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Hepatitis adolescent

Anagha Loharikar, Laure Dumolard, Susan Chu, Terri Hyde, Tracey Goodman, Carsten Mantel
Since the global Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) was launched in 1974, vaccination against six diseases (tuberculosis, polio, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and measles) has prevented millions of deaths and disabilities (1). Significant advances have been made in the development and introduction of vaccines, and licensed vaccines are now available to prevent 25 diseases (2,3). Historically, new vaccines only became available in low-income and middle-income countries decades after being introduced in high-income countries...
October 21, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Emily Etchell, Lauriane Jugé, Alice Hatt, Ralph Sinkus, Lynne E Bilston
Purpose To determine if healthy hepatic mechanical properties differ between pediatric and adult subjects at magnetic resonance (MR) elastography. Materials and Methods Liver shear moduli in 24 healthy pediatric participants (13 children aged 5-14 years [seven boys, six girls] and 11 adolescents aged 15-18 years [six boys, five girls]) and 10 healthy adults (aged 22-36 years [five men, five women]) were obtained with 3-T MR elastography at 28, 56, and 84 Hz. Relationships between shear moduli and age were assessed with Spearman correlations...
October 17, 2016: Radiology
Gülsüm İclal Bayhan, Kaan Demiören, Hüseyin Güdücüoğlu
AIM: Hepatitis E virus is an etiological agent of hepatitis which is transmitted enterically and may lead to water-born outbreaks. Although it is mainly transmitted by the fecal-oral route, it is estimated that many cases are associated with zoonotic transmission in developing countries. In this study, we aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of hepatitis E in the childhood age group in the province of Van and to demonstrate the relationship between seroprevalence and demographic properties, residential house/region, water supply used at home, dealing with livestock and history of surgery...
September 2016: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
William M Greenberg, Leslie Citrome
Lurasidone hydrochloride, a benzisothiazol derivative, is a second-generation (atypical) antipsychotic agent that has received regulatory approval for the treatment of schizophrenia in the US, Canada, the EU, Switzerland, and Australia, and also for bipolar depression in the US and Canada. In addition to its principal antagonist activity at dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors, lurasidone has distinctive 5-HT7 antagonistic activity, and displays partial agonism at 5-HT1A receptors, as well as modest antagonism at noradrenergic α2A and α2C receptors...
October 8, 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Melania Manco, Antonella Mosca, Francesco De Peppo, Romina Caccamo, Renato Cutrera, Ugo Giordano, Cristiano De Stefanis, Anna Alisi, Ulrich Baumann, Gianfranco Silecchia, Valerio Nobili
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether bariatric surgery is effective for the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in adolescence, we compared the efficacy of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) with that of lifestyle intervention (nonsurgical weight loss [NSWL]) for NASH reversal in obese adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: Obese (body mass index ≥ 35 kg/m(2)) adolescents (13-17 years of age) with biopsy-proven NAFLD underwent LSG, lifestyle intervention plus intragastric weight loss devices (IGWLD), or only NSWL...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Hanne Haahr, Edmond G Fita, Tim Heise
Insulin degludec/insulin aspart (IDegAsp; 70 % IDeg and 30 % IAsp) is a soluble combination of two individual insulin analogues in one product, designed to provide mealtime glycaemic control due to the IAsp component and basal glucose-lowering effect from the IDeg component. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of IDegAsp have been investigated in a series of clinical pharmacology studies with generally comparable designs, methodologies and patient inclusion/exclusion criteria. The glucose-lowering effect profile of IDegAsp during once-daily dosing at steady state shows distinct and clearly separated action from the prandial and basal components of IDegAsp...
October 1, 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Kerstin Lohr, Fiona Pachl, Amin Moghaddas Gholami, Kerstin E Geillinger, Hannelore Daniel, Bernhard Kuster, Martin Klingenspor
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major health burden in the aging society with an urging medical need for a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered critical in the development of hepatic steatosis, the hallmark of NAFLD. Our study addressed in C57BL/6J mice the effect of high fat diet feeding and age on liver mitochondria at an early stage of NAFLD development. We therefore analyzed functional characteristics of hepatic mitochondria and associated alterations in the mitochondrial proteome in response to high fat feeding in adolescent, young adult, and middle-aged mice...
October 2016: Physiological Reports
R Šošovičková, J Smetana, E Beranová, K Kučerová, R Chlíbek
OBJECTIVE: Viral hepatitis A continues to occur in the Czech Republic due to the high susceptibility of the population and existing opportunities for the transmission of the disease. The aim was to describe and analyse the incidence of viral hepatitis A in the Hradec Králové Region in the Czech Republic in 2005-2014, including the study of two outbreaks that required a different approach of field epidemiologists. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 2015, a retrospective analysis was carried out of the data on the incidence of viral hepatitis A in Hradec Králové Region in 2005-2014...
2016: Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie
Małgorzata Pawłowska, Krzysztof Domagalski, Beata Smok, Paweł Rajewski, Magdalena Wietlicka-Piszcz, Waldemar Halota, Andrzej Tretyn
This study evaluated the long-term (up to 4 years) efficacy and safety of entecavir ETV treatment and analysed the significance of baseline and on-treatment factors in long-term ETV outcomes in adolescents with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). We determined the cumulative virological and serological outcomes of 44 adolescents with CHB receiving ETV for up to 4 years. To investigate the dynamics of HBV DNA, ALT activity and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion over time and their associations with the considered factors, generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used...
2016: PloS One
T Lobstein, R Jackson-Leach
BACKGROUND: Member states of the World Health Organization have adopted resolutions aiming to achieve 'no increase on obesity levels' by 2025 (based on 2010 levels) for infants, adolescents and adults. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the scale of the problem facing health planners and service providers. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using data prepared by the Global Burden of Disease collaborative for 2000 and 2013, we have estimated that by 2025 some 268 million children aged 5-17 years may be overweight, including 91 million obese, assuming no policy interventions have proven effective at changing current trends...
October 2016: Pediatric Obesity
Hanaa M El-Karaksy, Sahar A Sharaf, Iman A Mandour, Engy A Mogahed, Normeen H Rady, Fatma A El-Mougy
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Studying predictors of response to therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in children may help avoid the inappropriate use of currently available costly therapy associated with numerous adverse effects. We tested the hypothesis that inheritance of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the interleukin-10 (IL-10) promoter gene might influence response to HCV treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The impact of SNPs, -1082 G/A and -592 C/A, in the promoter region of IL-10 gene, on response to HCV therapy was assessed in a cohort of 40 children treated with a combination of pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN) α2b and ribavirin...
September 19, 2016: Human Immunology
Zhen Wang, Jinfeng Zeng, Tingting Li, Xin Zheng, Xiaoxuan Xu, Xianlin Ye, Liang Lu, Weigang Zhu, Baocheng Yang, Jean-Pierre Allain, Chengyao Li
BACKGROUND: Neonatal hepatitis B vaccination program at birth has been implemented nationwide since 1992 in China. However, current HBV prevalence status in blood donors has not been entirely examined, which may impact HBV safety in blood donations as the vaccinees over 18 years old progressively become the majority population of blood donors. METHODS: In this study, 569,145 blood donors were screened for HBsAg by rapid tests and enzyme immunoassays, among them 475,538 blood samples with negative HBsAg were further screened for HBV DNA by nucleic acid testing between 2005 and 2014 at Shenzhen blood center...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Philippa J Easterbrook
Testing and diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the gateway for access to both treatment and prevention services, and crucial for an effective hepatitis epidemic response. In contrast to HIV, a systematic approach to hepatitis C testing has been fragmented and limited to a few countries, and there remains a large burden of undiagnosed cases globally. Key challenges in the current hepatitis testing response, include lack of simple, reliable, and low cost diagnostic tests, laboratory capacity, and testing facilities; inadequate data to guide country-specific hepatitis testing approaches and who to test; stigmatization and social marginalization of some groups with or at risk of viral hepatitis; and lack of international or national guidelines on hepatitis testing for resource-limited settings...
October 2016: Journal of Hepatology
Maryam Foroughi, Saeedeh Moayedi-Nia, Alireza Shoghli, Saeed Bayanolhagh, Abbas Sedaghat, Mansoor Mohajeri, Seyed Noraldin Mousavinasab, Minoo Mohraz
OBJECTIVES: The existence of street and working children in Iran is undeniable. The precarious conditions of these children (including disrupted family, poverty, high prevalence of crime among relatives, family members and peers) cause social harm and high-risk behaviours, including drug addiction, selling sex or having sex with adolescents or peers. Here we explore the HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C status of street and working children in Tehran. METHODS: One thousand street and labour children, aged 10-18 years, were recruited by using the time-location sampling method, and semistructured questionnaires were used to find demographic information and information on HIV/AIDS-related high-risk sexual behaviours...
September 6, 2016: Sexually Transmitted Infections
David A Geier, Janet K Kern, Kristin G Homme, Lisa K Sykes, Mark R Geier
BACKGROUND: Obesity among children and adolescents in the United States has tripled since 1980, and has become a major public health concern. AIMS: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential relationship between exposure to organic mercury from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines and the children's subsequent risk of an obesity diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A hypothesis-testing, case-control study was undertaken to evaluate exposure to organic mercury from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines, which were administered at specific intervals in the first 6 months of life, among cases diagnosed with childhood obesity and controls by examining automated medical records for children born from 1991 to 2000 who were continuously enrolled in the Vaccine Safety Datalink database...
July 2016: North American Journal of Medical Sciences
R Gonçalves, C Valente, E Ferreira, J E Serra, J Saraiva da Cunha
Cytomegalovirus is a double stranded DNA virus that can be present in nearly all organs and body fluids. The primary infection is usually asymptomatic in the immunocompetent host and it is common among adolescents and young adults. The symptomatic form appears, in the majority of cases, as a mononucleosis syndrome with full recovery without specific treatment. We report a case of a 25 years old woman who presented with hepatitis due to CMV infection and history of omalizumab administration one month earlier...
2016: IDCases
Antonella Mosca, Claudia Della Corte, Maria Rita Sartorelli, Francesca Ferretti, Francesco Nicita, Andrea Vania, Valerio Nobili
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in children and adolescents, due to the increased worldwide incidence of obesity among children. It is now clear enough that of diet high in carbohydrates and simple sugars are associated with hepatic steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Several studies have shown that an increased consumption of simple sugars is also positively associated with overweight and obesity, and related co-morbidities, such as type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and NAFLD...
August 26, 2016: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Maria-Eleni Anagnostou, Yi Shiau Ng, Robert W Taylor, Robert McFarland
We performed a systematic review of the clinical, molecular, and biochemical features of polymerase gamma (POLG)-related epilepsy and current evidence on seizure management. Patients were identified from a combined electronic search of articles using Ovid Medline and Scopus databases, published from January 2000 to January 2015. Only patients with a confirmed genetic diagnosis of POLG mutations were considered. Seventy-two articles were included for analysis. We identified 128 pathogenic variants in 372 patients who had POLG-related epilepsy...
October 2016: Epilepsia
Aydogan Aydogdu, Ronald S Swerdloff
INTRODUCTION: Male hypogonadism is characterized by inadequate production of Testosterone (T) (hypoandrogenism) and deficiencies in spermatogenesis. The main treatment of male hypogonadism is T replacement therapy (TRT), but for some of the patients, alternative drugs may be more suitable. AREAS COVERED: The available literature of T and alternative treatments for male hypogonadism are discussed. EXPERT OPINION: Transdermal application of T gels are the most commonly used route of T administration...
September 2016: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
H Chaouch, W Hachfi, I Fodha, O Kallala, S Saadi, A Bousaadia, F Lazrag, I Bougmiza, M Aouni, A Trabelsi, E Ben Jazia, A Letaief
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination has been part of the Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) in Tunisia since 1995. The aim of this study was to evaluate, for the first time, the impact of mass vaccination in Tunisia 17 years after this programme was implemented, and in parallel, assess the long-term persistence of anti-HBs antibody in the vaccinated Tunisian population. A total of 1422 students were recruited (703 vaccinated, 719 non-vaccinated). HBV seromarkers were checked. None of the students from either group had positive HBsAg...
August 18, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
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