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Theory of mind

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450239/alcohol-related-mental-imagery-the-effects-of-a-priming-dose-in-at-risk-drinkers
#1
Michael Yates, Sunjeev K Kamboj
Objectives: Drug related mental imagery is proposed to play a central role in addictive behaviour. However, little is known about such cognition or how it is pharmacologically modulated. Here, we test theoretical predictions of the 'elaborated intrusion' theory by comparing neutral with alcohol related mental imagery, and examine the effects of low dose alcohol on phenomenological aspects of this imagery. Methods: Alcohol related and neutral imagery was assessed after at risk drinkers (n = 40) consumed alcohol (0...
December 2017: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447711/no-355-physiologic-basis-of-pain-in-labour-and-delivery-an-evidence-based-approach-to-its-management
#2
Julie Bonapace, Guy-Paul Gagné, Nils Chaillet, Raymonde Gagnon, Emmanuelle Hébert, Sarah Buckley
OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence relating to nonpharmacological approaches in the management of pain during labour and delivery. To formulate recommendations for the usage of nonpharmacological approaches to pain management. OPTIONS: Nonpharmacological methods available for pain management during labour and delivery exist. These should be included in the counselling and care of women. EVIDENCE: PubMed and Medline were searched for articles in French and English on subjects related to "breastfeeding," "pain," "epidural," "anaesthesia," "analgesia," "labour," "labor," and combined with "gate control theory," "alternative therapies," "massage," "position," "mobility," "TENS," "bathing," "DNIC," "acupuncture," "acupressure," "sterile water injection," "higher center," "control mind," "cognitive structuring," "holistic health," "complementary therapy(ies)," "breathing," "relaxation," "mental imagery," "visualization," "mind focusing," "hypnosis," "auto-hypnosis," "sophrology," "mind and body interventions," "music," "odors," "biofeedback," "Lamaze," "Bonapace," "prenatal training," "gymnastic," "chanting," "haptonomy," "environment," "transcutaneous electrical stimulus-stimulation," "antenatal education," "support," "continuous support," "psychosocial support," "psychosomatic medicine," "supportive care," "companion," "intrapartum care," "nurse," "midwife(ves)," "father," "doula," "caregiver," " hormones," "oxytocin," "endorphin," "prolactin," "catecholamine," "adrenaline," and "noradrenaline" from 1990 to December 2015...
February 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447074/social-cognition-in-the-course-of-psychosis-and-its-correlation-with-biomarkers-in-a-male-cohort
#3
Evangelos Ntouros, Evangelos Karanikas, Georgios Floros, Christina Andreou, Aikaterini Tsoura, Georgios Garyfallos, Vasilios P Bozikas
INTRODUCTION: Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia display deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM) and Emotion Perception (EP) even before the appearance of full-blown symptomatology. METHODS: We evaluated ToM and EP in a male cohort consisting of 25 First Episode Psychosis (FEP) and 16 relapsed schizophrenic patients (CHRON) compared to 12 subjects in Ultra-high Risk (UHR) and 23 healthy controls (CTR). Furthermore, we measured the levels of Cortisol, Insulin like Growth Factor (IGF-1), TNF-a, TNF-b and several interleukins as potential biomarkers...
February 15, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445336/the-two-systems-account-of-theory-of-mind-testing-the-links-to-social-perceptual-and-cognitive-abilities
#4
Bozana Meinhardt-Injac, Moritz M Daum, Günter Meinhardt, Malte Persike
According to the two-systems account of theory of mind (ToM), understanding mental states of others involves both fast social-perceptual processes, as well as slower, reflexive cognitive operations (Frith and Frith, 2008; Apperly and Butterfill, 2009). To test the respective roles of specific abilities in either of these processes we administered 15 experimental procedures to a large sample of 343 participants, testing ability in face recognition and holistic perception, language, and reasoning. ToM was measured by a set of tasks requiring ability to track and to infer complex emotional and mental states of others from faces, eyes, spoken language, and prosody...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437299/proneness-to-guilt-shame-and-pride-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-neurotypical-children
#5
Denise Davidson, Elizabeth Hilvert, Ieva Misiunaite, Michael Giordano
Self-conscious emotions (e.g., guilt, shame, and pride) are complex emotions that require self-reflection and self-evaluation, and are thought to facilitate the maintenance of societal norms and personal standards. Despite the importance of self-conscious emotions, most research has focused on basic emotion processing in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Therefore, in the present study, we used the Test of Self-Conscious Affect for Children (TOSCA-C) to assess proneness to, or propensity to experience, the self-conscious emotions guilt, shame, and pride in children with ASD and neurotypical children...
February 13, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428351/theory-of-mind-in-remitted-bipolar-disorder-younger-patients-struggle-in-tasks-of-higher-ecological-validity
#6
Julia Feyerabend, Stefan Lüttke, Fabienne Grosse-Wentrup, Sibylla Wolter, Martin Hautzinger, Larissa Wolkenstein
BACKGROUND: To date, research concerning Theory of Mind (ToM) in remitted bipolar disorder (rBD) has yielded inconclusive results. This may be a result of methodological shortcomings and the failure to consider relevant third variables. Furthermore, studies using ecologically valid stimuli are rare. This study examines ToM in rBD patients, using ecologically valid stimuli. Additionally, the effects of sad mood induction (MI) as well as of age and gender are considered. METHODS: The sample comprises N = 44 rBD patients (rBDPs) and N = 40 healthy controls (HCs)...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427900/ideological-asymmetries-in-conformity-desire-for-shared-reality-and-the-spread-of-misinformation
#7
REVIEW
John T Jost, Sander van der Linden, Costas Panagopoulos, Curtis D Hardin
Ideological belief systems arise from epistemic, existential, and relational motives to reduce uncertainty, threat, and social discord. According to system justification theory, however, some ideologies-such as those that are conservative, religious, and legitimizing of the status quo-are especially appealing to people whose epistemic, existential, and relational motives are chronically or temporarily heightened. In this article, we focus on relational motivation, describing evidence that conservatives are more likely than liberals to: prioritize values of conformity and tradition; possess a strong desire to share reality with like-minded others; perceive within-group consensus when making political and non-political judgments; be influenced by implicit relational cues and sources who are perceived as similar to them; and maintain homogenous social networks and favor an 'echo chamber' environment that is conducive to the spread of misinformation...
January 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426262/the-relationship-between-theory-of-mind-and-insight-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#8
Rıza Gökçer Tulacı, Eylem Şahin Cankurtaran, Kadir Özdel, Nefise Öztürk, Erkan Kuru, İlker Özdemir
BACKGROUND: It is known that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients with poor insight display more severe neuropsychological impairments than other patients with OCD. There are limited studies of OCD and theory of mind (ToM). AIM: To investigate ToM skills in patients with OCD and the relationship between insight and ToM skills by comparing OCD patients with good and poor insight. METHODS: Eighty patients with OCD and 80 healthy controls completed the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV axis I disorders, the Yale Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, the Beck Anxiety and Beck Depression Inventories, and the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale...
February 9, 2018: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417396/black-male-mental-health-and-the-black-church-advancing-a-collaborative-partnership-and-research-agenda
#9
Michael A Robinson, Sharon Jones-Eversley, Sharon E Moore, Joseph Ravenell, A Christson Adedoyin
This article explores the role the Black Church could play in facilitating spiritually sensitive, culturally relevant and gender-specific services to address the mental health and well-being of Black males. The help-seeking behaviors of Black men are examined as the authors offer two theories: the body, mind, spirit, environment, social, transcendent, and health, illness, men, and masculinities that may assist the Black Church in functioning as an effective support networks for healthy Black male mental health...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410608/toward-a-neuroscience-of-adult-cognitive-developmental-theory
#10
Fady Girgis, Darrin J Lee, Amir Goodarzi, Jochen Ditterich
Piaget's genetic epistemology has provided the constructivist approach upon which child developmental theories were founded, in that infants are thought to progress through distinct cognitive stages until they reach maturity in their early 20's. However, it is now well established that cognition continues to develop after early adulthood, and several "neo-Piagetian" theories have emerged in an attempt to better characterize adult cognitive development. For example, Kegan's Constructive Developmental Theory (CDT) argues that the thought processes used by adults to construct their reality change over time, and reaching higher stages of cognitive development entails becoming objectively aware of emotions and beliefs that were previously in the realm of the subconscious...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407942/neuropsychological-correlates-of-cognitive-emotional-affective-and-auto-activation-apathy-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Perri Roberta, Turchetta Chiara Stella, Caruso Giulia, Fadda Lucia, Caltagiorne Carlo, Carlesimo Giovanni Augusto
Apathy symptoms include different dimensions: cognitive (C), emotional-affective (E-Aff) and auto-activation; they have been related to dysfunctions of the dorsolateral, orbito-basal prefrontal cortex and the subcortical frontal connections to the basal ganglia, respectively. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), an association has been found between apathy severity and both executive deficits and atrophy of the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex; however, it is not clear whether these associations concern only the cognitive aspects of apathy...
January 30, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407571/reliability-of-two-social-cognition-tests-the-combined-stories-test-and-the-social-knowledge-test
#12
Élisabeth Thibaudeau, Caroline Cellard, Maxime Legendre, Karèle Villeneuve, Amélie M Achim
Deficits in social cognition are common in psychiatric disorders. Validated social cognition measures with good psychometric properties are necessary to assess and target social cognitive deficits. Two recent social cognition tests, the Combined Stories Test (COST) and the Social Knowledge Test (SKT), respectively assess theory of mind and social knowledge. Previous studies have shown good psychometric properties for these tests, but the test-retest reliability has never been documented. The aim of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability and the inter-rater reliability of the COST and the SKT...
January 12, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407469/age-related-differences-in-the-neural-correlates-of-empathy-for-pleasant-and-unpleasant-touch-in-a-female-sample
#13
Federica Riva, Melanie Tschernegg, Patrizia A Chiesa, Isabella C Wagner, Martin Kronbichler, Claus Lamm, Giorgia Silani
Empathy is essential for successful social interactions and relationships. The neural underpinnings of empathy have predominantly been studied in the young adult population, thus little is known about how they evolve across the life span. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate age-related differences in brain activity associated to empathy for positive and negative emotions. Female participants of 3 age groups-adolescents, young, and older adults-underwent an experimental paradigm inducing both first-hand and empathic experience of pleasant and unpleasant touch...
January 9, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406267/brain-mechanisms-underlying-reading-the-mind-from-eyes-voice-and-actions
#14
Melissa D Thye, Donna L Murdaugh, Rajesh K Kana
Evidence from cognitive and social neuroscience research suggests that Theory of Mind (ToM), the ability to attribute mental states to others, is mediated by a group of brain regions collectively known as the ToM network. Nevertheless, there is significant variability in the functional activation of regions within this network across tasks. The goal of the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to examine the common and differential neural mechanisms of two aspects of ToM processing (emotion/mental-state recognition and intentional attribution) using three distinct, but complementary ToM tasks (Reading the Mind in the Eyes (RMIE), Reading the Mind in the Voice (RMIV), and Intentional Causal Attribution) in healthy adults...
February 3, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402750/a-bridge-towards-a-mathematical-theory-of-living-systems-comment-on-physics-of-mind-experimental-confirmations-of-theoretical-predictions-by-f-schoeller-l-perlovsky-and-d-arseniev
#15
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400250/-the-journey-i-have-been-through-the-role-of-religion-and-spirituality-in-aging-well-among-hiv-positive-older-adults
#16
Charles A Emlet, Lesley Harris, Christina M Pierpaoli, Charles Furlotte
The National Institutes of Health human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Aging Working Group identified spirituality as a research emphasis. This qualitative study examines the importance of religion and spirituality among 30 HIV-positive older adults. Using modified grounded theory, adults 50+ were recruited in Ontario, Canada, through AIDS service organizations, clinics, and community agencies. Descriptions of religion and spirituality encapsulated the idea of a journey, which had two components: the long-term HIV survivor profile combined with the experience of aging itself...
March 2018: Research on Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399536/rationale-for-catheter-directed-therapy-in-pulmonary-embolism
#17
REVIEW
Sailen G Naidu, Martha-Gracia Knuttinen, J Scott Kriegshauser, William G Eversman, Rahmi Oklu
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a widespread health concern associated with major morbidity and mortality. Catheter directed therapy (CDT) has emerged as a treatment option for acute PE adding to the current potential options of systemic thrombolysis or anticoagulation. The purpose of this review is to understand the rationale and indications for CDT in patients with PE. While numerous studies have shown the benefits of systemic thrombolysis compared to standard anticoagulation, these are balanced by the increased risk of major bleeding...
December 2017: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399210/the-impact-of-mindfulness-and-perspective-taking-on-implicit-associations-toward-the-elderly-a-relational-frame-theory-account
#18
Darren J Edwards, Ciara McEnteggart, Yvonne Barnes-Holmes, Rob Lowe, Nicky Evans, Roger Vilardaga
Perspective-taking interventions have been shown to improve attitudes toward social outgroups. In contrast, similar interventions have produced opposite effects (i.e., enhanced negativity) in the context of attitudes toward elderly groups. The current study investigated whether a brief perspective-taking intervention enhanced with mindfulness would be associated with less negativity than perspective-taking alone. One hundred five participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions which comprised of an active or control perspective-taking component and an active or control mindfulness component...
December 2017: Mindfulness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398930/autism-and-talent-the-cognitive-and-neural-basis-of-systemizing
#19
Simon Baron-Cohen, Michael V Lombardo
In 2003, we proposed the hypersystemizing theory of autism. The theory proposes that the human mind possesses a systemizing mechanism (SM) that helps identify lawful regularities (often causal) that govern the input-operation-output workings of a system. The SM can be tuned to different levels, from low to high, with a normal distribution of individual differences in how strongly people search for such input-operation-out-put regularities in any data that is systemizable. Evidence suggests that people with autism are on average hypersystemizers, scoring higher than average on the systemizing quotient and on performance tests of systemizing...
December 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398558/physics-of-mind-experimental-confirmations-of-theoretical-predictions
#20
REVIEW
Félix Schoeller, Leonid Perlovsky, Dmitry Arseniev
What is common among Newtonian mechanics, statistical physics, thermodynamics, quantum physics, the theory of relativity, astrophysics and the theory of superstrings? All these areas of physics have in common a methodology, which is discussed in the first few lines of the review. Is a physics of the mind possible? Is it possible to describe how a mind adapts in real time to changes in the physical world through a theory based on a few basic laws? From perception and elementary cognition to emotions and abstract ideas allowing high-level cognition and executive functioning, at nearly all levels of study, the mind shows variability and uncertainties...
February 2, 2018: Physics of Life Reviews
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