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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634575/association-between-plasmatic-ceramides-profile-and-ast-alt-ratio-c14-0-ceramide-as-predictor-of-hepatic-steatosis-in-adolescents-independently-of-obesity
#1
Jorge Maldonado-Hernández, Gabriela E Saldaña-Dávila, Mónica I Piña-Aguero, Benjamín A Núñez-García, Mardia G López-Alarcón
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between plasma ceramides and hepatic steatosis (HS) in adolescents, independently of obesity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-four adolescents from two previous studies conducted and published by our crew were included. Study subjects were stratified in three groups: normal weight (n = 18), obesity (n = 34), and obesity + HS (n = 42). The presence of HS was defined when ALT/AST ratio was <1. Ceramides subspecies (C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C24:0, and C24:1) were determined by LC/MS...
2017: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624307/safety-and-immune-response-to-a-challenge-dose-of-hepatitis-b-vaccine-in-healthy-children-primed-10years-earlier-with-hexavalent-vaccines-in-a-3-5-11-month-schedule-an-open-label-controlled-multicentre-trial-in-italy
#2
Alessandro Zanetti, Maria Giuseppina Desole, Luisa Romanò, Antonio d'Alessandro, Michele Conversano, Giuseppe Ferrera, Maria Grazia Panico, Alberto Tomasi, Giorgio Zoppi, Massimo Zuliani, Stéphane Thomas, Benoît Soubeyrand, Cécile Eymin, Stephen Lockhart
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The strategy of vaccinating infants to prevent hepatitis B virus infection in adolescence or adulthood requires durable immunity. This study investigated responses to a challenge dose of monovalent hepatitis B vaccine in children primed with three doses of either Hexavac® or Infanrix hexa® 10years earlier during infancy. METHODS: This open-label, controlled, multicentre study conducted in Italy, enrolled 751 healthy pre-adolescents (aged 11-13years) who were given either Hexavac (n=409) or Infanrix hexa (n=342) at 3, 5 and 11months of life...
June 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619730/consumption-of-a-high-iron-diet-disrupts-homeostatic-regulation-of-intestinal-copper-absorption-in-adolescent-mice
#3
Jung-Heun Ha, Caglar Doguer, James F Collins
High-iron feeding of rodents has been commonly used to model human iron-overload disorders. We recently noted that high-iron consumption impaired growth and caused severe systemic copper deficiency in growing rats, but the mechanism by which this occurred could not be determined due to technical limitations. In the current investigation, we thus utilized mice; first to determine if the same phenomenon occurred in another mammalian species, and secondly since we could assess in vivo copper absorption in mice...
June 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611053/the-rs7903146-variant-in-the-tcf7l2-gene-increases-the-risk-of-prediabetes-type-2-diabetes-in-obese-adolescents-by-impairing-%C3%AE-cell-function-and-hepatic-insulin-sensitivity
#4
Catrina Cropano, Nicola Santoro, Leif Groop, Chiara Dalla Mann, Claudio Cobelli, Alfonso Galderisi, Romy Kursawe, Bridget Pierpont, Martina Goffredo, Sonia Caprio
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to explore the mechanism by which TCF7L2 rs7903146 risk allele confers susceptibility to impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or type 2 diabetes (T2D) in obese adolescents. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The rs7903146 variant in the TCF7L2 gene was genotyped in a multiethnic cohort of 955 youths. All subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test with the use of the Oral Minimal Model to assess insulin secretion, and 33 subjects underwent a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp...
June 13, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608566/influence-of-universal-hbv-vaccination-on-chronic-hbv-infection-in-italy-results-of-a-cross-sectional-multicentre-study
#5
Evangelista Sagnelli, Tommaso Stroffolini, Caterina Sagnelli, Filomena Morisco, Nicola Coppola, Antonina Smedile, Mariantonietta Pisaturo, Guido Colloredo, Sergio Babudieri, Anna Licata, Giuseppina Brancaccio, Angelo Andriulli, Piero Luigi Almasio, Giovani Battista Gaeta, Bruno Cacopardo, Guido Colloredo, Nicola Coppola, Massimo De Luca, Caterina Furlan, Mario Pirisi, Floriano Rosina, Teresa Santantonio
Background and Aim The universal hepatitis B vaccination for infants and 12-year-old adolescents (the latter limited to the first 12 years of application) was launched in Italy in 1991. Twenty-three years later we evaluated the impact of the vaccination campaign on the burden of HBsAg-positive chronic liver diseases (CLD). Material and Methods 513 HBsAg-positive chronic carriers referring to 16 Italian liver units were investigated and compared with HBsAg carriers enrolled in previous surveys. Results The proportion of inactive carriers decreased from 20...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604592/carbohydrates-from-sources-with-a-higher-glycemic-index-during-adolescence-is-evening-rather-than-morning-intake-relevant-for-risk-markers-of-type-2-diabetes-in-young-adulthood
#6
Tanja Diederichs, Christian Herder, Sarah Roßbach, Michael Roden, Stefan A Wudy, Ute Nöthlings, Ute Alexy, Anette E Buyken
This study investigated whether glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL) of morning or evening intake and morning or evening carbohydrate intake from low- or higher-GI food sources (low-GI-CHO, higher-GI-CHO) during adolescence are relevant for risk markers of type 2 diabetes in young adulthood. Methods: Analyses included DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study participants who had provided at least two 3-day weighed dietary records (median: 7 records) during adolescence and one blood sample in young adulthood...
June 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602603/what-might-we-learn-from-the-more-successful-uptake-of-hepatitis-b-hbv-vaccinations-to-increase-human-papillomavirus-hpv-vaccinations-in-adolescents
#7
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587303/the-role-of-lipid-and-lipoprotein-metabolism-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#8
REVIEW
Francesco Massimo Perla, Maurizia Prelati, Michela Lavorato, Daniele Visicchio, Caterina Anania
Due to the epidemic of obesity across the world, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most prevalent chronic liver disorders in children and adolescents. NAFLD comprises a spectrum of fat-associated liver conditions that can result in end-stage liver disease and the need for liver transplantation. Simple steatosis, or fatty liver, occurs early in NAFLD and may progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanism of the liver injury in NAFLD is currently thought to be a "multiple-hit process" where the first "hit" is an increase in liver fat, followed by multiple additional factors that trigger the inflammatory activity...
June 6, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586278/the-immunogenicity-of-gsk-s-recombinant-hepatitis-b-vaccine-in-children-a-systematic-review-of-30-years-of-experience
#9
Caroline van den Ende, Cinzia Marano, Ayla van Ahee, Eveline M Bunge, Laurence De Moerlooze
The World Health Organization recommends hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccines to be included in national immunization schedules everywhere, and has adopted the strategic goal of halting viral hepatitis as a major public health threat by 2030, under which vaccination plays a major role. Engerix™ B (GSK HepB, GSK, Belgium) was the first recombinant HBV vaccine to be licensed, and marked its 30(th) anniversary in 2016. Areas covered: We conducted a systematic review of the literature summarizing 30 years of immunogenicity and safety data for GSK HepB in children and adolescents...
June 6, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584856/impact-of-an-electronic-medical-record-based-system-to-promote-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hepatitis-c-virus-screening-in-public-hospital-primary-care-clinics
#10
Matthew R Golden, Jeffery Duchin, Lisa D Chew, Jane H Huntington, Nancy Sugg, Sara Jackson, Aric Lane, Monica Pecha, Elizabeth Barash, John Scott
BACKGROUND: United States guidelines recommend that all adolescents and adults be tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and that persons born between 1945 and 1965 be tested for hepatitis C virus (HCV). METHODS: We used electronic medical record (EMR) data to identify patients in 3 primary care clinics in Seattle, Washington who met national criteria for routine HCV or HIV testing and had no documented history of prior testing. Clinic staff received daily lists of untested patients with scheduled appointments...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579252/biological-implications-of-selenium-in-adolescent-rats-exposed-to-binge-drinking-oxidative-immunologic-and-apoptotic-balance
#11
M Luisa Ojeda, Olimpia Carreras, Paula Sobrino, M Luisa Murillo, Fátima Nogales
Alcohol intermittent binge drinking (BD) during adolescence decreases the levels of selenium (Se), a trace element that plays a key biological role against oxidative damage in hepatocytes through different selenoproteins such as the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidases (GPx1 and Gpx4) and selenoprotein P (SelP). In this context, it has been found that GPx4 has an essential antioxidant role in mitochondria modulating the apoptosis and NF-kB activation (a factor intimately related to apoptosis and immune function)...
June 1, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543053/sofosbuvir-and-ribavirin-in-adolescents-12-to-17-years-old-with-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-2-or-3-infection
#12
Stefan Wirth, Philip Rosenthal, Regino P Gonzalez-Peralta, Maureen M Jonas, William F Balistreri, Lin Chuan-Hao, Winita Hardikar, Kathryn Kersey, Benedetta Massetto, Bittoo Kanwar, Diana M Brainard, Jiang Shao, Evguenia Svarovskaia, Brian Kirby, Ronen Arnon, Karen F Murray, Kathleen B Schwarz
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Children with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have limited treatment options. We evaluated the all-oral combination of sofosbuvir and ribavirin in adolescents aged 12-17 with HCV genotype 2 or 3. METHODS: Fifty-two patients received sofosbuvir 400mg once daily and weight-based ribavirin twice daily for 12 (genotype 2) or 24 (genotype 3) weeks. The pharmacokinetics of sofosbuvir and its metabolite GS-331007 were evaluated by intensive plasma sampling at day 7 in the first 10 patients enrolled, and by sparse sampling in all patients throughout treatment...
May 22, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531762/high-dose-testosterone-enanthate-supplementation-boosts-oxidative-stress-but-exerts-little-effect-on-the-antioxidant-barrier-in-sedentary-adolescent-male-rat-liver
#13
Ewa Sadowska-Krępa, Barbara Kłapcińska, Sławomir Jagsz, Anna Nowara, Izabela Szołtysek-Bołdys, Małgorzata Chalimoniuk, Józef Langfort, Stanisław J Chrapusta
BACKGROUND: Anabolic-androgenic steroids abuse is on the rise among adolescent boys and young men, mostly in those seeking a 'shortcut' to an improved body image. This approach is associated with the risk of severe adverse health effects, some of which involve the liver and are linked to hepatic oxidative stress. Testosterone and its esters is a cornerstone of most anabolic-androgenic steroid stacking protocols. METHODS: We assessed and compared several hepatotoxicity and liver oxidative stress indices, as well as the contents of some components of the hepatic antioxidant barrier between sedentary adolescent male rats given a 6-week course of weekly im testosterone enanthate (TE, 8 or 80mg/kgBW/week) or vehicle (sesame oil) injections...
March 11, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521872/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-an-update-with-special-focus-on-the-role-of-gut-microbiota
#14
REVIEW
Michael Doulberis, Georgios Kotronis, Dimitra Gialamprinou, Jannis Kountouras, Panagiotis Katsinelos
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a significant global health burden in children, adolescents and adults with substantial rise in prevalence over the last decades. Accumulating data from manifold studies support the idea of NAFLD as a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, being rather a systemic metabolic disease than a liver confined pathology. Emerging data support that the gut microbiome represents a significant environmental factor contributing to NAFLD development and progression. Apart from other regimens, probiotics may have a positive role in the management of NAFLD through a plethora of possible mechanisms...
June 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511023/efficacy-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-choline-vitamin-e-dha-cho-ve-in-paediatric-nash-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#15
Evelyn Zöhrer, Alisi Anna, Jörg Jahnel, Antonella Moscla, Claudia Della Corte, Annalisa Crudele, Günter Fauler, Valerio Nobili
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a progressive form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is one of the most common hepatic diseases in children. We conducted a randomized controlled clinical trial on children with biopsy-proven NASH based on a combinatorial nutritional approach compared to placebo. Participants were assigned to lifestyle modification plus placebo, or lifestyle modification plus a mix containing docosahexaenoic acid, choline and vitamin E (DHA-CHO-VE). Forty children and adolescents concluded the trial...
May 16, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507928/the-role-of-direct-acting-antivirals-in-the-treatment-of-children-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#16
REVIEW
Christine Hong Ting Yang, Eric R Yoo, Aijaz Ahmed
In the United States, chronic infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects an estimated 0.1-2% of the pediatric population, who are consequently at risk for major complications, including cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and death. The current standard of treatment for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in children is pegylated-interferon-alpha (PEG-IFN) in combination with ribavirin. PEG-IFN/ribavirin therapy is approved for children ages 3 and older; however, it is often held from use until adulthood because of its extensive list of potential side effects and high likelihood of causing adverse symptoms...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502515/lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficiency-in-all-siblings-of-the-same-parents
#17
James J Maciejko, Premchand Anne, Saleem Raza, Hernando J Lyons
We present 4 normal-weight sibling children with lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LAL-D). LAL-D was considered in the differential diagnosis based on the absence of secondary causes and primary inherited traits for their marked hyperlipidemia, together with unexplained hepatic transaminase elevation. Residual lysosomal acid lipase activity confirmed the diagnosis. DNA sequencing of LIPA indicated that the siblings were compound heterozygotes (c.894G>A and c.428+1G>A). This case describes the unusual occurrence of all offspring from the same nonconsanguineous mother and father inheriting compound heterozygosity of a recessive trait and the identification of an apparently unique LIPA mutation (c...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502444/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children-hepatic-and-extrahepatic-complications
#18
REVIEW
Praveen Kumar Conjeevaram Selvakumar, Mohammad Nasser Kabbany, Valerio Nobili, Naim Alkhouri
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and has become the most common form of chronic liver disease in children and adolescents. The histologic spectrum of NAFLD is broad ranging, from the relatively benign form of simple steatosis to the aggressive form of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, eventually leading to fibrosis and cirrhosis. NAFLD has also been recognized as an independent risk factor for extrahepatic complications, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, sleep disorders, and osteoporosis...
June 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493860/hepatitis-c-virus-infection-among-women-giving-birth-tennessee-and-united-states-2009-2014
#19
Stephen W Patrick, Audrey M Bauer, Michael D Warren, Timothy F Jones, Carolyn Wester
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects an estimated 3.5 million persons in the United States (1), making it the most common bloodborne infection in the country. Recent surveillance data showed increased rates of HCV infection among adolescents and adults who are predominantly white, live in nonurban areas, and have a history of injection drug use.* U.S. birth certificate data were used to analyze trends and geographic variations in rates of HCV infection among women giving birth during 2009-2014. Birth certificates from Tennessee were used to examine individual characteristics and outcomes associated with HCV infection, using a multivariable model to calculate adjusted odds of HCV-related diagnosis in pregnancy among women with live births...
May 12, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493172/tenofovir-alafenamide-a-review-in-chronic-hepatitis-b
#20
REVIEW
Lesley J Scott, Henry L Y Chan
Tenofovir alafenamide (AF) [Vemlidy(®)], an oral prodrug of tenofovir, was developed to optimize the antiviral potency and clinical safety of the active moiety tenofovir diphosphate (selective reverse transcriptase nucleotide inhibitor). In two identically designed, ongoing, multinational trials in treatment-naive and -experienced adult patients with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive or -negative chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, once-daily tenofovir AF 25 mg provided effective and sustained viral suppression (120-week analysis), and was generally well tolerated...
June 2017: Drugs
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