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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080904/photoreceptor-degeneration-in-a-mountain-lion-cub-puma-concolor
#1
Andrew R DiSalvo, Christopher M Reilly, K Tomo Wiggans, Leslie W Woods, Ray F Wack, Deana L Clifford
An orphaned 4-mo-old female mountain lion cub ( Puma concolor ) was captured along the coastline in Montaña de Oro State Park in Los Osos, California, USA. Following suspicion that the cub was visually impaired, ophthalmic examination revealed diffuse bilateral retinal atrophy. Due to a poor prognosis, humane euthanasia was elected. Necropsy and histopathological findings were consistent with photoreceptor degeneration. Based on the cub's signalment, history, and histopathology, a genetic or nutritional etiology was suspected, with the former etiology more strongly supported...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074717/endosulfan-poisoning-in-canids-and-felids-in-the-calabria-region-of-southern-italy
#2
Antonella De Roma, Carmela Rossini, Caterina Riverso, Giorgio Galiero, Mauro Esposito
Endosulfan, a highly toxic insecticide and acaricide, was globally banned under the Stockholm Convention in May 2011 because of its threats to human health and the environment. Despite the ban on its use, endosulfan is still present in the environment, causing poisoning events in domestic animals and wildlife. Toxicologic analysis of poisoned animals conducted by the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Mezzogiorno revealed that in the past 3 y, this pesticide has not disappeared in the regions of interest...
January 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056966/pseudorabies-virus-infection-aujeszky-s-disease-in-an-iberian-lynx-lynx-pardinus-in-spain-a-case-report
#3
A Javier Masot, María Gil, David Risco, Olga M Jiménez, José I Núñez, Eloy Redondo
BACKGROUND: The only natural hosts of Pseudorabies virus (PRV) are members of the family Suidae (Sus scrofa scrofa). In species other than suids infection is normally fatal. In these mammals, including carnivores, PRV typically causes serious neurologic disease. The endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is a wild feline endemic to south-western Europe (Iberian Peninsula). The Iberian lynx was found to be the world's most endangered felid species in 2002. In wild felines, PRV infection has only been previously reported once in a Florida panther in 1994...
January 5, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052073/landscape-use-and-co-occurrence-patterns-of-neotropical-spotted-cats
#4
Mariana B Nagy-Reis, James D Nichols, Adriano G Chiarello, Milton Cezar Ribeiro, Eleonore Z F Setz
Small felids influence ecosystem dynamics through prey and plant population changes. Although most of these species are threatened, they are accorded one of the lowest research efforts of all felids, and we lack basic information about them. Many felids occur in sympatry, where intraguild competition is frequent. Therefore, assessing the role of interspecific interactions along with the relative importance of landscape characteristics is necessary to understand how these species co-occur in space. Here, we selected three morphologically similar and closely related species of small Neotropical cats to evaluate the roles of interspecific interactions, geomorphometry, environmental, and anthropogenic landscape characteristics on their habitat use...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043379/use-of-a-commercial-serologic-test-for-angiostrongylus-vasorum-for-the-detection-of-a-chabaudi-in-wildcats-and-a-daskalovi-in-badgers
#5
Georgiana Deak, Călin Mircea Gherman, Angela Monica Ionică, Aikaterini Alexandra Daskalaki, Ioana Adriana Matei, Gianluca D'Amico, Cristian Domşa, Nikola Pantchev, Andrei Daniel Mihalca, Vasile Cozma
Three species of the genus Angiostrongylus are known to infect European carnivores: A. vasorum (mainly in canids but also in other carnivores), A. chabaudi (in felids) and A. daskalovi (in mustelids). A. vasorum is responsible for clinically severe disease in domestic dogs, most commonly diagnosed based on fecal examination and serological detection of circulating antigens. Considering the poorly known host range and the challenging larval differentiation in the feces between the three species of Angiostrongylus infecting European carnivores, our aim was to evaluate the cross-reactivity of A...
January 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043366/semen-cryopreservation-and-radical-reduction-capacity-of-seminal-fluid-in-captive-african-lion-panthera-leo
#6
I Luther, U Jakop, I Lueders, A Tordiffe, C Franz, J Schiller, A Kotze, K Müller
Optimizing cryopreservation protocols for nondomestic felids contributes to the successful development of assisted reproduction techniques and genetic resource banking. In this study, we describe a simple cryopreservation procedure for African lion (Panthera leo) ejaculates, which was tested with different packaging options and different sperm numbers per dose. By applying urethral catheterization and electroejaculation, 17 ejaculates with greater than 20% motile and greater than 5% progressively motile sperm were collected...
February 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028000/phylogeography-of-toxoplasma-gondii-points-to-a-south-american-origin
#7
Emilie Bertranpetit, Thibaut Jombart, Emmanuel Paradis, Hilda Pena, Jitender Dubey, Chunlei Su, Aurélien Mercier, Sébastien Devillard, Daniel Ajzenberg
Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan found ubiquitously in mammals and birds, is the etiologic agent of toxoplasmosis, a disease causing substantial public health burden worldwide, including about 200,000 new cases of congenital toxoplasmosis each year. Clinical severity has been shown to vary across geographical regions, with South America exhibiting the highest burden. Unfortunately, the drivers of these heterogeneities are still poorly understood, and the geographical origin and historical spread of the pathogen worldwide are currently uncertain...
December 24, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003486/feline-immunodeficiency-virus-cross-species-transmission-implications-for-emergence-of-new-lentiviral-infections
#8
Justin Lee, Jennifer L Malmberg, Britta A Wood, Sahaja Hladky, Ryan Troyer, Melody Roelke, Mark Cunningham, Roy McBride, Winston Vickers, Walter Boyce, Erin Boydston, Laurel Serieys, Seth Riley, Kevin Crooks, Sue VandeWoude
: Owing to a complex history of host-parasite coevolution, lentiviruses exhibit a high degree of species specificity. Given the well-documented viral archeology of HIV emergence following human exposures to SIV, understanding processes that promote successful cross-species lentiviral transmissions is highly relevant. We have previously reported natural cross-species transmission of a subtype of feline immunodeficiency virus, puma lentivirus A (PLVA), between bobcats (Lynx rufus) and mountain lions (Puma concolor) in a small number of animals in California and Florida...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992457/comparative-serum-fatty-acid-profiles-of-captive-and-free-ranging-cheetahs-acinonyx-jubatus-in-namibia
#9
Adrian S W Tordiffe, Bettina Wachter, Sonja K Heinrich, Fred Reyers, Lodewyk J Mienie
Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) are highly specialised large felids, currently listed as vulnerable on the IUCN red data list. In captivity, they are known to suffer from a range of chronic non-infectious diseases. Although low heterozygosity and the stress of captivity have been suggested as possible causal factors, recent studies have started to focus on the contribution of potential dietary factors in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Fatty acids are an important component of the diet, not only providing a source of metabolisable energy, but serving other important functions in hormone production, cellular signalling as well as providing structural components in biological membranes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975234/pharmacokinetics-and-derivation-of-an-anticancer-dosing-regimen-for-the-novel-anti-cancer-agent-isobutyl-deoxynyboquinone-ib-dnq-a-nqo1-bioactivatable-molecule-in-the-domestic-felid-species
#10
Alycen P Lundberg, Joshua M Francis, Malgorzata Pajak, Elizabeth I Parkinson, Kathryn L Wycislo, Thomas J Rosol, Megan E Brown, Cheryl A London, Levent Dirikolu, Paul J Hergenrother, Timothy M Fan
Isobutyl-deoxynyboquinone (IB-DNQ) is a selective substrate for NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), an enzyme overexpressed in many solid tumors. Following activation by NQO1, IB-DNQ participates in a catalytic futile reduction/reoxidation cycle with consequent toxic reactive oxygen species generation within the tumor microenvironment. To elucidate the potential of IB-DNQ to serve as a novel anticancer agent, in vitro studies coupled with in vivo pharmacokinetic and toxicologic investigations in the domestic felid species were conducted to investigate the tractability of IB-DNQ as a translationally applicable anticancer agent...
December 14, 2016: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964752/extreme-genomic-erosion-after-recurrent-demographic-bottlenecks-in-the-highly-endangered-iberian-lynx
#11
Federico Abascal, André Corvelo, Fernando Cruz, José L Villanueva-Cañas, Anna Vlasova, Marina Marcet-Houben, Begoña Martínez-Cruz, Jade Yu Cheng, Pablo Prieto, Víctor Quesada, Javier Quilez, Gang Li, Francisca García, Miriam Rubio-Camarillo, Leonor Frias, Paolo Ribeca, Salvador Capella-Gutiérrez, José M Rodríguez, Francisco Câmara, Ernesto Lowy, Luca Cozzuto, Ionas Erb, Michael L Tress, Jose L Rodriguez-Ales, Jorge Ruiz-Orera, Ferran Reverter, Mireia Casas-Marce, Laura Soriano, Javier R Arango, Sophia Derdak, Beatriz Galán, Julie Blanc, Marta Gut, Belen Lorente-Galdos, Marta Andrés-Nieto, Carlos López-Otín, Alfonso Valencia, Ivo Gut, José L García, Roderic Guigó, William J Murphy, Aurora Ruiz-Herrera, Tomas Marques-Bonet, Guglielmo Roma, Cedric Notredame, Thomas Mailund, M Mar Albà, Toni Gabaldón, Tyler Alioto, José A Godoy
BACKGROUND: Genomic studies of endangered species provide insights into their evolution and demographic history, reveal patterns of genomic erosion that might limit their viability, and offer tools for their effective conservation. The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is the most endangered felid and a unique example of a species on the brink of extinction. RESULTS: We generate the first annotated draft of the Iberian lynx genome and carry out genome-based analyses of lynx demography, evolution, and population genetics...
December 14, 2016: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942045/metabolic-profiling-reveals-effects-of-age-sexual-development-and-neutering-in-plasma-of-young-male-cats
#12
David Allaway, Matthew S Gilham, Alison Colyer, Thomas J Jönsson, Kelly S Swanson, Penelope J Morris
Neutering is a significant risk factor for obesity in cats. The mechanisms that promote neuter-associated weight gain are not well understood but following neutering, acute changes in energy expenditure and energy consumption have been observed. Metabolic profiling (GC-MS and UHPLC-MS-MS) was used in a longitudinal study to identify changes associated with age, sexual development and neutering in male cats fed a nutritionally-complete dry diet to maintain an ideal body condition score. At eight time points, between 19 and 52 weeks of age, fasted blood samples were taken from kittens neutered at either 19 weeks of age (Early Neuter (EN), n = 8) or at 31 weeks of age (Conventional Neuter (CN), n = 7)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938443/hepatozoon-silvestris-sp-nov-morphological-and-molecular-characterization-of-a-new-species-of-hepatozoon-adeleorina-hepatozoidae-from-the-european-wild-cat-felis-silvestris-silvestris
#13
Adnan Hodžić, Amer Alić, Senad Prašović, Domenico Otranto, Gad Baneth, Georg Gerhard Duscher
Based on morphological and genetic characteristics, we describe a new species of Hepatozoon in the European wild cat (Felis silvestris silvestris), herein named Hepatozoon silvestris sp. nov. The study also provides the first data on the occurrence of H. felis in this wild felid. Hepatozoon meronts were observed in multiple cross-sections of different organs of four (44%) cats. Additionally, extracellular forms, resembling mature gamonts of Hepatozoon, were found in the spleen and myocardium of two cats. Furthermore, tissues of six animals (67%) were positive by PCR...
December 12, 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898922/influence-of-pork-and-pork-by-products-on-macronutrient-and-energy-digestibility-and-palatability-in-large-exotic-felids
#14
C J Iske, C L Morris, K L Kappen
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate digestibility and palatability of a new commercial pork-based raw diet for zoo-managed felids. Currently 2 protein sources (beef or horse) comprise the majority of commercial raw meat diet formulations for exotic carnivores in zoological institutions. Pork-based diets have traditionally not been widely utilized and thus nutrient digestibility of pork has not been adequately evaluated in exotic carnivores. The objectives of this study were 1) to determine if a pork-based diet had similar apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility and fecal scores as standard zoo carnivore diets formulated with either horse or beef, in large exotic felids and 2) evaluate palatability of pork for use in zoos...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894847/pcr-screening-of-tick-borne-agents-in-sensitive-conservation-areas-southeast-portugal
#15
Maria Margarida Santos-Silva, Pedro Melo, Nuno Santos, Sandra Antunes, Luís Raposo Duarte, Joana Ferrolho, Natacha Milhano, Patrícia Tavares Santos, Ana Domingos, Ana Sofia Santos
The Southeast region of Portugal, particularly the Guadiana valley, is currently the reintroduction territory of Lynx pardinus (Iberian lynx), one of the most endangered felids in the world that is only found in the Iberian Peninsula. Over the last century, populations have declined, placing L. pardinus at extremely high risk of extinction in the wild and relying on reintroduction projects. Among the aspects taken into account in the establishment of new populations is the sanitary status of the selected habitats, especially concerning infectious diseases, including tick-borne pathogens (TBPs)...
November 25, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Probes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852814/spontaneous-proliferative-and-neoplastic-lesions-in-thyroid-and-parathyroid-glands-of-nondomestic-felids
#16
Jenny P Pope, James Steeil, Edward C Ramsay, Danielle Reel, Shelley J Newman
Based on microscopic and immunohistochemical characterization, we documented spontaneous proliferative and neoplastic lesions in the thyroid and parathyroid glands of nondomestic felids. Ten animals (4 leopards, 3 tigers, and 3 cougars), all with a previous diagnosis of thyroid neoplasia were identified from the University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine database. The mean age of affected animals was 15.9 y. Twelve neoplasms were identified; 2 animals had 2 concurrent neoplasms. After immunohistochemical characterization using a panel of chromogranin A, thyroglobulin, and calcitonin, 7 of the former thyroid neoplasms were diagnosed as thyroid adenomas, 1 was diagnosed as a thyroid carcinoma, and 4 were diagnosed as parathyroid adenomas...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812324/big-cat-coalitions-a-comparative-analysis-of-regional-brain-volumes-in-felidae
#17
Sharleen T Sakai, Bradley M Arsznov, Ani E Hristova, Elise J Yoon, Barbara L Lundrigan
Broad-based species comparisons across mammalian orders suggest a number of factors that might influence the evolution of large brains. However, the relationship between these factors and total and regional brain size remains unclear. This study investigated the relationship between relative brain size and regional brain volumes and sociality in 13 felid species in hopes of revealing relationships that are not detected in more inclusive comparative studies. In addition, a more detailed analysis was conducted of four focal species: lions (Panthera leo), leopards (Panthera pardus), cougars (Puma concolor), and cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807913/retained-fertilizing-capability-in-cryopreserved-feline-spermatozoa
#18
K Chatdarong
Sperm cryopreservation offers a long-term preservation of male genetic materials for future assisted reproductive technologies. However, dramatic changes in temperature during freezing and thawing injure sperm cells. While motility is essential for AI and membrane integrity is crucial for in vitro fertilization (IVF), sperm DNA integrity is a common index of fertilizing capability required for AI, IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In endangered felids died unexpectedly, attempts have been made to recover as many DNA intact spermatozoa as possible from epididymis and testis to increase the opportunity to produce offspring in future...
November 3, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807895/deciphering-the-mechanisms-involving-cenexin-ninein-and-centriolin-in-sperm-maturation-during-epididymal-transit-in-the-domestic-cat
#19
T Rowlison, M A Ottinger, P Comizzoli
The sperm centrosome is an essential organelle with a key role in organizing the sperm aster for proper syngamy and formation of the first mitotic spindle. The sperm cell acquires the functional capability during epididymal transit by incorporation of key factors. The objective of the study was to identify these key maturation proteins, such as ninein and centriolin as well as cenexin-a scaffold protein that serves to bind ninein and centriolin. Epididymal samples were dissected from 17 adult cat testes (>1 year old) and spermatozoa were extracted from the different regions, including rete testis, caput, corpus, cauda and vas deferens...
November 3, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807883/urethral-catheterization-and-sperm-vitrification-for-simplified-semen-banking-in-felids
#20
W F Swanson, H L Bateman, L M Vansandt
Semen banking of domestic cats and wild felids represents a vital resource for their long-term conservation, but current methods require access to advanced training and specialized equipment. A newer method of semen collection, urethral catheterization of medetomidine-treated cats, allows recovery of high sperm numbers, but it is unclear if this approach permits maximal sperm recovery or is feasible using less expensive alpha-2 agonists. Similarly, a newer sperm preservation approach, vitrification, offers advantages of simplicity and minimal equipment needs, but its efficacy in combination with urethral catheterization has not been investigated...
November 3, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
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