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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121060/the-effects-of-demographic-social-and-environmental-characteristics-on-pathogen-prevalence-in-wild-felids-across-a-gradient-of-urbanization
#1
Jesse S Lewis, Kenneth A Logan, Mat W Alldredge, Scott Carver, Sarah N Bevins, Michael Lappin, Sue VandeWoude, Kevin R Crooks
Transmission of pathogens among animals is influenced by demographic, social, and environmental factors. Anthropogenic alteration of landscapes can impact patterns of disease dynamics in wildlife populations, increasing the potential for spillover and spread of emerging infectious diseases in wildlife, human, and domestic animal populations. We evaluated the effects of multiple ecological mechanisms on patterns of pathogen exposure in animal populations. Specifically, we evaluated how ecological factors affected the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (Toxoplasma), Bartonella spp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111373/rickettsia-spp-among-wild-mammals-and-their-respective-ectoparasites-in-pantanal-wetland-brazil
#2
Keyla Carstens Marques de Sousa, Heitor Miraglia Herrera, Fabiana Lopes Rocha, Francisco Borges Costa, Thiago Fernandes Martins, Marcelo Bahia Labruna, Rosangela Zacarias Machado, Marcos Rogério André
The genus Rickettsia comprises obligatory intracellular bacteria, well known to cause zoonotic diseases around the world. The present work aimed to investigate the occurrence of Rickettsia spp. in wild animals, domestic dogs and their respective ectoparasites in southern Pantanal region, central-western Brazil, by molecular and serological techniques. Between August 2013 and March 2015, serum, whole blood and/or spleen samples were collected from 31 coatis, 78 crab-eating foxes, seven ocelots, 42 dogs, 110 wild rodents, and 30 marsupials...
October 27, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090215/inferring-the-ecological-niche-of-toxoplasma-gondii-and-bartonella-spp-in-wild-felids
#3
Luis E Escobar, Scott Carver, Daniel Romero-Alvarez, Sue VandeWoude, Kevin R Crooks, Michael R Lappin, Meggan E Craft
Traditional epidemiological studies of disease in animal populations often focus on directly transmitted pathogens. One reason pathogens with complex lifecycles are understudied could be due to challenges associated with detection in vectors and the environment. Ecological niche modeling (ENM) is a methodological approach that overcomes some of the detection challenges often seen with vector or environmentally dependent pathogens. We test this approach using a unique dataset of two pathogens in wild felids across North America: Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056454/evolutionary-history-of-saber-toothed-cats-based-on-ancient-mitogenomics
#4
Johanna L A Paijmans, Ross Barnett, M Thomas P Gilbert, M Lisandra Zepeda-Mendoza, Jelle W F Reumer, John de Vos, Grant Zazula, Doris Nagel, Gennady F Baryshnikov, Jennifer A Leonard, Nadin Rohland, Michael V Westbury, Axel Barlow, Michael Hofreiter
Saber-toothed cats (Machairodontinae) are among the most widely recognized representatives of the now largely extinct Pleistocene megafauna. However, many aspects of their ecology, evolution, and extinction remain uncertain. Although ancient-DNA studies have led to huge advances in our knowledge of these aspects of many other megafauna species (e.g., mammoths and cave bears), relatively few ancient-DNA studies have focused on saber-toothed cats [1-3], and they have been restricted to short fragments of mitochondrial DNA...
November 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055694/dna-barcoding-of-metacestodes-found-in-the-guerlinguetus-ingrami-rodentia-sciuridae-reveals-the-occurrence-of-hydatigera-taeniaeformis-sensu-stricto-cyclophyllidea-taeniidae-in-the-americas
#5
Érica Munhoz de Mello, Luis Fernando Viana Furtado, Élida Mara Rabelo, Hudson Alves Pinto
The existence of cryptic species in the genus Hydatigera, cyclophillid cestodes, mainly of felids, was recently described based on molecular studies of parasites from Asia, Europe and Africa. However, the occurrence of H. taeniaeformis sensu stricto (s.s.), the species more widely distributed and with a presumed specificity for murid rodents as intermediate hosts, has not been formally described in Americas. In the present study, during necropsy of an Ingram's squirrel specimen, Guerlinguetus ingrami, found dead in the municipality of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, strobilocerci were found in the liver...
October 18, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029632/fatal-haemorrhage-and-neoplastic-thrombosis-in-a-captive-african-lion-panthera-leo-with-metastatic-testicular-sex-cord-stromal-tumour
#6
Omar Antonio Gonzales-Viera, Angélica María Sánchez-Sarmiento, Natália Coelho Couto de Azevedo Fernandes, Juliana Mariotti Guerra, Rodrigo Albergaria Ressio, José Luiz Catão-Dias
BACKGROUND: The study of neoplasia in wildlife species contributes to the understanding of cancer biology, management practices, and comparative pathology. Higher frequencies of neoplasms among captive non-domestic felids have been reported most commonly in aging individuals. However, testicular tumours have rarely been reported. This report describes a metastatic testicular sex cord-stromal tumour leading to fatal haemorrhage and thrombosis in a captive African lion (Panthera leo). CASE PRESENTATION: During necropsy of a 16-year-old male African lion, the left testicle and spermatic cord were found to be intra-abdominal (cryptorchid), semi-hard and grossly enlarged with multiple pale-yellow masses...
October 13, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971533/growth-rate-and-stable-carbon-and-nitrogen-isotope-trophic-discrimination-factors-of-lion-and-leopard-whiskers
#7
Ruwimbo Mutirwara, Frans G T Radloff, Daryl Codron
RATIONALE: Stable isotope analysis (SIA) of whiskers has been used to identify temporal feeding habits, intra-population diet variation, as well as individual dietary specialisation of marine and terrestrial carnivores. However, the potential of the method to disclose such dietary information for large wild felids is hampered by lack of information on species-specific whisker growth rates, whisker growth patterns and whisker-diet trophic discrimination factors (TDFs). METHODS: Whisker growth rates and growth patterns were measured for four lions Panthera leo and one leopard Panthera pardus held at the National Zoological Gardens, Pretoria, South Africa...
October 3, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953899/did-saber-tooth-kittens-grow-up-musclebound-a-study-of-postnatal-limb-bone-allometry-in-felids-from-the-pleistocene-of-rancho-la-brea
#8
Katherine Long, Donald Prothero, Meena Madan, Valerie J P Syverson
Previous studies have demonstrated that the Pleistocene saber-toothed cat Smilodon fatalis had many forelimb adaptations for increased strength, presumably to grapple with and subdue prey. The Rancho La Brea tar pits yield large samples of juvenile limb bones forming a growth series that allow us to examine how Smilodon kittens grew up. Almost all available juvenile limb bones were measured, and reduced major axis fits were calculated to determine the allometric growth trends. Contrary to expectations based on their robust limbs, Smilodon kittens show the typical pattern of growth found in other large felids (such as the Ice Age lion, Panthera atrox, as well as living tigers, cougars, servals, and wildcats) where the limb grows longer and more slender faster than they grow thick...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942372/restoration-of-fresh-cat-ovarian-tissue-function-by-autografting-to-subcutaneous-tissue-a-pilot-study
#9
Ellen C R Leonel, Janice M V Vilela, Raísa E G Paiva, José L P R Jivago, Rodrigo S Amaral, Carolina M Lucci
Ovarian tissue transplantation could be a valuable technique for the preservation of endangered animals. The domestic cat affords an adequate experimental model for studies aimed at wild felids due to its phylogenetic similarity. Thus, this pilot study evaluated the efficacy of cat ovarian tissue autotransplantation to a peripheral site. Three adult queens were submitted to ovariohysterectomy. The ovaries were fragmented into eight pieces; two were fixed as a control and six were transplanted to subcutaneous tissue of the dorsal neck...
January 1, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942048/the-cockroach-periplaneta-americana-as-a-potential-paratenic-host-of-the-lungworm-aelurostrongylus-abstrusus
#10
Luigi Falsone, Vito Colella, Ettore Napoli, Emanuele Brianti, Domenico Otranto
INTRODUCTION: Aelurostrongylus abstrusus is a well-known nematode affecting the respiratory system of felids worldwide. Snails and slugs act as intermediate hosts of this parasite, whereas rodents, birds and reptiles may serve as paratenic hosts. Periplaneta americana, the American brown cockroach, shares the same habitat and ecological features (e.g. nocturnal activity) with both snails and cats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capability of P. americana to maintain alive A...
November 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925790/morphological-variation-of-the-caudal-fossa-of-domestic-cat-skulls-assessed-with-computed-tomography-and-geometric-morphometrics-analysis
#11
Caroline R Gordon, Thomas W Marchant, Joanna Lodzinska, Jeffery J Schoenebeck, Tobias Schwarz
Objectives This study aimed to investigate differences and demonstrate a normal range of morphological variation of the caudal fossa of the cranium of domestic cats. Methods CT scans of 32 domestic cat heads of 11 breeds were included. Isosurfaces from skulls were characterised through three-dimensional geometric morphometrics using geographical landmarks placed on the internal surface of the caudal fossa and foramen magnum. Raw data was transformed with a Procrustes fit and coordinate covariance was analysed by principal components to establish breed- and sex-level differences...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915995/detection-and-molecular-characterization-of-feline-hemoplasmas-in-wild-felid-species-in-iran-in-the-middle-east
#12
Fereshteh Ghazisaeedi, Nahid Atyabi, Taghi Zahraei Salehi, Saeid Tabatabaei, Iraj Ashrafi Tamai, Iman Memarian, Séverine Tasker
Three feline hemoplasma species exist in felids: Mycoplasma haemofelis, 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum', and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis'. The aims of the study were to determine the presence of, and molecularly characterize, any hemoplasmas in wild felids, including the endangered Persian leopard in Iran, the Middle East. Blood samples were collected from 19 wild felids, including three Persian leopards. Using species-specific hemoplasma PCRs and ELISA serological testing for feline leukaemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), two Persian leopards were found to be infected with 'Ca...
October 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880947/comparing-hair-morphology-and-molecular-methods-to-identify-fecal-samples-from-neotropical-felids
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Carlos C Alberts, Bruno H Saranholi, Fernando Frei, Pedro M Galetti
To avoid certain problems encountered with more-traditional and invasive methods in behavioral-ecology studies of mammalian predators, such as felids, molecular approaches have been employed to identify feces found in the field. However, this method requires a complete molecular biology laboratory, and usually also requires very fresh fecal samples to avoid DNA degradation. Both conditions are normally absent in the field. To address these difficulties, identification based on morphological characters (length, color, banding, scales and medullar patterns) of hairs found in feces could be employed as an alternative...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879089/pathology-clinical-signs-and-tissue-distribution-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-experimentally-infected-reindeer-rangifer-tarandus
#14
Émilie Bouchard, Rajnish Sharma, Nicholas Bachand, Alvin A Gajadhar, Emily J Jenkins
Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite found in vertebrates worldwide for which felids serve as definitive hosts. Despite low densities of felids in northern Canada, Inuit people in some regions show unexpectedly high levels of exposure, possibly through handling and consumption of Arctic wildlife. Free-ranging caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are widely harvested for food across the Canadian North, show evidence of seroexposure to T. gondii, and are currently declining in numbers throughout the Arctic. We experimentally infected three captive reindeer (conspecific with caribou) with 1000, 5000 or 10,000 oocysts of T...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842189/daily-rhythmicity-of-behavior-of-nine-species-of-south-american-feral-felids-in-captivity
#15
Sciabarrasi Bagilet Antonio, Raúl Delmar Cerutti, María Cristina Scaglione, Giuseppe Piccione, Roberto Refinetti
The authors analyzed the daily activity rhythms of the domestic cat and of eight of the ten feral felid species that are indigenous to South America. All species showed daily rhythmicity of activity in captivity under a natural light-dark cycle. The robustness of the rhythmicity varied from species to species, but the grand mean of 34% was within the range of robustness previously described for mammalian species ranging in size from mice to cattle. There was not a sharp division between diurnal and nocturnal felids...
August 24, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831633/characterization-of-major-histocompatibility-complex-class-i-and-class-ii-drb-loci-of-captive-and-wild-indian-leopards-panthera-pardus-fusca
#16
Drashti R Parmar, Siuli Mitra, Snehalata Bhadouriya, Tirupathi Rao, Vaishnavi Kunteepuram, Ajay Gaur
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC), in vertebrate animals, is a multi-genic protein complex that encodes various receptors. During a disease, MHC interacts with the antigen and triggers a cascade of adaptive immune responses to overcome a disease outbreak. The MHC is very important region from immunological point of view, but it is poorly characterized among Indian leopards. During this investigation, we examined genetic diversity for MHC class I (MHC-I) and MHC class II-DRB (MHC-II) among wild and captive Indian leopards...
August 22, 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828280/energetics-and-evasion-dynamics-of-large-predators-and-prey-pumas-vs-hounds
#17
Caleb M Bryce, Christopher C Wilmers, Terrie M Williams
Quantification of fine-scale movement, performance, and energetics of hunting by large carnivores is critical for understanding the physiological underpinnings of trophic interactions. This is particularly challenging for wide-ranging terrestrial canid and felid predators, which can each affect ecosystem structure through distinct hunting modes. To compare free-ranging pursuit and escape performance from group-hunting and solitary predators in unprecedented detail, we calibrated and deployed accelerometer-GPS collars during predator-prey chase sequences using packs of hound dogs (Canis lupus familiaris, 26 kg, n = 4-5 per chase) pursuing simultaneously instrumented solitary pumas (Puma concolor, 60 kg, n = 2)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807274/isolation-of-viable-toxoplasma-gondii-molecular-characterization-and-seroprevalence-in-elk-cervus-canadensis-in-pennsylvania-usa
#18
J P Dubey, J Brown, S K Verma, C K Cerqueira-Cézar, J Banfield, O C H Kwok, Y Ying, F H A Murata, A K Pradhan, C Su
Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis. The ingestion of uncooked/undercooked meat and consumption of water contaminated with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts excreted by felids are the main modes of transmission of this parasite. T. gondii has been reported in multiple cervid species; however, little is known of the parasite in North American elk (Cervus canadensis). In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were detected in serum of wild elk from Pennsylvania collected during 2013-2016 by the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:25); 221 of 317 (69...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791002/antibody-detection-isolation-genotyping-and-virulence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-captive-felids-from-china
#19
Yu-Rong Yang, Yong-Jie Feng, Yao-Yao Lu, Hui Dong, Tong-Yi Li, Yi-Bao Jiang, Xing-Quan Zhu, Long-Xian Zhang
The felids are the only definitive hosts of Toxoplasma gondii, which could excrete oocysts into the environment and provide an infection source for toxoplasmosis in various warm-blooded animal species, particularly the captive felids that live close to human communities. The infection rate of the captive felids is a perfect standard in detecting the presence of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in the environment. In this study, sera or tissue samples from zoo (1 young tiger, 2 adult tigers, 6 young lions), farm (10 masked palm civets), and pet hospital (28 cats) from Henan Province (China) were collected...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766738/major-shifts-in-amazon-wildlife-populations-from-recent-climatic-intensification
#20
Richard Bodmer, Pedro Mayor, Miguel Antunez, Kimberlyn Chota, Tula Fang, Pablo Puertas, Marlini Pittet, Maire Kirkland, Mike Walkey, Claudia Rios, Pedro Perez-Peña, Peter Henderson, William Bodmer, Andy Bicerra, Joseph Zegarra, Emma Docherty
In the western Amazon basin, recent intensification of river level cycles has increased flooding during the wet seasons and decreased precipitation during the dry season. Greater than normal floods occurred in 2009 and in all years from 2011-2015 during high water seasons, and a drought occurred during the 2010 low water season. During these years, we surveyed populations of terrestrial, arboreal and aquatic wildlife in a seasonally flooded Amazonian forest to study the consequences of intensification of climatic fluctuations to wildlife populations and in turn resource use by traditional people...
August 2, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
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