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whole brain radiotherapy

Marc Jansen, Sophie Em Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Dannis G Van Vuurden, Marc Huisman, Danielle J Vugts, Otto S Hoekstra, Guus A M S van Dongen, Gert-Jan Jl Kaspers
: Predictive tools to guide therapy in children with brain tumors are urgently needed. We introduced molecular imaging to facilitate this. We investigated whether bevacizumab can reach the tumor in children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) by measuring the tumor uptake of zirconium-89((89)Zr)-labeled bevacizumab by PET. In addition we evaluated the safety of the procedure in children and determined the optimal timing of imaging. METHODS: Patients received 0...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
E Liniker, A M Menzies, B Y Kong, A Cooper, S Ramanujam, S Lo, R F Kefford, G B Fogarty, A Guminski, T W Wang, M S Carlino, A Hong, G V Long
The anti-PD-1 antibodies nivolumab and pembrolizumab are active in metastatic melanoma; however, there is limited data on combining anti-PD-1 antibody and radiotherapy (RT). We sought to review clinical outcomes of patients receiving RT and anti-PD-1 therapy. All patients receiving anti-PD-1 antibody and RT for metastatic melanoma were identified. RT and systemic treatment, clinical outcome, and toxicity data were collected. Fifty-three patients were included; 35 patients received extracranial RT and/or intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and 21 received whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) (three of whom also received SRS/extracranial RT)...
2016: Oncoimmunology
Chuanbao Zhang, Jiye Li, Haoyuan Wang, Sonya Wei Song
High grade gliomas contribute to most brain tumor mortality. A few studies reported that the immune system affected glioma development, and immune biomarkers helped understand the disease and formulate effective immunotherapy for patients. Currently, no B lymphocyte-based prognostic signature was reported in gliomas. By applying 78 B cell lineage-specific genes, we conducted a whole-genome gene expression analysis in 782 high grade gliomas derived from three independent datasets by Cox regression analysis and risk score method for signature identification, and then used Gene Ontology, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, and other statistical methods for functional annotations of the signature-defined differences...
October 12, 2016: Oncotarget
Tosol Yu, Bong Jun Cho, Eun Jung Choi, Ji Min Park, Dan Hyo Kim, In Ah Kim
Trastuzumab has been widely used for the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-overexpressing breast cancer, however, it cannot easily cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and is known to increase the incidence of brain metastases. In contrast, lapatinib has a low molecular weight and can cross the BBB and it could be useful to treat brain metastases in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer.To explore the impact of lapatinib on radiation response, we conducted an in vitro experiment using SKBR3 and BT474 breast carcinoma cells exhibiting HER2/neu amplification...
October 12, 2016: Oncotarget
Isabel Heidegger, Gennadi Tulchiner, Georg Schäfer, Wolfgang Horninger, Renate Pichler
BACKGROUND: Small cell bladder cancer (SCBC) is an aggressive subtype accounting for less than 1 % of all bladder malignancies associated with rapid progression, early metastases formation and high mortality rates. CASE PRESENTATION: We present an unusual long term disease free survival of a 60 year-old man who was diagnosed with SCBC two and a half years ago. He underwent four cycles of cisplatin/etoposide chemotherapy as well as a prophylactic whole-brain radiotherapy followed by a radical cystoprostatectomy and ileal neobladder with extended pelvic lymphadenectomy...
October 13, 2016: European Journal of Medical Research
Avinash Gupta, Corran Roberts, Finn Tysoe, Matthew Goff, Jenny Nobes, James Lester, Ernie Marshall, Carie Corner, Virginia Wolstenholme, Charles Kelly, Adelyn Wise, Linda Collins, Sharon Love, Martha Woodward, Amanda Salisbury, Mark R Middleton
BACKGROUND: Brain metastases occur in up to 75% of patients with advanced melanoma. Most are treated with whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT), with limited effectiveness. Vandetanib, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor and rearranged during transfection tyrosine kinases, is a potent radiosensitiser in xenograft models. We compared WBRT with WBRT plus vandetanib in the treatment of patients with melanoma brain metastases. METHODS: In this double-blind, multi-centre, phase 2 trial patients with melanoma brain metastases were randomised to receive WBRT (30 Gy in 10 fractions) plus 3 weeks of concurrent vandetanib 100 mg once daily or placebo...
October 6, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Zhou Huang, Bing Sun, Ge Shen, Lei Cha, Xiangying Meng, Junliang Wang, Zhenshan Zhou, Shikai Wu
The outcome of recurrent brain metastasis is dismal. This study aims to assess the clinical outcomes and toxicity of reirradiation as a salvage treatment for progressive brain metastasis in patients with advanced breast cancer. Between July 2005 and September 2014, the medical records of 56 patients with brain metastasis from breast cancer were retrospectively reviewed. Of these patients, 39 received whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) followed by stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) reirradiation (Group 1), and 17 received SRS followed by WBRT reirradiation (Group 2)...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Erin Wong, Leigha Rowbottom, May Tsao, Liying Zhang, Rachel McDonald, Cyril Danjoux, Elizabeth Barnes, Stephanie Chan, Edward Chow
OBJECTIVE: Having a clear prognosis for patients with brain metastases allows health care practitioners (HCPs) to determine appropriate palliative management and assist patients when making informed treatment decisions. The objective of this study was to determine the prognostic significance of commonly experienced symptoms as well as their changes. METHODS: Overall survival (OS) was calculated from the date of consultation for palliative radiotherapy to date of death or censored at last follow-up date...
September 9, 2016: Annals of Palliative Medicine
Deepti Ahuja, Sachidanand J Bharati, Nishkarsh Gupta, Ritesh Kumar, Sushma Bhatnagar
Radiation-induced nausea and vomiting (RINV) is one of the most distressing symptoms that adversely affects quality of life (QOL) as well as the ongoing management plan of cancer patients. Although there are protocols for management of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) but such guidelines are still lacking for RINV. Various agents like 5-hydroxy tryptophan 3 (5-HT3) antagonist, dexamethasone, metoclopramide and haloperidol are used in clinical practice for RINV but the results are not very encouraging...
August 23, 2016: Annals of Palliative Medicine
Damodar Pokhrel, Sumit Sood, Christopher McClinton, Xinglei Shen, Christopher Lominska, Habeeb Saleh, Rajeev Badkul, Hongyu Jiang, Melissa Mitchell, Fen Wang
PURPOSE: To retrospectively evaluate the accuracy, plan quality and efficiency of intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) for hippocampal sparing whole-brain radiotherapy (HS-WBRT) with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) in patients with multiple brain metastases (m-BM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 5 patients with m-BM were retrospectively replanned for HS-WBRT with SIB using IMAT treatment planning. The hippocampus was contoured on diagnostic T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which had been fused with the planning CT image set...
September 27, 2016: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
(no author information available yet)
Whole brain radiotherapy makes little or no difference to survival rates or quality of life in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that has spread to the brain, say researchers.
September 28, 2016: Nursing Standard
Rafal Dziadziuszko
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Anas Abdallah, Murad Asilturk, Mustafa Levent Uysal, Erhan Emel, Betül Guler Abdallah, Bilge Bilgic, Gokcen Gundogdu
AIM: Primary intracranial germinomas (PIGs) are rare malignant brain tumors that represent approximately 0.2% to 1.7% of all primary intracranial tumors. PIGs have infrequent, but existent possibility of spinal cord metastases. In this study, clinical outcomes of five consecutive PIGs have been presented. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Medical records were retrospectively reviewed in 1,849 cases of intracranial tumors whom underwent surgery between the years 2005 and 2015, cases which confirmed as germinoma histopathologically were included in this study...
August 23, 2016: Turkish Neurosurgery
Macarena I de la Fuente, Aya Haggiagi, Adrienne Moul, Robert J Young, Charif Sidani, Arnold Markoe, Francisco Vega, Lisa M DeAngelis, Izidore S Lossos
Dural lymphoma (DL) is a rare type of primary CNS lymphoma arising from the dura mater. The optimal treatment is uncertain. A retrospective review was performed on 26 DL patients. Seventeen patients underwent resection and nine had a biopsy. Twenty three patients could be assessed for a response to treatment after surgery. Thirteen received focal radiotherapy (RT), six whole brain RT (WBRT), three chemotherapy alone and one chemotherapy followed by WBRT. Twenty two achieved complete response (CR) and one a partial response (PR)...
September 21, 2016: Leukemia & Lymphoma
Marcel Matzenauer, David Vrana, Zuzana Vlachova, Karel Cwiertka, Ondrej Kalita, Bohuslav Melichar
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: As treatments for primary cancers continue to improve life expectancy, unfortunately, brain metastases also appear to be constantly increasing and life expectancy for patients with brain metastases is low. Longer survival and improved quality of life may be achieved using localised radiological and surgical approaches in addition to low dose corticosteroids. Stereotactic brain radiotherapy is one rapidly evolving localized radiation treatment. This article describes our experience with stereotactic radiotherapy using a linear accelerator...
September 2016: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
Dirk Rades, Theo Veninga, Stefan Janssen, Steven E Schild
BACKGROUND/AIM: To investigate the impact of overall treatment time (OTT) of whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) with 5×4 Gy on outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-four patients for whom WBRT was started on a Monday (OTT=5 days) were compared to 136 patients, for whom WBRT was started on another weekday (OTT=7 days; weekend break) regarding intracerebral control and survival. Seven other factors were also analyzed. RESULTS: Intracerebral control at 6 and 12 months was 64% and 36% after OTT of 5 days vs...
September 2016: Anticancer Research
Yongshun Chen, Jing Yang, Xue Li, Daxuan Hao, Xiaoyuan Wu, Yuanyuan Yang, Chunyu He, Wen Wang, Jianhua Wang
We proposed to compare the outcome of first-line epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) alone with EGFR-TKI plus whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) in treatment of brain metastases (BM) from EGFR-mutated lung adenocarcinoma patients. 1665 patients were screened from 2008 to 2014, and 132 were enrolled in our study. Among the 132 patients, 72 (54.5%) harbored a deletion in exon 19, 97 (73.5%) showed multiple intracranial lesions, and 67 (50.8%) had asymptomatic BM. 79 patients (59...
September 14, 2016: Cancer Science
M Sakaguchi, T Maebayashi, T Aizawa, N Ishibashi, T Saito
AIM: Important factors typically associated with prognosis in brain metastases include Karnofsky performance status (KPS), extracranial or cerebellar localization and combination chemotherapy. However, few studies investigated the prognostic role of leptomeningeal metastases (LM) following whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). On the basis of our experience suggesting better survival of asymptomatic patients with LM than those with brain metastases, we herein evaluated LM as a prognostic factor after WBRT...
September 13, 2016: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
Geraint J Sunderland, Michael D Jenkinson, Rasheed Zakaria
The diagnosis of brain metastases is associated with a poor prognosis reflecting uncontrolled primary disease that has spread to the relative sanctuary of the central nervous system. 20 % of brain metastases occur in the posterior fossa and are associated with significant morbidity. The risk of acute hydrocephalus and potential for sudden death means these metastases are often dealt with as emergency cases. This approach means a full pre-operative assessment and staging of underlying disease may be neglected and a proportion of patients undergo comparatively high risk surgery with little or no survival benefit...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Roberta Rudà, Federica Franchino, Riccardo Soffietti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to highlight the most recent advances in the management of brain metastases. RECENT FINDINGS: Role of local therapies (surgery and stereotactic radiosurgery), new approaches to minimize cognitive sequelae following whole-brain radiotherapy and advances in targeted therapies have been reviewed. SUMMARY: The implications for clinical trials and daily practice of the increasing use of stereotactic radiosurgery in multiple brain metastases and upfront targeted agents in asymptomatic brain metastases are discussed...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Oncology
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