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Theory of mind

Richard Ramsey
The perception of other people is instrumental in guiding social interactions. For example, the appearance of the human body cues a wide range of inferences regarding sex, age, health, and personality, as well as emotional state and intentions, which influence social behavior. To date, most neuroscience research on body perception has aimed to characterize the functional contribution of segregated patches of cortex in the ventral visual stream. In light of the growing prominence of network architectures in neuroscience, the current article reviews neuroimaging studies that measure functional integration between different brain regions during body perception...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Lily Rothschild-Yakar, Merav Peled, Adi Enoch-Levy, Eitan Gur, Daniel Stein
BACKGROUND: We examined the relationship between general ability of mentalization, the specific aspect of affective mentalizing of self and others, emotion regulation strategies, and eating disorder (ED) symptoms. METHOD: Twenty-five female adolescent and young adult inpatients with EDs, and 22 healthy subjects, were administered a semi-structured interview - the Reflective Function (RF) scale, self-rating scales assessing alexithymia, emotion regulation, depression and ED symptomatology, and a neurocognitive measure assessing Theory of Mind...
2018: Israel Journal of Psychiatry and related Sciences
Valentina Cuccio, Vittorio Gallese
The nature of concepts has always been a hotly debated topic in both philosophy and psychology and, more recently, also in cognitive neuroscience. Different accounts have been proposed of what concepts are. These accounts reflect deeply different conceptions of how the human mind works. In the last decades, two diametrically opposed theories of human cognition have been discussed and empirically investigated: the Computational Theory of Mind, on the one hand (Fodor 1983 The modularity of mind: an essay on faculty psychology ; Pylyshyn 1984 Computation and cognition: toward a foundation for cognitive science ), and Embodied Cognition (Barsalou 2008 Annu...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Rutvik H Desai, Megan Reilly, Wessel van Dam
concepts play a central role in human behaviour and constitute a critical component of the human conceptual system. Here, we investigate the neural basis of four types of abstract concepts, examining their similarities and differences through neuroimaging meta-analyses. We examine numerical and emotional concepts, and two higher-order abstract processes, morality judgements and theory of mind. Three main findings emerge. First, representation of abstract concepts is more widespread than is often assumed. Second, representations of different types of abstract concepts differ in important respects...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Gro Killi Haugstad, Unni Kirste, Siv Leganger, Elin Haakonsen, Tor S Haugstad
Historic background and development of our somatocognitive approach Mensendieck physiotherapy of the Oslo School is a tradition of physiotherapy founded by the American physician Bess Mensendieck, a contemporary and fellow student of Sigmund Freud at the Paris School of Neurology. It builds on the principles of functional anatomy and the theories of motor learning. We have further developed the theory and practice from this physiotherapy tradition, challenged by the enormous load of patients with longstanding, incapacitating pain on western health care systems, by seeking to incorporate inspirational ideas from body oriented dynamic psychotherapy and cognitive psychotherapy...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Ladislav Kesner, Dominika Grygarová, Iveta Fajnerová, Jiří Lukavský, Tereza Nekovářová, Jaroslav Tintěra, Yuliya Zaytseva, Jiří Horáček
In this study, we use separate eye-tracking measurements and functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neuronal and behavioral response to painted portraits with direct versus averted gaze. We further explored modulatory effects of several painting characteristics (premodern vs modern period, influence of style and pictorial context). In the fMRI experiment, we show that the direct versus averted gaze elicited increased activation in lingual and inferior occipital and the fusiform face area, as well as in several areas involved in attentional and social cognitive processes, especially the theory of mind: angular gyrus/temporo-parietal junction, inferior frontal gyrus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex...
June 15, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Anja Vaskinn, Stein Andersson, Tiril Østefjells, Ole A Andreassen, Kjetil Sundet
BACKGROUND: Theory of mind (ToM) can be divided into cognitive and affective ToM, and a distinction can be made between overmentalizing and undermentalizing errors. Research has shown that ToM in schizophrenia is associated with non-social and social cognition, and with clinical symptoms. In this study, we investigate cognitive and clinical predictors of different ToM processes. METHODS: Ninety-one individuals with schizophrenia participated. ToM was measured with the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC) yielding six scores (total ToM, cognitive ToM, affective ToM, overmentalizing errors, undermentalizing errors and no mentalizing errors)...
June 5, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Paul Skokowski
It is argued that the knowledge argument fails against externalist theories of mind. Enclosing Mary and cutting her off from some properties denies part of the physical world to Mary, which has the consequence of denying her certain kinds of physical knowledge. The externalist formulation of experience is shown to differ in vehicle, content, and causal role from the internalist version addressed by the knowledge argument, and is supported by results from neuroscience. This means that though the knowledge argument has some force against material internalists, it misses the mark entirely against externalist accounts...
2018: Review of Philosophy and Psychology
Daniel Alcalá-López, Kai Vogeley, Ferdinand Binkofski, Danilo Bzdok
During the past decade, novel approaches to study social interaction have expanded and questioned long-standing knowledge about how humans understand each other. We aim to portray and reconcile the key psychological processes and neural mechanisms underlying navigation of the social environment. Theoretical accounts mostly revolved around either abstract inferences or embodied simulations, whereas experimental studies mostly focused on theory of mind or mentalizing, empathy, and action imitation. The tension between theories of and experiments on social cognition is systematically revisited to foster new theoretical and empirical studies in the fields...
May 14, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
David Maillet, Roger E Beaty, Megan L Jordano, Dayna R Touron, Areeba Adnan, Paul J Silvia, Thomas R Kwapil, Gary R Turner, R Nathan Spreng, Michael J Kane
In recent years, several laboratory studies have indicated that healthy older adults exhibit a reduction in mind-wandering frequency compared with young adults. However, it is unclear if these findings extend to daily life settings. In the current study, using experience sampling over the course of a week in the daily life of 31 young and 20 older adults, we assessed age-related differences in: (a) mind-wandering frequency, (b) the relationship between affect and mind-wandering frequency, and (c) content of mind wandering...
June 2018: Psychology and Aging
Hada Fong-Ha Ieong, Zhen Yuan
Many patients with substance use disorders (SUDs) live in a stressful environment, and comorbidity is not uncommon. Understanding the neural mechanisms underlying heroin and nicotine dependences and their relationships to social cognition could facilitate behavioral therapy efficacy. We aimed to provide a translational approach that leads to identifying potential biomarkers for opioid use disorder (OUD) susceptibility during recovery. We examined the clinical characters and the relationships between theory of mind (ToM) and executive functions in three groups: heroin plus nicotine-dependent (HND) patients who had remained heroin abstinent ( <mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www...
April 2018: Neurophotonics
Tonya J Roberts
AIMS & OBJECTIVES: To describe from the nursing home resident perspective 1) the types and dimensions of relationships residents develop with others in the nursing home and 2) the conditions that influence development of close relationships. BACKGROUND: Close relationships are considered the fundamental building block of person-centered care. Prior studies have examined the various types of relationships residents develop with peers and staff, but few have focused specifically on articulating the characteristics and dimensions of a close relationship or the factors that can support or detract from their development...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Tobias Schuwerk, Beate Priewasser, Beate Sodian, Josef Perner
Influential studies showed that 25-month-olds and neurotypical adults take an agent's false belief into account in their anticipatory looking patterns (Southgate et al. 2007 Psychol. Sci. 18 , 587-592 (doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01944.x); Senju et al. 2009 Science 325 , 883-885 (doi:10.1126/science.1176170)). These findings constitute central pillars of current accounts distinguishing between implicit and explicit Theory of Mind. In our first experiment, which initially included a replication as well as two manipulations, we failed to replicate the original finding in 2- to 3-year-olds ( N  = 48)...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Cynthia J Price, Carole Hooven
Emotion regulation involves a coherent relationship with the self, specifically effective communication between body, mind, and feelings. Effective emotion regulation involves the ability to accurately detect and evaluate cues related to physiological reactions to stressful events, accompanied by appropriate regulation strategies that temper and influence the emotional response. There is compelling evidence demonstrating links between poor or disrupted awareness of sensory information, or interoceptive awareness, and difficulties with emotion regulation...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Micah Allen, Karl J Friston
Predictive processing (PP) approaches to the mind are increasingly popular in the cognitive sciences. This surge of interest is accompanied by a proliferation of philosophical arguments, which seek to either extend or oppose various aspects of the emerging framework. In particular, the question of how to position predictive processing with respect to enactive and embodied cognition has become a topic of intense debate. While these arguments are certainly of valuable scientific and philosophical merit, they risk underestimating the variety of approaches gathered under the predictive label...
2018: Synthese
F M Bosco, I Gabbatore, R Angeleri, M Zettin, A Parola
Quality of life and social integration are strongly influenced by the ability to communicate and previous research has shown that pragmatic ability can be specifically impaired in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). In addition, TBI usually results in damage to the frontotemporal lobes with a consequent impairment of cognitive functions, i.e., attention, memory, executive function (EF) and theory of mind (ToM). The role of the underlying cognitive deficits in determining the communicative-pragmatic difficulties of an individual with TBI is not yet completely clear...
May 26, 2018: Journal of Communication Disorders
Edit Vass, Zita Fekete, Viktória Simon, Lajos Simon
Theory of Mind (ToM) plays a central role in regulating social interactions and its impairment is consistently reported in schizophrenia. Regarding schizophrenia, ToM is usually discussed as a sub-domain of social cognition. Since social cognitive deficits have drawn the attention of researchers, a variety of novel treatment techniques and approaches targeting social cognitive deficits have been developed. Encouraging results have repeatedly been reported on the modifiability of social cognitive impairment through these techniques...
May 22, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Michael Kimmel, Dayana Hristova, Kerstin Kussmaul
Drawing on a micro-phenomenological paradigm, we discuss Contact Improvisation (CI), where dancers explore potentials of intercorporeal weight sharing, kinesthesia, touch, and momentum. Our aim is to typologically discuss creativity related skills and the rich spectrum of creative resources CI dancers use. This spectrum begins with relatively idea-driven creation and ends with interactivity-centered, fully emergent creation: (1) Ideation internal to the mind, the focus of traditional creativity research, is either restricted to semi-independent dancing or remains schematic and thus open to dynamic specification under the partner&rsquo;s influence...
May 23, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Margherita Bechi, Marta Bosia, Giulia Agostoni, Marco Spangaro, Mariachiara Buonocore, Laura Bianchi, Federica Cocchi, Carmelo Guglielmino, Antonella Rita Mastromatteo, Roberto Cavallaro
OBJECTIVE: Theory of Mind (ToM) is a multifaceted construct that involves mental states attribution in social interactions. Patients with schizophrenia are impaired in ToM abilities, but recent studies showed that a non-negligible number of patients perform within normal ranges or close to normal, whereas other patients are very impaired in ToM tasks. The present study aims to comprehensively analyze differences between patients with "poor" and "fair" mentalizing abilities, as identified through a median-split procedure on mental state attribution task, and healthy controls, as well as to explore the role of clinical, demographical, and neurocognitive predictors of ToM performance within groups...
June 7, 2018: Neuropsychology
Annabel D Nijhof, Lara Bardi, Marcel Brass, Jan R Wiersema
The socio-communicative difficulties of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are hypothesized to be caused by a specific deficit in the ability to represent one's own and others' mental states, referred to as Theory of Mind or mentalizing. However, many individuals with ASD show successful performance on explicit measures of mentalizing, and for this reason, the deficit is thought to be better captured by measures of spontaneous mentalizing. While there is initial behavioral support for this hypothesis, spontaneous mentalizing in ASD has not yet been studied at the neural level...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
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