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Petras Prakas, Eglė Rudaitytė, Dalius Butkauskas, Liuda Kutkienė
In the present study, we describe Sarcocystis entzerothi n. sp. from the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) based on the microscopical and DNA analysis. By light microscopy (LM), cysts of S. entzerothi were spindle-shaped with pointed tips, 950-1900 × 70-150 μm in size and had 5-6 μm long finger-like cyst wall protrusions. Cyst wall of S. entzerothi by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was type 10a-like; villar protrusions were up to 1.2 μm wide, densely packed, lying about 0.1 μm between each other, had profuse microgranules and microfilaments, parasitophorous vacuolar membrane had many minute invaginations, and the ground substance layer measured up to 0...
October 18, 2016: Parasitology Research
Esmarie Boyles, Clayton K Nielsen
Organohalogenated compounds (OHCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are of global concern due to their environmental persistence, bioaccumulative potential, and adverse effects on humans and wildlife. We investigated the concentrations of PCBs in the liver tissues of bobcats (Lynx rufus) sampled in Illinois during 2013. Concentrations of ∑PCBs ranged from 76.4 to 3782 ng/g lw (median 562.97 ng/g lw). Male bobcats had significantly greater concentrations of PCBs than females (p = 0.04). Ours is one of the first studies to report PCBs in a wild North American felid...
October 14, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Maximilian L Allen, Heiko U Wittmer, Endro Setiawan, Sarah Jaffe, Andrew J Marshall
Intraspecific communication is integral to the behavioural ecology of solitary carnivores, but observing and quantifying their communication behaviours in natural environments is difficult. Our systematic literature review found that basic information on scent marking is completely lacking for 23% of all felid species, and information on 21% of other felid species comes solely from one study of captive animals. Here we present results of the first systematic investigation of the scent marking behaviours of Sunda clouded leopards in the wild...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ana Cecilia Mestre-Citrinovitz, Adrián Jorge Sestelo, María Belén Ceballos, José Lino Barañao, Patricia Saragüeta
Cell line establishment of somatic cells is a valuable resource to preserve genetic material of rare, difficult-to-find, endangered and giant species like Jaguar (Panthera onca), the largest South American felid. This unit focuses on the isolation and culture of fibroblasts from Jaguar skin and muscle biopsies, and ear cartilage dissection immediately after death to preserve one of the several endangered species in this biome. These culture techniques enabled us to contribute 570 samples from 45 autochthonous and endangered species, including Jaguar...
October 10, 2016: Current Protocols in Molecular Biology
Iona E Maher, Damien P Higgins
Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations are increasingly vulnerable and one of the main threats is chlamydial infection. Koala retrovirus (KoRV) has been proposed as an underlying cause of the koala's susceptibility to infection with Chlamydia and high rates of lymphoid neoplasia; however, the regionally ubiquitous, endogenous nature of this virus suggests that KoRV A infection is not sufficient for immune suppression to occur. A recently discovered exogenous variant of KoRV, KoRV B, has several structural elements that cause increased pathogenicity in related retroviruses and was associated with lymphoid neoplasia in one study...
2016: PloS One
Alessio Giannelli, Zvezedlina Kirkova, Francesca Abramo, Maria Stefania Latrofa, Bronwyn Campbell, Nicola Zizzo, Cinzia Cantacessi, Filipe Dantas-Torres, Domenico Otranto
Cardiopulmonary infections by Angiostrongylus chabaudi affect domestic and wild felids but, due to limited information on the biology of this nematode, its pathogenicity remains unclear. This article describes the histopathological alterations associated with Angiostrongylus infection in a wildcat from Bulgaria, and reviews current literature on this feline angiostrongylid. Nematodes were isolated from lung lavage and faecal samples of a road killed wildcat in Southern Bulgaria. The morphological identification of parasite larvae as A...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
J Foley, L E K Serieys, N Stephenson, S Riley, C Foley, M Jennings, G Wengert, W Vickers, E Boydston, L Lyren, J Moriarty, D L Clifford
Notoedric mange, caused by obligately parasitic sarcoptiform Notoedres mites, is associated with potentially fatal dermatitis with secondary systemic disease in small mammals, felids and procyonids among others, as well as an occasional zoonosis. We describe clinical spectra in non-chiropteran hosts, review risk factors and summarize ecological and epidemiological studies. The genus is disproportionately represented on rodents. Disease in felids and procyonids ranges from very mild to death. Knowledge of the geographical distribution of the mites is highly inadequate, with focal hot spots known for Notoedres cati in domestic cats and bobcats...
September 9, 2016: Parasitology
Paola K Vaz, Natalie Job, Jacquelyn Horsington, Nino Ficorilli, Michael J Studdert, Carol A Hartley, James R Gilkerson, Glenn F Browning, Joanne M Devlin
BACKGROUND: Felid herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) causes upper respiratory tract diseases in cats worldwide, including nasal and ocular discharge, conjunctivitis and oral ulceration. The nature and severity of disease can vary between clinical cases. Genetic determinants of virulence are likely to contribute to differences in the in vivo phenotype of FHV-1 isolates, but to date there have been limited studies investigating FHV-1 genetic diversity. This study used next generation sequencing to compare the genomes of contemporary Australian clinical isolates of FHV-1, vaccine isolates and historical clinical isolates, including isolates that predated the introduction of live attenuated vaccines into Australia...
2016: BMC Genomics
John Asekhaen Ohiolei, Clement Isaac
Toxoplasmosis is caused by intracellular protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908). Cats and other felids are the definitive hosts. It could be transmitted to man and animals by consumption of infected undercooked meat and contaminated food items including drinking water. Results of toxoplasmosis epidemiological surveys in animals and humans in South-West, North-West, North-East and North-Central Zones of Nigeria have been reported with greater impact on the health of pregnant women and HIV-infected individuals...
2016: Folia Parasitologica
P G Blanco, R Vercellini, A Rube, R Rodríguez, D O Arias, C Gobello
The aim of this study was to describe resistance index (RI) and systolic/diastolic ratio (S/D ratio) of uterine and umbilical arteries in an experimental model of abnormal pregnancy in felids. On days 30 to 35 (32 ± 2.9) after mating, 20 domestic short-hair pregnant queens were randomly assigned to one of the following treatment groups: a treated group (TG; n = 8), which received 10 mg/kg of aglepristone subcutaneously twice, 24 hours apart, and a control nontreated group (CG; n = 12). M-mode and Doppler ultrasonographic evaluations were performed at the initiation of the treatment (Day 0) and then every other day during 8 days...
August 4, 2016: Theriogenology
Piya Sereerak, Songkaid Upontain, Prasarn Tangkawattana, Frank F Mallory, Banchob Sripa, Sirikachorn Tangkawattana
Opisthorchiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini is a major food-borne zoonosis in Greater Mekong sub-region. Even though campaigns discouraging the consumption of raw fish have been launched to public, the disease still remains highly endemic. The unsuccessful eradication of the disease is probably because of the persistence of the parasite in animal reservoir hosts, particularly felids. Praziquantel (PZQ) is the drug of choice for morbidity control of opisthorchiasis in humans and animals. However, there is no specific study on its dosage regimen for feline opisthorchiasis...
August 26, 2016: Parasitology International
Endrias Zewdu Gebremedhin, Nura Dima, Ashenafi Feyisa Beyi, Fufa Dawo, Negassa Feyissa, Edilu Jorga, Vincenzo Di Marco, Maria Vitale
Toxoplasmosis is one of the most prevalent parasitic infections of medical and veterinary importance. A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2013 to January 2014 to estimate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in camels from four districts of Borana zone, Southern Oromia, Ethiopia. In addition, a questionnaire survey was administered to 124 pastoralists to identify possible risk factors and to assess the awareness level of pastoral communities about toxoplasmosis. A total of 396 serum samples were examined for anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies using the direct agglutination test (DAT)...
August 24, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Nadine Gourkow, Clive J C Phillips
Acquisition of resources and opportunity to engage in natural behaviors has been shown to reduce frustration-related behaviors and enhance health in nondomestic felids kept in zoos, but little is known about whether there are similar effects in domestic cats living in confinement in animal shelters. Fifteen cats rated as Frustrated during the first hour of confinement to a cage at an animal shelter were assigned to either a Treatment (n=7) or Control (n=8) group. Treatment cats were taken from their cages to a separate room four times daily for 10min each time over a 10 d period, where they took part in training sessions to learn a novel behavior (paw-hand contact with a researcher)...
September 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Annika Kleine, Elisabeth Janecek, Patrick Waindok, Christina Strube
Toxocara canis and T. cati are worldwide distributed intestinal nematodes of canids and felids and pose a threat to public health due to possible clinical manifestations in humans. Different methods for detection of Toxocara eggs in soil have been described, but conducted studies deal with egg recovery rates of T. canis or "Toxocara spp." only whereas T. cati egg recovery has not been taken into consideration. Thus, flotation properties in sodium chloride solution and adherence characteristics to different substrates possibly coming into contact with Toxocara eggs before or during purification from soil were evaluated for both, T...
August 30, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Varsha Kapoor, Tyler Antonelli, Jennifer A Parkinson, Adam Hartstone-Rose
The predominant diet fed to captive carnivores in North America consists of ground meat formulated to provide full nutritional requirements. However, this ground meat diet completely lacks the mechanical properties (i.e., toughness and hardness) of the foods these animals would consume in the wild. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effect of captivity on oral health by comparing the prevalence of periodontal disease and dental calculus accumulation in wild and captive lions and tigers (Panthera leo and Panthera tigris), and to also correlate oral health with cranial morphology in these specimens...
August 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Ryan A Sadler, Edward Ramsay, Denise McAloose, Robert Rush, Rebecca P Wilkes
Canine distemper virus (CDV) has caused clinical disease and death in nondomestic felids in both captive settings and in the wild. Outbreaks resulting in high mortality rates in tigers (Panthera tigris) have prompted some zoos to vaccinate tigers for CDV. In this study, six tigers received a recombinant canarypox-vectored CDV vaccine (1 ml s.c.) and were revaccinated with 3 ml s.c. (mean) 39 days later. Blood collection for CDV antibody detection via serum neutralization was performed on (mean) days 0, 26, and 66 post-initial vaccination...
June 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Elizabeth VanWormer, Tim E Carpenter, Purnendu Singh, Karen Shapiro, Wesley W Wallender, Patricia A Conrad, John L Largier, Marco P Maneta, Jonna A K Mazet
Rapidly developing coastal regions face consequences of land use and climate change including flooding and increased sediment, nutrient, and chemical runoff, but these forces may also enhance pathogen runoff, which threatens human, animal, and ecosystem health. Using the zoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii in California, USA as a model for coastal pathogen pollution, we examine the spatial distribution of parasite runoff and the impacts of precipitation and development on projected pathogen delivery to the ocean...
2016: Scientific Reports
S Molia, R W Kasten, M J Stuckey, H J Boulouis, J Allen, G M Borgo, J E Koehler, C C Chang, B B Chomel
Bartonellae are blood- and vector-borne Gram-negative bacteria, recognized as emerging pathogens. Whole-blood samples were collected from 58 free-ranging lions (Panthera leo) in South Africa and 17 cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) from Namibia. Blood samples were also collected from 11 cheetahs (more than once for some of them) at the San Diego Wildlife Safari Park. Bacteria were isolated from the blood of three (5%) lions, one (6%) Namibian cheetah and eight (73%) cheetahs from California. The lion Bartonella isolates were identified as B...
November 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Essa Suleman, Moses Sibusiso Mtshali, Emily Lane
Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous protozoan parasite that infects humans and many different animals, including felids. Many molecular and serologic tests have been developed for detection of T. gondii in a wide range of hosts. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a field-friendly technique that lacks the practical drawbacks of other molecular and serologic tests, and LAMP assays have been successfully developed for detection of T. gondii in fresh tissue samples. In the current study, both a previously published and a de-novo designed LAMP assay were compared to a quantitative real-time (q)PCR assay, for the detection of T...
September 2016: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Mohammad Reza Youssefi, Rabeeh Tabaripour, Abbas Gerami, Vahid Fallah Omrani
Linguatula serrata, one of the parasitic zoonoses, inhabits the canid and felid respiratory system. The parasite is tongue-shaped, lightly convex dorsally and flattened ventrally. Males measure 1.8-2 cm, while females measure 8-13 cm in length. Disease due to infection with this parasite in humans is more likely to cause pharyngitis, nausea and vomiting, sore and itchy throat, cough, phlegm and runny nose. Present study aimed to determine linguatula's larva somatic antigens in lymph nodes of infected goats and also reveal the major component of antigenic protein...
June 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
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