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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684403/white-matter-pathways-and-social-cognition
#1
REVIEW
Yin Wang, Athanasia Metoki, Kylie H Alm, Ingrid R Olson
There is a growing consensus that social cognition and behavior emerge from interactions across distributed regions of the "social brain". Researchers have traditionally focused their attention on functional response properties of these gray matter networks and neglected the vital role of white matter connections in establishing such networks and their functions. In this article, we conduct a comprehensive review of prior research on structural connectivity in social neuroscience and highlight the importance of this literature in clarifying brain mechanisms of social cognition...
April 20, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683406/influence-of-anxiety-and-alexithymia-on-brain-activations-associated-with-the-perception-of-others-pain-in-autism
#2
Amandine Lassalle, Nicole R Zürcher, Carlo A Porro, Francesca Benuzzi, Loyse Hippolyte, Eric Lemonnier, Jakob Åsberg Johnels, Nouchine Hadjikhani
The circumstances under which empathy is altered in ASD remain unclear, as previous studies did not systematically find differences in brain activation between ASD and controls in empathy-eliciting paradigms, and did not always monitor whether differences were primarily due to ASD "per se", or to conditions overlapping with ASD, such as alexithymia and anxiety. Here, we collected fMRI data from 47 participants (22 ASD) viewing pictures depicting hands and feet of unknown others in painful, disgusting, or neutral situations...
April 23, 2018: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682095/brain-responses-underlying-anthropomorphism-agency-and-social-attribution-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
Carla J Ammons, Constance F Doss, David Bala, Rajesh K Kana
Background: Theory of Mind (ToM), the ability to attribute mental states to oneself and others, is frequently impaired in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and may result from altered activation of social brain regions. Conversely, Typically Developing (TD) individuals overextend ToM and show a strong tendency to anthropomorphize and interpret biological motion in the environment. Less is known about how the degree of anthropomorphism influences intentional attribution and engagement of the social brain in ASD...
2018: Open Neuroimaging Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674170/theory-of-mind-as-a-link-between-oxytocin-and-maternal-behavior
#4
Anna L MacKinnon, C Sue Carter, Nancy Feeley, Ian Gold, Barbara Hayton, Sangeetha Santhakumaran, Phyllis Zelkowitz
BACKGROUND: Oxytocin is a neuropeptide associated with maternal behavior. However the mechanisms underlying this link remain unclear. In a previous study we observed an indirect effect of increased plasma oxytocin during late pregnancy on early postpartum maternal interactive behavior via theory of mind, as assessed by the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). The current study aimed to extend these findings by testing whether this indirect effect would hold longitudinally for maternal behavior at 2-3 years postpartum, as well as for an additional observational measure of maternal mind-mindedness...
March 27, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671641/theory-of-mind-in-children-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorder-associations-with-the-sibling-constellation
#5
Nicole L Matthews, Wendy A Goldberg
The two prior studies that have examined associations between the sibling constellation and theory of mind in autism spectrum disorder yielded discrepant findings. Thus, efforts to better understand the sibling-theory of mind link in autism spectrum disorder are necessary. This study examined a sample of prekindergarten- and kindergarten-aged (i.e. 4-6 years) typically developing children ( n = 39) and verbal children with autism spectrum disorder ( n = 61). Sibling presence, number of siblings, and having younger and older siblings were positively associated with theory of mind in typically developing children, but not in the full sample of children with autism spectrum disorder...
April 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669270/eye-movements-provide-insight-into-individual-differences-in-children-s-analogical-reasoning-strategies
#6
Ariel Starr, Michael S Vendetti, Silvia A Bunge
Analogical reasoning is considered a key driver of cognitive development and is a strong predictor of academic achievement. However, it is difficult for young children, who are prone to focusing on perceptual and semantic similarities among items rather than relational commonalities. For example, in a classic A:B::C:? propositional analogy task, children must inhibit attention towards items that are visually or semantically similar to C, and instead focus on finding a relational match to the A:B pair. Competing theories of reasoning development attribute improvements in children's performance to gains in either executive functioning or semantic knowledge...
April 15, 2018: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664917/the-edinburgh-social-cognition-test-escot-examining-the-effects-of-age-on-a-new-measure-of-theory-of-mind-and-social-norm-understanding
#7
R Asaad Baksh, Sharon Abrahams, Bonnie Auyeung, Sarah E MacPherson
Current measures of social cognition have shown inconsistent findings regarding the effects of healthy aging. Moreover, no tests are currently available that allow clinicians and researchers to examine cognitive and affective theory of mind (ToM) and understanding of social norms within the same test. To address these limitations, we present the Edinburgh Social Cognition Test (ESCoT) which assesses cognitive and affective ToM and inter- and intrapersonal understanding of social norms. We examined the effects of age, measures of intelligence and the Broader Autism Phenotype (BAP) on the ESCoT and established tests of social cognition...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663132/spontaneous-theory-of-mind-is-reduced-for-nonhuman-like-agents-as-compared-to-human-like-agents
#8
Lara Bardi, Charlotte Desmet, Marcel Brass
Theory of Mind research has shown that we spontaneously take into account other's beliefs. In the current study, we investigate, with a spontaneous Theory of Mind (ToM) task, if this belief representation also applies to nonhuman-like agents. In a series of three experiments, we show here that we do not spontaneously take into account beliefs of nonhuman-like others, or at least we do it to a lesser extent than for human and human-like agents. Further, the experience we have with the other agent, in our case a dog, does not modulate spontaneous ToM: the same pattern of results was obtained when dog owners and no owners were compared...
April 16, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660808/longitudinal-theory-of-mind-tom-development-from-preschool-to-adolescence-with-and-without-tom-delay
#9
Candida C Peterson, Henry M Wellman
Longitudinal tracking of 107 three- to-thirteen-year-olds in a cross-sequential design showed a 6-step theory of mind (ToM) sequence identified by a few past cross-sectional studies validly depicted longitudinal ToM development from early to middle childhood for typically developing (TD) children and those with ToM delays owing to deafness or autism. Substantively, all groups showed ToM progress throughout middle childhood. Atypical development was more extended and began and ended at lower levels than for TD children...
April 16, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659340/is-implicit-theory-of-mind-a-real-and-robust-phenomenon-results-from-a-systematic-replication-study
#10
Louisa Kulke, Britta von Duhn, Dana Schneider, Hannes Rakoczy
Recently, theory-of-mind research has been revolutionized by findings from novel implicit tasks suggesting that at least some aspects of false-belief reasoning develop earlier in ontogeny than previously assumed and operate automatically throughout adulthood. Although these findings are the empirical basis for far-reaching theories, systematic replications are still missing. This article reports a preregistered large-scale attempt to replicate four influential anticipatory-looking implicit theory-of-mind tasks using original stimuli and procedures...
April 1, 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656033/differences-in-the-theory-of-mind-profiles-of-patients-with-anorexia-nervosa-and-individuals-on-the-autism-spectrum-a-meta-analytic-review
#11
REVIEW
Jenni Leppanen, Felicity Sedgewick, Janet Treasure, Kate Tchanturia
BACKGROUND: This meta-analytic review examines the theory of mind profiles in both patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and autistic individuals. METHODOLOGY: The studies examining theory of mind were divided into the following categories: emotional theory of mind, understanding simple social situations, understanding complex social interactions, and implicit social attribution. All included studies investigated differences between healthy control (HCs) individuals and people with AN or autistic people...
April 12, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649516/-mom-quit-fat-talking-i-m-trying-to-eat-mindfully-here-evaluating-a-sociocultural-model-of-family-fat-talk-positive-body-image-and-mindful-eating-in-college-women
#12
Jennifer B Webb, Courtney B Rogers, Lena Etzel, Meagan P Padro
A growing evidence base confirms sociocultural theory's predictions regarding the influence of direct exposure to family factors (e.g., parental commentary) in promoting disordered eating behavior as mediated by negative body image. Nevertheless, this model has not been specifically applied to investigating indirect or vicarious exposure to family communications (e.g., negative body talk) in estimating mindful eating behavior via positive body image intervening variables. Therefore, to address this gap the present study provided a preliminary evaluation of the indirect effects of overhearing family fat talk through both body appreciation and functional body appreciation in predicting mindful eating among undergraduate females...
April 9, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644583/construction-of-past-and-future-events-in-children-and-adolescents-with-asd-role-of-self-relatedness-and-relevance-to-decision-making
#13
Elisa Ciaramelli, Silvia Spoglianti, Elena Bertossi, Nadia Generali, Francesca Telarucci, Raffaella Tancredi, Filippo Muratori, Roberta Igliozzi
We studied episodic memory and future thinking for self-relevant and other-relevant events at different levels of retrieval support, theory of mind, and delay discounting in ASD children and adolescents (ASDs). Compared to typically developing controls, ASDs produced fewer internal (episodic) but a similar number of external (semantic) details while remembering past events, imagining future events, and imagining future events happening to others, indicating a general impairment of event construction. This deficit was driven by group differences under high retrieval support, and therefore unlikely to depend on self-initiated retrieval/construction deficits...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643372/good-and-bad-love-and-intimacy-from-plato-to-melanie-klein
#14
David Stromberg
Melanie Klein's theories on love outline a complex system of relations-an oscillating dynamic of psychical and emotional tendencies following from both actual experience and fantasies produced by the mind. Her insights are often discussed and applied in psychoanalytical contexts, but the philosophical implications of her theory-especially in relation to Platonic thought-have rarely been discussed. In this article, I will attempt to address this gap by setting out some preliminary yet core considerations shared by both Plato and Klein...
April 11, 2018: American Journal of Psychoanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628441/the-original-social-network-white-matter-and-social-cognition
#15
REVIEW
Yin Wang, Ingrid R Olson
Social neuroscience has traditionally focused on the functionality of gray matter regions, ignoring the critical role played by axonal fiber pathways in supporting complex social processes. In this paper, we argue that research on white matter is essential for understanding a range of topics in social neuroscience, such as face processing, theory of mind, empathy, and imitation, as well as clinical disorders defined by aberrant social behavior, such as prosopagnosia, autism, and schizophrenia. We provide practical advice on how best to carry out these studies, which ultimately will substantially deepen our understanding of the neurobiological basis of social behavior...
April 5, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627588/the-multidimensional-representational-space-of-observed-socio-affective-touch-experiences
#16
Haemy Lee Masson, Stien Van De Plas, Nicky Daniels, Hans Op de Beeck
Observed touch interactions provide useful information on how others communicate with the external world. Previous studies revealed shared neural circuits between the direct experience and the passive observation of simple touch, such as being stroked/slapped. Here, we investigate the complexity of the neural representations underlying the understanding of others' socio-affective touch interactions. Importantly, we use a recently developed touch database that contains a larger range of more complex social and non-social touch interactions...
April 5, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622366/theory-of-mind-empathy-and-emotion-perception-in-cortical-and-subcortical-neurodegenerative-diseases
#17
REVIEW
J Fortier, J Besnard, P Allain
Although the impact of neurodegenerative diseases on everyday interactions is well known in the literature, their impact on social cognitive processes remains unclear. The concept of social cognition refers to a set of skills, all of which are essential for living in a community. It involves social knowledge, perception and processing of social cues, and representation of mental states. This report is a review of recent findings on the impact of cortical and subcortical neurodegenerative diseases on three social cognitive processes, namely, the theory of mind, empathy and processing emotions...
April 2, 2018: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622015/empathy-is-proprioceptive-the-bodily-fundament-of-empathy-a-philosophical-contribution-to-medical-education
#18
Florian Schmidsberger, Henriette Löffler-Stastka
BACKGROUND: The current philosophical debate on empathy entails accounts of theory of mind and simulation as well as a phenomenological opposition. The first focuses on a detached observation of others from a 3rd person perspective and formulates the common claim that there is no direct access to the mental and emotional life of others, only simulation or analogy can grant access to the emotions and behaviour of others. The philosophical respectively phenomenological account of Fuchs instead opposes by focusing personal interaction within a 1st or 2nd person perspective claiming that the emotions of others are experienceable through bodily expression and bodily resonance...
April 5, 2018: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621926/social-perception-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-interpreting-social-information-from-moving-shapes-and-biological-motion
#19
Aleksandra Bala, Łukasz Okruszek, Aleksandra Piejka, Aldona Głębicka, Ewa Szewczyk, Katarzyna Bosak, Marta Szantroch, Sylwia Hyniewska, Andrzej Rysz, Andrzej Marchel
Dysfunction in the understanding of social signals has been reported in persons with epilepsy, which may partially explain lower levels of life satisfaction in this patient population. Extensive assessment is necessary, particularly when the mesial temporal lobe, responsible for emotion processing, is affected. The authors examined multiple levels of social perception in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), including judgments of point-light motion displays of human communicative interactions (Communicative Interactions Database-5 Alternative Forced Choice format) and theory-of-mind processes evaluated using geometric shapes (Frith-Happé animations [FHA])...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619648/on-the-relation-between-theory-of-mind-and-executive-functioning-a-developmental-cognitive-neuroscience-perspective
#20
Mark Wade, Heather Prime, Jennifer M Jenkins, Keith O Yeates, Tricia Williams, Kang Lee
Theory of mind (ToM) and executive functioning (EF) show marked interrelatedness across childhood, and developmental psychologists have long been interested in understanding the nature of this association. The present review addresses this issue from a cognitive neuroscience perspective by exploring three hypotheses regarding their functional overlap: (1) ToM relies on EF (EF→ToM); (2) EF relies on ToM (ToM→EF); and (3) ToM and EF are mutually related, owing to shared neural structures or networks (ToM↔EF)...
April 4, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
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