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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813761/epidemiologic-study-of-bacteria-zoonotic-diseases-in-south-dakota-2010-2014
#1
Jessica L Ludvik, Susan M Anderson, Mark K Huntington
BACKGROUND: Although the burden of infectious diseases has decreased dramatically due to advances in health care, disease prevention and numerous public health efforts and innovations, zoonotic diseases continue to pose a problem in terms of both existing and emerging diseases. These risks are of particular concern in rural areas, in which there is more contact with animals for occupational and recreational purposes. As a rural and agricultural state, South Dakota has a large percentage of its population at risk of exposure to zoonotic diseases through their substantial contact time with animals...
June 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813599/tetraterpene-synthase-substrate-and-product-specificity-in-the-green-microalga-botryococcus-braunii-race-l
#2
Hem Raj Thapa, Su Tang, James C Sacchettini, Timothy P Devarenne
Recently, the biosynthetic pathway for lycopadiene, a C40 tetraterpenoid hydrocarbon, was deciphered from the L race of Botryococcus braunii, an alga that produces hydrocarbon oils capable of being converted into combustible fuels. The lycopadiene pathway is initiated by the squalene synthase (SS)-like enzyme lycopaoctaene synthase (LOS), which catalyzes the head-to-head condensation of two C20 geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) molecules to produce C40 lycopaoctaene. LOS shows unusual substrate promiscuity for SS or SS-like enzymes by utilizing C15 farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) and C20 phytyl diphosphate in addition to GGPP as substrates...
August 16, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813018/biophysical-and-computational-studies-of-the-vcci-vmip-ii-complex
#3
Anna F Nguyen, Nai-Wei Kuo, Laura J Showalter, Ricardo Ramos, Cynthia M Dupureur, Michael E Colvin, Patricia J LiWang
Certain viruses have the ability to subvert the mammalian immune response, including interference in the chemokine system. Poxviruses produce the chemokine binding protein vCCI (viral CC chemokine inhibitor; also called 35K), which tightly binds to CC chemokines. To facilitate the study of vCCI, we first provide a protocol to produce folded vCCI from Escherichia coli (E. coli.) It is shown here that vCCI binds with unusually high affinity to viral Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-II (vMIP-II), a chemokine analog produced by the virus, human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8)...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812723/the-unconstrained-evolution-of-fast-and-efficient-antibiotic-resistant-bacterial-genomes
#4
Carlos Reding-Roman, Mark Hewlett, Sarah Duxbury, Fabio Gori, Ivana Gudelj, Robert Beardmore
Evolutionary trajectories are constrained by trade-offs when mutations that benefit one life history trait incur fitness costs in other traits. As resistance to tetracycline antibiotics by increased efflux can be associated with an increase in length of the Escherichia coli chromosome of 10% or more, we sought costs of resistance associated with doxycycline. However, it was difficult to identify any because the growth rate (r), carrying capacity (K) and drug efflux rate of E. coli increased during evolutionary experiments where the species was exposed to doxycycline...
January 30, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811596/complete-alanine-scanning-of-the-escherichia-coli-rbsb-ribose-binding-protein-reveals-residues-important-for-chemoreceptor-signaling-and-periplasmic-abundance
#5
Artur Reimer, Vitali Maffenbeier, Manupriyam Dubey, Vladimir Sentchilo, Diogo Tavares, Manuel Hernandez Gil, Siham Beggah, Jan Roelof van der Meer
The Escherichia coli RbsB ribose binding protein has been used as a scaffold for predicting new ligand binding functions through in silico modeling, yet with limited success and reproducibility. In order to possibly improve the success of predictive modeling on RbsB, we study here the influence of individual residues on RbsB-mediated signaling in a near complete library of alanine-substituted RbsB mutants. Among a total of 232 tested mutants, we found 10 which no longer activated GFPmut2 reporter expression in E...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811580/%C3%AE-eta-2-glycoprotein-i-protects-mice-against-gram-negative-septicaemia-in-a-sexually-dimorphic-manner
#6
Fatima El-Assaad, Miao Qi, Alice Kizny Gordon, Jian Qi, Shangwen Dong, Freda Passam, James Crofton Weaver, Bill Giannakopoulos, Steven Anthony Krilis
The immune responses of males and females to bacterial infections display differences. The mechanisms that underlie this sexual dimorphism are multifactorial. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contributes to the pathogenesis of endotoxaemia. We have previously demonstrated that the plasma protein beta-2 glycoprotein-1 (β2GPI) reduces LPS-induced inflammation in male mice. In the present study using a more robust infection model of septicaemia the role of β2GPI is examined in both male and female wild type (WT) and β2GPI deficient (β2GPI(-/-)) mice challenged with Escherichia coli (E...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811343/comparative-genomics-of-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-skin-and-soft-tissue-and-other-extraintestinal-infections
#7
Amit Ranjan, Sabiha Shaik, Nishant Nandanwar, Arif Hussain, Sumeet K Tiwari, Torsten Semmler, Savita Jadhav, Lothar H Wieler, Munirul Alam, Rita R Colwell, Niyaz Ahmed
Escherichia coli, an intestinal Gram-negative bacterium, has been shown to be associated with a variety of diseases in addition to intestinal infections, such as urinary tract infections (UTIs), meningitis in neonates, septicemia, skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), and colisepticemia. Thus, for nonintestinal infections, it is categorized as extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). It is also an opportunistic pathogen, causing cross infections, notably as an agent of zoonotic diseases. However, comparative genomic data providing functional and genetic coordinates for ExPEC strains associated with these different types of infections have not proven conclusive...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811266/expression-and-purification-of-a-difficult-sarcomeric-protein-telethonin
#8
Huanbo Tan, Wencheng Su, Pengju Wang, Wenyu Zhang, Michael Sattler, Peijian Zou
Telethonin anchors the N-terminal region of titin in the Z-disk of the sarcomere by binding to two immunoglobulin-like (Ig) domains (Z1 and Z2) of titin (Z1Z2). Thereby telethonin plays an important role in myofibril assembly and in muscle development and functional regulation. The expression and purification of recombinant telethonin is very challenging. In previous studies, recombinant telethonin expressed from E. coli was refolded in the presence of Z1Z2. Here, we report various strategies to establish a reliable and efficient protocol for the preparation of telethonin and titin Z1Z2 protein...
August 12, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810864/molecular-determination-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-raw-meat-in-addis-ababa-and-bishoftu-ethiopia
#9
Yohannes Equar Messele, Reta Duguma Abdi, Shimels Tikuye Yalew, Desiye Tesfaye Tegegne, Bezina Arega Emeru, Gebremeskel Mamu Werid
BACKGROUND: Consumption of meat contaminated by E. coli causes a serious illness and even death to affected individuals. Recently the emerging of antibiotic resistant foodborne E. coli poses serious public health risks worldwide. However, little is known about the antibiotic resistance profile of E. coli in Ethiopia. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) status of E. coli isolated from different type of meat. METHODS: Overall 292 samples were collected from December 2015 to April 2016 from slaughterhouses to determine the prevalence and AMR of E...
August 15, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810737/identification-of-the-colicin-v-bacteriocin-gene-cluster-by-functional-screening-of-a-human-microbiome-metagenomic-library
#10
Louis Cohen, Sun Han, Yun-Han Huang, Sean F Brady
The forces that shape human microbial ecology are complex. It is likely, that human microbiota, similarly to other microbiomes, use antibiotics as one way to establish an ecological niche. In this study, we use functional metagenomics to identify human microbial gene clusters that encode for antibiotic functions. Screening of a metagenomic library prepared from a healthy patient stool sample led to the identification of a family of clones with inserts that are 99% identical to a region of a virulence plasmid found in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli...
August 15, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810248/antibiotic-susceptibility-and-molecular-characterization-of-escherichia-coli-o157-isolates-from-urinary-tract-infections
#11
Zonglan Xie, Ziqiang Dong, Ping Zhu, Lusheng Zhang, Xiaobo Chen, Chuanjiang Dong
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli O157 is an important food-borne pathogen that can cause diarrhoea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uraemic syndrome. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence PCR (ERIC-PCR) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) are good methods for molecular typing and the extensive use of antibiotics is a contributing factor to the increasing incidence of antimicrobial-resistant for these strains. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic diversity of E...
August 16, 2017: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810227/determining-the-zone-of-impact-of-norovirus-contamination-in-shellfish-production-areas-through-microbiological-monitoring-and-hydrographic-analysis
#12
Carlos J A Campos, Gregory Goblick, Ron Lee, Ken Wittamore, David N Lees
Norovirus (NoV) contamination of filter feeding bivalve shellfish is a well-recognised human health threat when shellfish are grown in sewage polluted waters. To date, the identification of high risk zones around sewage discharges in shellfish production areas (SPAs) has not been based on NoV data. This study utilised molecular methods for NoV analysis, combined with hydrographic studies, to determine the relationship between NoV concentrations in shellfish and sewage effluent dilution. Cages with mussels and oysters were placed at different distances downstream of sewage discharges in two coastal sites in England...
August 8, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809830/overexpression-and-purification-of-human-cis-prenyltransferase-in-escherichia-coli
#13
Ilan Edri, Michal Goldenberg, Michal Lisnyansky, Roi Strulovich, Hadas Newman, Anat Loewenstein, Daniel Khananshvili, Moshe Giladi, Yoni Haitin
Prenyltransferases (PT) are a group of enzymes that catalyze chain elongation of allylic diphosphate using isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) via multiple condensation reactions. DHDDS (dehydrodolichyl diphosphate synthase) is a eukaryotic long-chain cis-PT (forming cis double bonds from the condensation reaction) that catalyzes chain elongation of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP, an allylic diphosphate) via multiple condensations with isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP). DHDDS is of biomedical importance, as a non-conservative mutation (K42E) in the enzyme results in retinitis pigmentosa, ultimately leading to blindness...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809607/amoxapine-demonstrates-incomplete-inhibition-of-%C3%AE-glucuronidase-activity-from-human-gut-microbiota
#14
Wei Yang, Bin Wei, Ru Yan
Amoxapine has been demonstrated to be a potent inhibitor of Escherichia coli β-glucuronidase. This study aims to explore the factors causing unsatisfactory efficacy of amoxapine in alleviating CPT-11-induced gastrointestinal toxicity in mice and to predict the outcomes in humans. Amoxapine (100 µM) exhibited poor and varied inhibition on β-glucuronidase activity in gut microbiota from 10 healthy individuals and their pool (pool, 11.9%; individuals, 3.6%-54.4%) with IC50 >100 µM and potent inhibition toward E...
August 1, 2017: SLAS Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809507/persistence-of-indigenous-escherichia-coli-in-raw-bovine-manure-amended-soil
#15
Samantha K Çekiç, Jaysankar De, Mohammad Jubair, Keith R Schneider
The Food Safety Modernization Act attempts to reduce produce-related foodborne illness by using preventive rather than reactive measures. The goal of this research was to determine the persistence of manure-borne generic Escherichia coli under laboratory and field conditions. The population density of naturally occurring E. coli was ∼7.2 and 5.4 log CFU/10 g in pre- and postscreened manures, respectively. Postscreened (i.e. after the liquid manure has passed through a screen) manure was applied at light, medium, and heavy rates to fields in Live Oak and Citra, FL, during the fall and summer...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808410/the-effects-of-erzincan-grape-vitis-vinifera-spp-cimin-and-benzothiazol-on-a-caenorhabditis-elegans-organism-model
#16
Hulya Ozpinar, Necati Ozpinar, Savas Karakus
BACKGROUND: Grapes and their products are known to have been used for the treatment of diseases throughout history. OBJECTIVE: It was aimed to investigate the effects of Erzincan Cimin grapes on an organism model of Caenorhabditis elegans N2 wild type and C. elegans BS913 strains with gonad cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of methanol extracts of the skin and seeds of Erzincan Cimin grapes were examined separately on C. elegans N2 wild type and an effect was determined on lifespan...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808163/a-role-for-fimh-in-extraintestinal-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-invasion-and-translocation-through-the-intestinal-epithelium
#17
Nina M Poole, Sabrina I Green, Anubama Rajan, Luz E Vela, Xi-Lei Zeng, Mary K Estes, Anthony W Maresso
The translocation of bacteria across the intestinal epithelium of immunocompromised patients can lead to bacteremia and life-threatening sepsis. Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC), so named because this pathotype infects tissues distal to the intestinal tract, is a frequent cause of such infections, is often multidrug resistant, and chronically colonizes a sizable portion of the healthy population. Although several virulence factors and their roles in pathogenesis are well described for ExPEC that cause urinary tract infections and meningitis, they have not been linked to translocation through intestinal barriers, a fundamentally distant yet important clinical phenomenon...
August 14, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808133/the-rph-1-encoded-truncated-rnase-ph-protein-inhibits-rnase-p-maturation-of-pre-trnas-with-short-leader-sequences-in-the-absence-of-rpph
#18
Katherine E Bowden, Nicholas S Wiese, Tariq Perwez, Bijoy K Mohanty, Sidney R Kushner
RNase PH, encoded by the rph gene, is a 3' → 5' exoribonuclease that in E. coli participates primarily in the 3' maturation of pre-tRNAs and the degradation of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in stationary phase cells. Interestingly, the routinely used laboratory strains of MG1655 and W3110 have naturally acquired the rph-1 allele encoding a truncated, catalytically inactive RNase PH protein, which is widely assumed to be benign. Contrary to this assumption, we show that rph-1 encoded Rph-1 protein inhibits RNase P mediated 5' end maturation of primary pre-tRNAs with leaders < 5 nucleotides in the absence of RppH, an RNA pyrophosphohydrolase...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808010/voltage-gated-calcium-flux-mediates-escherichia-coli-mechanosensation
#19
Giancarlo N Bruni, R Andrew Weekley, Benjamin J T Dodd, Joel M Kralj
Electrically excitable cells harness voltage-coupled calcium influx to transmit intracellular signals, typically studied in neurons and cardiomyocytes. Despite intense study in higher organisms, investigations of voltage and calcium signaling in bacteria have lagged due to their small size and a lack of sensitive tools. Only recently were bacteria shown to modulate their membrane potential on the timescale of seconds, and little is known about the downstream effects from this modulation. In this paper, we report on the effects of electrophysiology in individual bacteria...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807773/influence-of-oxidative-stress-on-the-antibacterial-activity-of-betulin-betulinic-acid-and-ursolic-acid
#20
H O B Oloyede, H O Ajiboye, M O Salawu, T O Ajiboye
Contribution of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress in the antibacterial activities of betulin, betulinic acid and ursolic acid against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus was investigated. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of betulin, betulinic acid and ursolic acid against E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus are 1024-, 256- and 1024-μg/mL; 512-, 256- and 256 μg/mL; 256-, 256- and 64 μg/mL respectively. Cell viability of betulin-, betulinic acid- and ursolic acid-treated bacteria decrease in time dependent manner...
August 11, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
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