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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729704/growth-hormone-reverses-dyslipidemia-in-adult-offspring-after-maternal-undernutrition
#1
Wei-Fen Zhu, Sheng-Jie Tang, Zheng Shen, Ying-Min Wang, Li Liang
The abnormal intrauterine milieu of fetal growth retardation could lead to dyslipidemia in adulthood. Studies have shown that growth hormone (GH) therapy in small for gestational age (SGA) children would be beneficial for metabolic parameters. Here we investigated whether GH treatment introduced at adolescent period in SGA could reverse dyslipidemia during later life. SGA rat model was established by using semi-starvation treatment during the whole pregnancy. SGA or appropriate for gestational age (AGA) offspring were assigned to receive GH or normal saline (NS)...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726334/insulin-sensitivity-across-the-lifespan-from-obese-adolescents-to-obese-adults-with-impaired-glucose-tolerance-who-is-worse-off
#2
Silva Arslanian, Joon Young Kim, Alexis Nasr, Fida Bacha, Hala Tfayli, SoJung Lee, Frederico G S Toledo
OBJECTIVE: Youth type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) occurs decades earlier than adult T2DM and is characterized by high therapeutic failure rates and decreased response to insulin sensitizers suggesting a more severe disease process than in adults. To explain these observations, we hypothesized that insulin resistance is worse in obese youth than adults with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), a state of high-risk for T2DM. As proof-of-concept, we compared insulin sensitivity between BMI-, sex-, and race-matched obese youth vs adults with IGT...
July 20, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712591/normalizing-ovulation-rate-by-preferential-reduction-of-hepato-visceral-fat-in-adolescent-girls-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#3
Lourdes Ibáñez, Luis Del Río, Marta Díaz, Giorgia Sebastiani, Óscar J Pozo, Abel López-Bermejo, Francis de Zegher
PURPOSE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an increasingly prevalent disorder in adolescent girls, commonly presenting with hirsutism/oligomenorrhea, commonly treated with an oral contraceptive (OC), and commonly followed by oligoanovulatory subfertility. We tested whether an intervention targeting the reduction of hepato-visceral adiposity is followed by a higher ovulation rate than OC treatment. METHODS: This randomized, open-label, single-center, pilot proof-of-concept study (12 months on treatment, then 12 months off) was performed in adolescent girls with hirsutism and oligomenorrhea (PCOS by National Institutes of Health; no sexual activity; N = 36; mean age 16 years, body mass index 23...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688027/pharmacokinetics-of-fentanyl-and-its-derivatives-in-children-a-comprehensive-review
#4
REVIEW
Victoria C Ziesenitz, Janelle D Vaughns, Gilbert Koch, Gerd Mikus, Johannes N van den Anker
Fentanyl and its derivatives sufentanil, alfentanil, and remifentanil are potent opioids. A comprehensive review of the use of fentanyl and its derivatives in the pediatric population was performed using the National Library of Medicine PubMed. Studies were included if they contained original pharmacokinetic parameters or models using established routes of administration in patients younger than 18 years of age. Of 372 retrieved articles, 44 eligible pharmacokinetic studies contained data of 821 patients younger than 18 years of age, including more than 46 preterm infants, 64 full-term neonates, 115 infants/toddlers, 188 children, and 28 adolescents...
July 7, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685316/-liver-biopsy-in-children-and-adolescents-preliminary-morphological-examinations-in-diffuse-liver-disease
#5
REVIEW
C Lackner, A S Knisely
BACKGROUND: Frequencies of types of liver disease differ between adults and nonadults (NA). OBJECTIVES: The particular problems encountered in interpreting liver-biopsy findings in NA often require referral in consultation.  To permit this efficiently, we recommend specific approaches to light microscopy, with special stains and immunohistochemistry, as well as to ultrastructural study. METHODS: Prosection and the choice of special stains are described, and are discussed in relation to clinical questions...
July 2017: Der Pathologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663159/synchronous-solid-pseudopapillary-tumor-and-insulinoma-in-an-adolescent-men1-patient-presenting-with-diagnostic-dilemmas
#6
Ahmet Uçar, Banu Özgüven, Muharrem Battal, Felda Alpaslan, Evrim Özmen, Aylin Yetim, Yasin Yılmaz
Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN1) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by primary hyperparathyroidism, enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, and anterior pituitary adenomas. A 16-year-old male presented to the emergency outpatient clinic with tonic convulsions. Physical examination in the postconvulsive period was unremarkable and revealed a muscular, postpubertal adolescent. Biochemical tests at admission were consistent with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia and remarkable for elevated levels of liver transaminases and creatine kinase...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643816/-budd-chiari-syndrome-and-ulcerative-colitis-in-an-adolescent
#7
Federico Marchetti, Martina Mainetti, Michela Giovannini, Cristina Morelli
In patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) there is an increased incidence of thromboembolic events. We report a case of a female, age 14, with a 6 months history of diarrhea with occasional presence of red blood and with a very distended abdomen with evident ascites. The diagnosis was Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) in ulcerative colitis (UC). Therapy with subcutaneous low molecular weight heparin, methylprednisolone, mesalazine was started. Clinical and radiological features quickly improved. No thrombophilia abnormality nor other risk factor for thrombosis were detected...
May 2017: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641071/giving-it-our-best-shot-human-papillomavirus-and-hepatitis-b-virus-immunization-among-refugees-massachusetts-2011-2013
#8
Rachel Stein Berman, Laura Smock, Megan H Bair-Merritt, Jennifer Cochran, Paul L Geltman
INTRODUCTION: The receipt rate of hepatitis B virus vaccine among adolescents in the United States is high, while the receipt rate of human papillomavirus vaccine is low. Rates have not been closely studied among refugees, whose home countries have high rates of disease caused by these viruses. METHODS: We examined human papillomavirus and hepatitis B virus immunization rates among 2,269 refugees aged 9 to 26 years who resettled in Massachusetts from 2011 through 2013...
June 22, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640216/a-branched-chain-amino-acid-related-metabolic-signature-characterizes-obese-adolescents-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#9
Martina Goffredo, Nicola Santoro, Domenico Tricò, Cosimo Giannini, Ebe D'Adamo, Hongyu Zhao, Gang Peng, Xiaoqing Yu, Tukiet T Lam, Bridget Pierpont, Sonia Caprio, Raimund I Herzog
Dysregulation of several metabolite pathways, including branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), are associated with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance in adults, while studies in youth reported conflicting results. We explored whether, independently of obesity and insulin resistance, obese adolescents with NAFLD display a metabolomic signature consistent with disturbances in amino acid and lipid metabolism. A total of 180 plasma metabolites were measured by a targeted metabolomic approach in 78 obese adolescents with (n = 30) or without (n = 48) NAFLD assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
June 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634575/association-between-plasmatic-ceramides-profile-and-ast-alt-ratio-c14-0-ceramide-as-predictor-of-hepatic-steatosis-in-adolescents-independently-of-obesity
#10
Jorge Maldonado-Hernández, Gabriela E Saldaña-Dávila, Mónica I Piña-Aguero, Benjamín A Núñez-García, Mardia G López-Alarcón
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between plasma ceramides and hepatic steatosis (HS) in adolescents, independently of obesity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-four adolescents from two previous studies conducted and published by our crew were included. Study subjects were stratified in three groups: normal weight (n = 18), obesity (n = 34), and obesity + HS (n = 42). The presence of HS was defined when ALT/AST ratio was <1. Ceramides subspecies (C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C24:0, and C24:1) were determined by LC/MS...
2017: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624307/safety-and-immune-response-to-a-challenge-dose-of-hepatitis-b-vaccine-in-healthy-children-primed-10years-earlier-with-hexavalent-vaccines-in-a-3-5-11-month-schedule-an-open-label-controlled-multicentre-trial-in-italy
#11
Alessandro Zanetti, Maria Giuseppina Desole, Luisa Romanò, Antonio d'Alessandro, Michele Conversano, Giuseppe Ferrera, Maria Grazia Panico, Alberto Tomasi, Giorgio Zoppi, Massimo Zuliani, Stéphane Thomas, Benoît Soubeyrand, Cécile Eymin, Stephen Lockhart
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The strategy of vaccinating infants to prevent hepatitis B virus infection in adolescence or adulthood requires durable immunity. This study investigated responses to a challenge dose of monovalent hepatitis B vaccine in children primed with three doses of either Hexavac® or Infanrix hexa® 10years earlier during infancy. METHODS: This open-label, controlled, multicentre study conducted in Italy, enrolled 751 healthy pre-adolescents (aged 11-13years) who were given either Hexavac (n=409) or Infanrix hexa (n=342) at 3, 5 and 11months of life...
July 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619730/consumption-of-a-high-iron-diet-disrupts-homeostatic-regulation-of-intestinal-copper-absorption-in-adolescent-mice
#12
Jung-Heun Ha, Caglar Doguer, James F Collins
High-iron feeding of rodents has been commonly used to model human iron-overload disorders. We recently noted that high-iron consumption impaired growth and caused severe systemic copper deficiency in growing rats, but the mechanism by which this occurred could not be determined due to technical limitations. In the current investigation, we thus utilized mice; first to determine if the same phenomenon occurred in another mammalian species, and secondly since we could assess in vivo copper absorption in mice...
June 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611053/the-rs7903146-variant-in-the-tcf7l2-gene-increases-the-risk-of-prediabetes-type-2-diabetes-in-obese-adolescents-by-impairing-%C3%AE-cell-function-and-hepatic-insulin-sensitivity
#13
Catrina Cropano, Nicola Santoro, Leif Groop, Chiara Dalla Mann, Claudio Cobelli, Alfonso Galderisi, Romy Kursawe, Bridget Pierpont, Martina Goffredo, Sonia Caprio
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to explore the mechanism by which TCF7L2 rs7903146 risk allele confers susceptibility to impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or type 2 diabetes (T2D) in obese adolescents. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The rs7903146 variant in the TCF7L2 gene was genotyped in a multiethnic cohort of 955 youths. All subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test with the use of the Oral Minimal Model to assess insulin secretion, and 33 subjects underwent a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp...
June 13, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608566/influence-of-universal-hbv-vaccination-on-chronic-hbv-infection-in-italy-results-of-a-cross-sectional-multicentre-study
#14
Evangelista Sagnelli, Tommaso Stroffolini, Caterina Sagnelli, Filomena Morisco, Nicola Coppola, Antonina Smedile, Mariantonietta Pisaturo, Guido Colloredo, Sergio Babudieri, Anna Licata, Giuseppina Brancaccio, Angelo Andriulli, Piero Luigi Almasio, Giovani Battista Gaeta, Bruno Cacopardo, Guido Colloredo, Nicola Coppola, Massimo De Luca, Caterina Furlan, Mario Pirisi, Floriano Rosina, Teresa Santantonio
Background and Aim The universal hepatitis B vaccination for infants and 12-year-old adolescents (the latter limited to the first 12 years of application) was launched in Italy in 1991. Twenty-three years later we evaluated the impact of the vaccination campaign on the burden of HBsAg-positive chronic liver diseases (CLD). Material and Methods 513 HBsAg-positive chronic carriers referring to 16 Italian liver units were investigated and compared with HBsAg carriers enrolled in previous surveys. Results The proportion of inactive carriers decreased from 20...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604592/carbohydrates-from-sources-with-a-higher-glycemic-index-during-adolescence-is-evening-rather-than-morning-intake-relevant-for-risk-markers-of-type-2-diabetes-in-young-adulthood
#15
Tanja Diederichs, Christian Herder, Sarah Roßbach, Michael Roden, Stefan A Wudy, Ute Nöthlings, Ute Alexy, Anette E Buyken
This study investigated whether glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL) of morning or evening intake and morning or evening carbohydrate intake from low- or higher-GI food sources (low-GI-CHO, higher-GI-CHO) during adolescence are relevant for risk markers of type 2 diabetes in young adulthood. Methods: Analyses included DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study participants who had provided at least two 3-day weighed dietary records (median: 7 records) during adolescence and one blood sample in young adulthood...
June 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602603/what-might-we-learn-from-the-more-successful-uptake-of-hepatitis-b-hbv-vaccinations-to-increase-human-papillomavirus-hpv-vaccinations-in-adolescents
#16
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587303/the-role-of-lipid-and-lipoprotein-metabolism-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#17
REVIEW
Francesco Massimo Perla, Maurizia Prelati, Michela Lavorato, Daniele Visicchio, Caterina Anania
Due to the epidemic of obesity across the world, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most prevalent chronic liver disorders in children and adolescents. NAFLD comprises a spectrum of fat-associated liver conditions that can result in end-stage liver disease and the need for liver transplantation. Simple steatosis, or fatty liver, occurs early in NAFLD and may progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanism of the liver injury in NAFLD is currently thought to be a "multiple-hit process" where the first "hit" is an increase in liver fat, followed by multiple additional factors that trigger the inflammatory activity...
June 6, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586278/the-immunogenicity-of-gsk-s-recombinant-hepatitis-b-vaccine-in-children-a-systematic-review-of-30-years-of-experience
#18
Caroline van den Ende, Cinzia Marano, Ayla van Ahee, Eveline M Bunge, Laurence De Moerlooze
The World Health Organization recommends hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccines to be included in national immunization schedules everywhere, and has adopted the strategic goal of halting viral hepatitis as a major public health threat by 2030, under which vaccination plays a major role. Engerix™ B (GSK HepB, GSK, Belgium) was the first recombinant HBV vaccine to be licensed, and marked its 30(th) anniversary in 2016. Areas covered: We conducted a systematic review of the literature summarizing 30 years of immunogenicity and safety data for GSK HepB in children and adolescents...
June 6, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584856/impact-of-an-electronic-medical-record-based-system-to-promote-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hepatitis-c-virus-screening-in-public-hospital-primary-care-clinics
#19
Matthew R Golden, Jeffery Duchin, Lisa D Chew, Jane H Huntington, Nancy Sugg, Sara Jackson, Aric Lane, Monica Pecha, Elizabeth Barash, John Scott
BACKGROUND: United States guidelines recommend that all adolescents and adults be tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and that persons born between 1945 and 1965 be tested for hepatitis C virus (HCV). METHODS: We used electronic medical record (EMR) data to identify patients in 3 primary care clinics in Seattle, Washington who met national criteria for routine HCV or HIV testing and had no documented history of prior testing. Clinic staff received daily lists of untested patients with scheduled appointments...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579252/biological-implications-of-selenium-in-adolescent-rats-exposed-to-binge-drinking-oxidative-immunologic-and-apoptotic-balance
#20
M Luisa Ojeda, Olimpia Carreras, Paula Sobrino, M Luisa Murillo, Fátima Nogales
Alcohol intermittent binge drinking (BD) during adolescence decreases the levels of selenium (Se), a trace element that plays a key biological role against oxidative damage in hepatocytes through different selenoproteins such as the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidases (GPx1 and Gpx4) and selenoprotein P (SelP). In this context, it has been found that GPx4 has an essential antioxidant role in mitochondria modulating the apoptosis and NF-kB activation (a factor intimately related to apoptosis and immune function)...
June 1, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
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