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Theory of mind

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048312/adhd-symptoms-and-peer-problems-mediation-of-executive-function-and-theory-of-mind
#1
Carmen Berenguer Forner, Belén Roselló Miranda, Inmaculada Baixauli Fortea, Rosa García Castellar, Carla Colomer Diago, Ana Miranda Casas
BACKGROUND: The social maladjustment suffered by many children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is maintained over time, increasing the risk of subsequent adverse outcomes. The objectives of the study were to explore the mechanisms that operate between ADHD symptoms and social problems with peers, considering the mediation of FE and ToM. METHOD: 35 children with ADHD and 37 with typical development matched in age and IQ were compared. Parents assessed ToM skills and relationships with peers, and teachers provided EF ratings...
November 2017: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048245/self-esteem-internalizing-symptoms-and-theory-of-mind-in-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
James B McCauley, Michelle A Harris, Matthew C Zajic, Lindsay E Swain-Lerro, Tasha Oswald, Nancy McIntyre, Kali Trzesniewski, Peter Mundy, Marjorie Solomon
Self-esteem is a potent indicator of mental health in typically developing (TYP) individuals. It is surprising that there have been few comprehensive investigations of self-esteem in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), given that they are at high risk for comorbid mental health problems, such as depression and anxiety. The objectives of the current study were to assess how youth with ASD rate their self-esteem compared to age-matched TYP youth and to examine how self-esteem relates to internalizing psychopathology and theory of mind in the two groups...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044446/social-cognition-in-schizophrenia-unaffected-relatives-and-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-what-do-we-currently-know
#3
Alejandra Mondragón-Maya, Daniela Ramos-Mastache, Pedro D Román, Guillermina Yáñez-Téllez
INTRODUCTION: Schizophrenia patients show impairments in social cognition (SC), which is a set of cognitive processes that underlie social interactions. The research about SC in schizophrenia has identified four main domains: Theory of mind (ToM), social perception, attributional style and emotional processing. The present review aims to summarize the most recent and consistent findings about SC in patients with schizophrenia, unaffected relatives and ultra-high risk for psychosis individuals (UHR), as well as its association with clinical variables and functional outcome...
September 2017: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038652/hierarchical-recursive-organization-and-the-free-energy-principle-from-biological-self-organization-to-the-psychoanalytic-mind
#4
Patrick Connolly, Vasi van Deventer
The present paper argues that a systems theory epistemology (and particularly the notion of hierarchical recursive organization) provides the critical theoretical context within which the significance of Friston's (2010a) Free Energy Principle (FEP) for both evolution and psychoanalysis is best understood. Within this perspective, the FEP occupies a particular level of the hierarchical organization of the organism, which is the level of biological self-organization. This form of biological self-organization is in turn understood as foundational and pervasive to the higher levels of organization of the human organism that are of interest to both neuroscience as well as psychoanalysis...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037337/-social-cognition-and-its-contribution-to-the-rehabilitation-of-behavioural-disorders-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
José Ignacio Quemada, Olga Rusu, Paola Fonseca
Social behaviour disorders in traumatic brain injury are caused by the dysfunction of cognitive processes involved in social and interpersonal interaction. The concept of social cognition was introduced by authors studying schizophrenia, autism or mental retardation. The boundaries and the content of the concept have not yet been definitively defined, but theory of mind, empathy and emotional processing are included in all the models proposed. The strategies proposed to improve social behaviour focus on the restoration of cognitive processes such as working memory, emotional recognition and processing, and empathy, as well as social skills...
October 2017: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037272/affective-and-cognitive-verbal-theory-of-mind-in-schizophrenia-results-from-a-novel-paradigm
#6
Łukasz Okruszek, Aleksandra Piejka, Ewa Szczepocka, Adam Wysokiński, Agnieszka Pluta
OBJECTIVES: Impairments of Theory of Mind (ToM) have been repeatedly demonstrated in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ). However, only a handful of studies have explored deficits in affective and cognitive subcomponents of ToM. Thus, this study aims to examine affective and cognitive ToM abilities in SCZ by using a novel, verbal paradigm. METHODS: Twenty-four SCZ and 22 healthy comparison subjects (HC) completed a battery of tasks, which consisted of: (i) Brief Cognitive Assessment Tool for Schizophrenia (B-CATS), (ii) three well-established tasks measuring social cognitive abilities, and (iii) original tasks which assess ability to infer cognitive and affective mental states based on everyday verbal social interactions...
October 17, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034353/the-default-mode-network-in-autism
#7
Aarthi Padmanabhan, Charles J Lynch, Marie Schaer, Vinod Menon
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by deficits in social communication and interaction. Since its discovery as a major functional brain system, the default mode network (DMN) has been implicated in a number of psychiatric disorders, including ASD. Here we review converging multimodal evidence for DMN dysfunction in the context of specific components of social cognitive dysfunction in ASD: 'self-referential processing' - the ability to process social information relative to oneself and 'theory of mind' or 'mentalizing' - the ability to infer the mental states such as beliefs, intentions, and emotions of others...
September 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033871/sense-of-place-fast-and-slow-the-potential-contributions-of-affordance-theory-to-sense-of-place
#8
Christopher M Raymond, Marketta Kyttä, Richard Stedman
Over the past 40 years, the sense of place concept has been well-established across a range of applications and settings; however, most theoretical developments have "privileged the slow." Evidence suggests that place attachments and place meanings are slow to evolve, sometimes not matching material or social reality (lag effects), and also tending to inhibit change. Here, we present some key blind spots in sense of place scholarship and then suggest how a reconsideration of sense of place as "fast" and "slow" could fill them...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033780/evolutionary-musicology-meets-embodied-cognition-biocultural-coevolution-and-the-enactive-origins-of-human-musicality
#9
REVIEW
Dylan van der Schyff, Andrea Schiavio
Despite evolutionary musicology's interdisciplinary nature, and the diverse methods it employs, the field has nevertheless tended to divide into two main positions. Some argue that music should be understood as a naturally selected adaptation, while others claim that music is a product of culture with little or no relevance for the survival of the species. We review these arguments, suggesting that while interesting and well-reasoned positions have been offered on both sides of the debate, the nature-or-culture (or adaptation vs...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032324/intranasal-oxytocin-social-cognition-and-neurodevelopmental-disorders-a-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Britney Keech, Simon Crowe, Darren R Hocking
Deficits in social cognition are pervasive and characteristic of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Clinical trials of intranasal oxytocin (IN-OT) to improve social cognition have yielded inconclusive results. The current study is a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) considering the effect of IN-OT on social cognitive domains across a range of NDDs. Medline, PsychINFO and Scopus were searched for RCTs published through to July 25, 2017. Seventeen studies met inclusion criteria, comprising 466 participants with a NDD...
October 8, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031604/sex-mediates-the-effects-of-high-definition-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-mind-reading
#11
A K Martin, J Huang, A Hunold, M Meinzer
Sex differences in social cognitive ability are well established, including measures of Theory of Mind (ToM). The aim of this study was to investigate if sex mediates the effects of high definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) administered to a key hub of the social brain (i.e., the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, dmPFC) on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). 40 healthy young adults (18-35 years) were randomly allocated to receive either anodal or cathodal HD-tDCS in sham HD-tDCS controlled, double blind designs...
October 11, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029671/presidential-address-embracing-the-repulsive-the-case-for-disgust-as-a-functionally-central-emotional-state-in-the-theory-practice-and-dissemination-of-cognitive-behavior-therapy
#12
Dean McKay
Disgust is a primary emotion, but it is also understudied in general, and in psychopathology in particular. Disgust plays a potential role in the reluctance of many non-scientifically minded practitioners from adopting evidence-based methods of treatment. This article summarizes findings from psychopathology research and treatment, and highlights basic science that potentially accounts for the hesitancy for some therapists to adopt evidence-based methods. Several recommendations are provided for future research in disgust related to both psychopathology and dissemination research...
November 2017: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028446/out-of-objectification-limelight-the-contribution-of-body-appreciation-to-sexual-adjustment-in-midlife-women
#13
Anne-Rose Robbins, Elke D Reissing
According to objectification theory, women become culturally desexualized during midlife and have the opportunity to let go of their propensity to self-objectify. In young women, self-objectification is negatively related to sexual adjustment. Yet little is known about what could ameliorate this relationship or whether it continues after midlife. Body appreciation (i.e., acceptance and positive regard for the body) has been substantiated as a contributor to improved sexual adjustment in young and older women alike...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027643/contribution-of-theory-of-mind-executive-functioning-and-pragmatics-to-socialization-behaviors-of-children-with-high-functioning-autism
#14
Carmen Berenguer, Ana Miranda, Carla Colomer, Inmaculada Baixauli, Belén Roselló
Social difficulties are a key aspect of autism, but the intervening factors are still poorly understood. This study had two objectives: to compare the profile of ToM skills, executive functioning (EF), and pragmatic competence (PC) of children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and children with typical development (TD), and analyze their mediator role in social functioning. The participants were 52 children with HFA and 37 children with TD matched on age, intelligence quotient, and expressive vocabulary. Significant differences were found on measures of ToM, both explicit and applied, EF, and PC between children with HFA and TD...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017380/a-collective-effort-to-make-yourself-feel-better-the-group-process-in-mindfulness-based-interventions
#15
Dulcie Cormack, Fergal W Jones, Michael Maltby
There is growing interest in mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) in the management of multiple physical and mental health issues. Although MBIs utilize a group format, research on how this format impacts teaching and learning mindfulness is lacking. This study aimed to develop a detailed theory of MBI group processes utilizing a grounded theory methodology. This article presents our subsequent model, developed from semistructured interviews conducted with MBI students, teachers, and trainers ( N = 12). A core category, the group as a vessel on a shared journey, and three higher-order categories emerged from the data...
October 1, 2017: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994473/preliminary-thoughts-on-the-neurobiology-of-innate-unconscious-structures-and-the-psychodynamics-of-language-acquisition
#16
Susan Mizen
This paper builds upon Britton's recent writing on 'models in the mind', in which he gives an account of preverbal metaphoric structures based on object relations (Britton 2015). These correspond with Jung's theory of innate unconscious structures. These innate models are considered alongside current linguistic theory following Chomsky and post-Chomskyan views about language acquisition. Neuroscience evidence linking language and abstract thinking with structures involved in tool use are presented. The implications of these findings, and our understanding of the relational context within which language, metaphor and abstract thought are acquired, will be discussed along with the failures of symbolization and verbal communication common amongst those with severe narcissistic disorders...
November 2017: Journal of Analytical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994385/-physical-rehabilitation-train-the-brain
#17
Bruno Bonnechère
Since centuries, scientists, clinicians and philosophers have been debating about the interactions between the body and the mind. Researches and advances in neurophysiology over the last decades have challenged many principles and theories, mainly based on empirical observations, generally well accepted in clinical practice. These new findings, achieved through functional "magnetic resonance imaging", awake brain surgery and allow new techniques and opportunities in physical rehabilitation. More than ever the body and the brain must be considered and treated as a functional entity, the distinction between body and soul developed by Platon should no longer be applied...
October 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993748/white-matter-correlates-of-musical-anhedonia-implications-for-evolution-of-music
#18
Psyche Loui, Sean Patterson, Matthew E Sachs, Yvonne Leung, Tima Zeng, Emily Przysinda
Recent theoretical advances in the evolution of music posit that affective communication is an evolutionary function of music through which the mind and brain are transformed. A rigorous test of this view should entail examining the neuroanatomical mechanisms for affective communication of music, specifically by comparing individual differences in the general population with a special population who lacks specific affective responses to music. Here we compare white matter connectivity in BW, a case with severe musical anhedonia, with a large sample of control subjects who exhibit normal variability in reward sensitivity to music...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992741/neuropsychology-and-emotion-processing-in-violent-individuals-with-antisocial-personality-disorder-or-schizophrenia-the-same-or-different-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Ottilie Sedgwick, Susan Young, David Baumeister, Ben Greer, Mrigendra Das, Veena Kumari
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether there are shared or divergent (a) cognitive and (b) emotion processing characteristics among violent individuals with antisocial personality disorder and/or schizophrenia, diagnoses which are commonly encountered at the interface of mental disorder and violence. Cognition and emotion processing are incorporated into models of violence, and thus an understanding of these characteristics within and between disorder groups may help inform future models and therapeutic targets...
October 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992548/the-relative-contributions-of-social-cognition-and-self-reflectiveness-to-clinical-insight-in-enduring-schizophrenia
#20
Sophie Béland, Martin Lepage
Poor clinical insight represents a major barrier to recovery in schizophrenia. Research suggests that higher-order social cognitive abilities such as theory of mind (TOM) and metacognition contribute to levels of clinical insight. However, few studies have examined whether social cognitive abilities other than TOM are related to clinical insight. Moreover, to date, no investigation has attempted to determine whether the contribution of metacognitive ability to clinical insight can be differentiated from the contribution of higher-order social cognition, despite their conceptual similarity...
September 28, 2017: Psychiatry Research
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