccumulative potential, and adverse effects on humans and wildlife. We investigated the concentrations of PCBs in the liver tissues of bobcats (Lynx rufus) sampled in Illinois during 2013. Concentrations of ∑PCBs ranged from 76.4 to 3782 ng/g lw (median 562.97 ng/g lw). Male bobcats had significantly greater concentrations of PCBs than females (p = 0.04). Ours is one of the first studies to report PCBs in a wild North American felid...
October 14, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739507/scent-marking-in-sunda-clouded-leopards-neofelis-diardi-novel-observations-close-a-key-gap-in-understanding-felid-communication-behaviours
#12
Maximilian L Allen, Heiko U Wittmer, Endro Setiawan, Sarah Jaffe, Andrew J Marshall
Intraspecific communication is integral to the behavioural ecology of solitary carnivores, but observing and quantifying their communication behaviours in natural environments is difficult. Our systematic literature review found that basic information on scent marking is completely lacking for 23% of all felid species, and information on 21% of other felid species comes solely from one study of captive animals. Here we present results of the first systematic investigation of the scent marking behaviours of Sunda clouded leopards in the wild...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723084/isolation-of-primary-fibroblast-culture-from-wildlife-the-panthera-onca-case-to-preserve-a-south-american-endangered-species
#13
Ana Cecilia Mestre-Citrinovitz, Adrián Jorge Sestelo, María Belén Ceballos, José Lino Barañao, Patricia Saragüeta
Cell line establishment of somatic cells is a valuable resource to preserve genetic material of rare, difficult-to-find, endangered and giant species like Jaguar (Panthera onca), the largest South American felid. This unit focuses on the isolation and culture of fibroblasts from Jaguar skin and muscle biopsies, and ear cartilage dissection immediately after death to preserve one of the several endangered species in this biome. These culture techniques enabled us to contribute 570 samples from 45 autochthonous and endangered species, including Jaguar...
October 10, 2016: Current Protocols in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706211/altered-immune-cytokine-expression-associated-with-korv-b-infection-and-season-in-captive-koalas
#14
Iona E Maher, Damien P Higgins
Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations are increasingly vulnerable and one of the main threats is chlamydial infection. Koala retrovirus (KoRV) has been proposed as an underlying cause of the koala's susceptibility to infection with Chlamydia and high rates of lymphoid neoplasia; however, the regionally ubiquitous, endogenous nature of this virus suggests that KoRV A infection is not sufficient for immune suppression to occur. A recently discovered exogenous variant of KoRV, KoRV B, has several structural elements that cause increased pathogenicity in related retroviruses and was associated with lymphoid neoplasia in one study...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692325/angiostrongylus-chabaudi-in-felids-new-findings-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#15
Alessio Giannelli, Zvezedlina Kirkova, Francesca Abramo, Maria Stefania Latrofa, Bronwyn Campbell, Nicola Zizzo, Cinzia Cantacessi, Filipe Dantas-Torres, Domenico Otranto
Cardiopulmonary infections by Angiostrongylus chabaudi affect domestic and wild felids but, due to limited information on the biology of this nematode, its pathogenicity remains unclear. This article describes the histopathological alterations associated with Angiostrongylus infection in a wildcat from Bulgaria, and reviews current literature on this feline angiostrongylid. Nematodes were isolated from lung lavage and faecal samples of a road killed wildcat in Southern Bulgaria. The morphological identification of parasite larvae as A...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608857/a-synthetic-review-of-notoedres-species-mites-and-mange
#16
J Foley, L E K Serieys, N Stephenson, S Riley, C Foley, M Jennings, G Wengert, W Vickers, E Boydston, L Lyren, J Moriarty, D L Clifford
Notoedric mange, caused by obligately parasitic sarcoptiform Notoedres mites, is associated with potentially fatal dermatitis with secondary systemic disease in small mammals, felids and procyonids among others, as well as an occasional zoonosis. We describe clinical spectra in non-chiropteran hosts, review risk factors and summarize ecological and epidemiological studies. The genus is disproportionately represented on rodents. Disease in felids and procyonids ranges from very mild to death. Knowledge of the geographical distribution of the mites is highly inadequate, with focal hot spots known for Notoedres cati in domestic cats and bobcats...
September 9, 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589862/low-genetic-diversity-among-historical-and-contemporary-clinical-isolates-of-felid-herpesvirus-1
#17
Paola K Vaz, Natalie Job, Jacquelyn Horsington, Nino Ficorilli, Michael J Studdert, Carol A Hartley, James R Gilkerson, Glenn F Browning, Joanne M Devlin
BACKGROUND: Felid herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) causes upper respiratory tract diseases in cats worldwide, including nasal and ocular discharge, conjunctivitis and oral ulceration. The nature and severity of disease can vary between clinical cases. Genetic determinants of virulence are likely to contribute to differences in the in vivo phenotype of FHV-1 isolates, but to date there have been limited studies investigating FHV-1 genetic diversity. This study used next generation sequencing to compare the genomes of contemporary Australian clinical isolates of FHV-1, vaccine isolates and historical clinical isolates, including isolates that predated the introduction of live attenuated vaccines into Australia...
2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579591/toxoplasmosis-in-nigeria-the-story-so-far-1950-2016-a-review
#18
John Asekhaen Ohiolei, Clement Isaac
Toxoplasmosis is caused by intracellular protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908). Cats and other felids are the definitive hosts. It could be transmitted to man and animals by consumption of infected undercooked meat and contaminated food items including drinking water. Results of toxoplasmosis epidemiological surveys in animals and humans in South-West, North-West, North-East and North-Central Zones of Nigeria have been reported with greater impact on the health of pregnant women and HIV-infected individuals...
2016: Folia Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576196/evaluation-of-feline-uterine-and-umbilical-arteries-blood-flow-in-a-pharmacologically-induced-abnormal-gestation-model
#19
P G Blanco, R Vercellini, A Rube, R Rodríguez, D O Arias, C Gobello
The aim of this study was to describe resistance index (RI) and systolic/diastolic ratio (S/D ratio) of uterine and umbilical arteries in an experimental model of abnormal pregnancy in felids. On days 30 to 35 (32 ± 2.9) after mating, 20 domestic short-hair pregnant queens were randomly assigned to one of the following treatment groups: a treated group (TG; n = 8), which received 10 mg/kg of aglepristone subcutaneously twice, 24 hours apart, and a control nontreated group (CG; n = 12). M-mode and Doppler ultrasonographic evaluations were performed at the initiation of the treatment (Day 0) and then every other day during 8 days...
August 4, 2016: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576001/efficacious-and-safe-dose-of-praziquantel-for-the-successful-treatment-of-feline-reservoir-hosts-with-opisthorchiasis
#20
Piya Sereerak, Songkaid Upontain, Prasarn Tangkawattana, Frank F Mallory, Banchob Sripa, Sirikachorn Tangkawattana
Opisthorchiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini is a major food-borne zoonosis in Greater Mekong sub-region. Even though campaigns discouraging the consumption of raw fish have been launched to public, the disease still remains highly endemic. The unsuccessful eradication of the disease is probably because of the persistence of the parasite in animal reservoir hosts, particularly felids. Praziquantel (PZQ) is the drug of choice for morbidity control of opisthorchiasis in humans and animals. However, there is no specific study on its dosage regimen for feline opisthorchiasis...
August 26, 2016: Parasitology International
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