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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769062/seroprevalence-of-hiv-htlv-cmv-hbv-and-rubella-virus-infections-in-pregnant-adolescents-who-received-care-in-the-city-of-bel%C3%A3-m-par%C3%A3-northern-brazil
#1
Aubaneide Batista Guerra, Leonardo Quintão Siravenha, Rogério Valois Laurentino, Rosimar Neris Martins Feitosa, Vânia Nakauth Azevedo, Antonio Carlos Rosário Vallinoto, Ricardo Ishak, Luiz Fernando Almeida Machado
BACKGROUND: Prenatal tests are important for prevention of vertical transmission of various infectious agents. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), rubella virus and vaccination coverage against HBV in pregnant adolescents who received care in the city of Belém, Pará, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed with 324 pregnant adolescents from 2009 to 2010...
May 16, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761777/-clinical-manifestations-of-epstein-barr-virus-infection-in-children-and-adolescents
#2
Kristoffer Vogler, Lisbeth Samsø Schmidt
The most commonly known clinical manifestation of primary Epstein-Barr virus infection is infectious mononucleosis. In this review we cover the diagnostics and basic patho-physiology of Epstein-Barr virus infection and present the many clinical manifestations of the virus, including less well-known diseases such as hepatitis, auto-immune haemolytic anaemia, and neurological and immunological diseases. Our aim is to strengthen the clinicians' awareness and understanding of these conditions in order to improve diagnostics and avoid delay of treatment...
May 14, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755364/early-effects-of-a-low-fat-fructose-rich-diet-on-liver-metabolism-insulin-signaling-and-oxidative-stress-in-young-and-adult-rats
#3
Raffaella Crescenzo, Luisa Cigliano, Arianna Mazzoli, Rosa Cancelliere, Rosa Carotenuto, Margherita Tussellino, Giovanna Liverini, Susanna Iossa
The increase in the use of refined food, which is rich in fructose, is of particular concern in children and adolescents, since the total caloric intake and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome are increasing continuously in these populations. Nevertheless, the effects of high fructose diet have been mostly investigated in adults, by focusing on the effect of a long-term fructose intake. Notably, some reports evidenced that even short-term fructose intake exerts detrimental effects on metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the metabolic changes induced by the fructose-rich diet in rats of different age, i...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751750/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-elevated-alanine-aminotransferase-among-korean-adolescents-2001-2014
#4
Ju Whi Kim, Kyung Jae Lee, Hye Ran Yang, Ju Young Chang, Jin Soo Moon, Young-Ho Khang, Jae Sung Ko
BACKGROUND: An elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level is a surrogate marker of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common liver disorder in adolescents. The majority of previous NAFLD studies in adolescents were performed in selected obese populations or had a cross-sectional design without a time-trend analysis. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and time trends of elevated ALT levels in a general adolescent population and to identify factors associated with ALT elevation...
May 11, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749324/changes-in-acute-viral-hepatitis-epidemiology-in-the-turkish-adult-population-a-multicenter-study
#5
Zehra Karacaer, Selma Tosun, Ayşe Batırel, Suzan Şahin, İrem Altaş, Serhat Uysal, Serpil Erol, Nurgül Ceran, Ayşe Albayrak, İlknur Esen Yıldız, Uğur Kostakoğlu, Fatma Kaçar, Nuretdin Kuzhan, Ayten Kadanalı, Gül Karagöz, Ercan Yenilmez, Derya Bayırlı Turan, Arzu Altunçekiç Yıldırım, Funda Koçak, Rıza Aytaç Çetinkaya, Mehmet Parlak, Özlem Aydın, Pınar Ergen, Gül Durmuş, Türkkan Öztürk Kaygusuz, Özgur Dağlı, Canan Demir, Fatma Yılmaz Karadağ
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The present study aimed to determine the changes in the epidemiology of hepatitis in recent years in an adult Turkish population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Overall, 852 patients with acute viral hepatitis from 17 centers were included in this study. Their sociodemographic characteristics, clinical courses, treatments, and laboratory findings were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: The most commonly found microorganisms were the hepatitis B virus (55...
March 2018: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741721/update-from-the-advisory-committee-on-immunization-practices
#6
Sean T O'Leary, David W Kimberlin, Yvonne A Maldonado
The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), a group of medical and public health experts, meets 3 times per year to develop recommendations for vaccine use in the United States. The group has 15 voting members, each of whom is appointed to a 4-year term. ACIP members and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) staff discuss the epidemiology of vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccine research, effectiveness, safety data, and clinical trial results. The ACIP met on October 25 and 26, 2017, to discuss herpes zoster vaccine, the child/adolescent and adult vaccination schedules, Japanese encephalitis (JE) epidemiology and vaccines, pneumococcal vaccines, anthrax vaccines and disaster preparedness, hepatitis A outbreaks, influenza surveillance and vaccination coverage, vaccine safety, and considerations for a potential third dose of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine to combat ongoing mumps outbreaks...
May 7, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735796/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children-and-adolescents-lifestyle-change-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Melina Utz-Melere, Cristina Targa-Ferreira, Bernardo Lessa-Horta, Matias Epifanio, Marialena Mouzaki, Angelo A Mattos
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: This manuscript seeks to analyze the impact of lifestyle changes on body mass index (BMI), aminotransferases and steatosis in children and adolescents with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of PubMed, BIREME, Scopus, EMBASE, Medline and Web of Science databases 2015 was performed seeking studies addressing the impact of lifestyle interventions on children and/or adolescents with NAFLD. Inclusion were manuscripts written in Portuguese, English and Spanish, as well as age less than 18 years...
April 9, 2018: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732038/persistence-of-immunity-to-hepatitis-b-vaccine-as-infants-17-years-earlier
#8
Zohreh Azarkar, Azadeh Ebrahimzadeh, Gholamreza Sharifzadeh, Masood Ziaee, Mohammad Fereidouni, Fatemeh Taheri
Background: In Iran since 1992, hepatitis B vaccination was a part of the national vaccination program. Hepatitis B vaccination is effective in the epidemiology of hepatitis B. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long - term persistence of immunity. Methods: This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on children and adolescents aged between 6-18 years in Birjand, who received a three - dose hepatitis B vaccination in accordance with the national immunization program...
2018: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713773/feasibility-of-balanced-steady-state-free-precession-sequence-at-1-5t-for-the-evaluation-of-hepatic-steatosis-in-obese-children-and-adolescents
#9
Hong-Xi Zhang, Jun-Fen Fu, Can Lai, Feng-Yu Tian, Xiao-Li Su, Ke Huang
OBJECTIVES: To determine the feasibility of balanced steady-state free precession (b-SSFP) imaging for measuring hepatic steatosis in obese children and adolescents, using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H MRS) as reference standard. METHODS: 182 obese Chinese paediatric patients underwent conventional T1-weighted dual echo MRI, 1 H MRS and b-SSFP imaging for non-invasive assessment of hepatic steatosis. RESULTS: There was a strong positive correlation between liver fat fraction (FF) on T1-weighted dual echo MRI and 1 H MRS-determined liver fat content (LFC) (r = 0...
April 30, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703050/an-observational-study-on-the-association-between-major-dietary-patterns-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-chinese-adolescents
#10
Xiaonan Liu, Yan Peng, Shuhong Chen, Qingyun Sun
Data on the association of dietary patterns with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among adolescents are scarce. Hence, the purpose of this study was to ascertain the influence of dietary patterns and key foods on NAFLD among adolescents in Shandong, China. Data were extracted from Linyi Nutrition and Health study during 2015 to 2016. This cross-sectional study population comprised 1639 participants aged between 16 and 23 years. Dietary intake was assessed by the use of a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), containing 85 food items...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702542/undifferentiated-embryonal-sarcoma-of-the-liver-uesl-in-adolescents-an-unexpected-diagnosis
#11
Michele A Capozza, Antonio Ruggiero, Palma Maurizi, Stefano Mastrangelo, Giorgio Attinà, Silvia Triarico, Maria Vellone, Felice Giuliante
Definitive diagnosis of pediatric liver masses can be challenging, because clinical manifestations are nonspecific, and ultimate diagnosis may be delayed. We describe 2 patients with liver masses that initially were misdiagnosed and treated as infectious hepatic lesions. Only after histologic examination the correct diagnosis of undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver was defined. Both patients underwent a complete tumor resection followed by chemotherapy with a favorable outcome.
April 26, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693796/a-phase-1-study-of-cabozantinib-in-children-and-adolescents-with-recurrent-or-refractory-solid-tumors-including-cns-tumors-trial-advl1211-a-report-from-the-children-s-oncology-group
#12
Meredith K Chuk, Brigitte C Widemann, Charles G Minard, Xiaowei Liu, AeRang Kim, Melanie Brooke Bernhardt, Rachel A Kudgus, Joel M Reid, Stephan D Voss, Susan Blaney, Elizabeth Fox, Brenda J Weigel
BACKGROUND: We conducted a phase 1 trial to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), toxicity profile, pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), and preliminary activity of cabozantinib in children with refractory or relapsed solid tumors. METHODS: Patients received cabozantinib tablets on a continuous dosing schedule in a rolling-six escalating phase 1 trial design. PK and PD studies were performed. RESULTS: Forty-one patients, median (range) age 13 (4-18) years, received cabozantinib to achieve a weekly cumulative dose equivalent to 30 (n = 6), 40 (n = 23)...
April 25, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672472/recommendations-of-the-advisory-committee-on-immunization-practices-for-use-of-a-hepatitis-b-vaccine-with-a-novel-adjuvant
#13
Sarah Schillie, Aaron Harris, Ruth Link-Gelles, José Romero, John Ward, Noele Nelson
Hepatitis B (HepB) vaccination is the primary means of preventing infections and complications caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). On February 21, 2018, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended Heplisav-B (HepB-CpG), a yeast-derived vaccine prepared with a novel adjuvant, administered as a 2-dose series (0, 1 month) for use in persons aged ≥18 years. The ACIP Hepatitis Vaccines Work Group conducted a systematic review of the evidence, including data from four randomized controlled trials assessing prevention of HBV infection and six randomized controlled trials assessing adverse events in adults...
April 20, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665034/metabolic-features-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-nafl-in-obese-adolescents-findings-from-a-multi-ethnic-cohort
#14
Domenico Tricò, Sonia Caprio, Giuseppina Rosaria Umano, Bridget Pierpont, Jessica Nouws, Alfonso Galderisi, Grace Kim, Mariana M Mata, Nicola Santoro
AIMS: We conducted a prospective study in a large, multiethnic cohort of obese adolescents to characterize clinical and genetic features associated with pediatric Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver (NAFL), the most common cause of chronic liver disease in youth. METHODS: A total of 503 obese adolescents were enrolled, including 191 (38.0%) Caucasians, 134 (26.6%) African Americans, and 178 (35.4%) Hispanics. Participants underwent abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify hepatic fat content, an oral glucose tolerance test to assess glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, and the genotyping of three SNPs associated with fatty liver (PNPLA3 rs738409, GCKR rs1260326, and TM6SF2 rs58542926)...
April 17, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624818/incidence-of-hbv-infection-in-young-chinese-blood-donors-born-after-mandatory-implementation-of-neonatal-hepatitis-b-vaccination-nationwide
#15
Xi Tang, Jean-Pierre Allain, Hao Wang, Xia Rong, Jinyan Chen, Ke Huang, Ru Xu, Min Wang, Jieting Huang, Qiao Liao, Zhengang Shan, Shengxue Luo, Tingting Li, Chengyao Li, Yongshui Fu
This study was carried out to determine the incidence of HBV infection in the young generation born after mandatory implementation of hepatitis B vaccination since 1992. Repeat blood donors born between 1992 and 1997 were enrolled, who gave blood at least twice during the past three years. Donors were tested for HBV infection markers of HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs and viral DNA by immunoassays (EIAs) and nucleic acid tests (NAT). A total of 14937 pre-donation screening qualified young repeat donors aged 18-23 were tested with 9 (0...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614340/maternal-lipopolysaccharide-exposure-results-in-glucose-metabolism-disorders-and-sex-hormone-imbalance-in-male-offspring
#16
Mei Zhao, Li Yuan, Man-Man Yuan, Li-Li Huang, Chang Su, Yuan-Hua Chen, Yu-Ying Yang, Yan Hu, De-Xiang Xu
An adverse intrauterine environment may be an important factor contributing to the development of type 2 diabetes in later life. The present study investigated the longitudinal effects of maternal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure during the third trimester on glucose metabolism and sex hormone balance in the offspring. Pregnant mice were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (50 μg/kg) daily from gestational day (GD) 15 to GD17. Glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT) were assessed at postnatal day (PND) 60 and PND120...
April 1, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603832/trends-and-risk-factors-of-hepatitis-a-in-catalonia-after-the-introduction-of-a-hepatitis-a-b-vaccination-programme
#17
P Godoy, G Carmona, S Manzanares, M Jane, E Borràs, N Camps, J Álvarez, I Barrabeig, M-R Sala, C Rius, S Minguell, M Carol, J Ferras, A Domínguez
At the end of 1998, universal hepatitis A+B vaccination of 12 year olds was introduced in Catalonia. The aim was to examine trends in hepatitis A during 2005-2015 and assess risk factors by age group. We carried out an observational epidemiological study of the incidence and risk factors of hepatitis A reported to the surveillance system. Information on exposure was recorded for each case for the 2-6 weeks before symptom onset. Spearman's coefficient was used to evaluate the trends of rates. The chi-square test was used to compare categorical...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602016/role-of-liver-resection-in-treating-intermediate-and-advanced-stage-adolescent-and-young-adult-hepatocellular-carcinoma-patients-a-propensity-matching-cohort-study
#18
Wei Zhang, Chang Liu, Yifei Tan, Li Jiang, Lunan Yan, Jiayin Yang, Tianfu Wen
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in adolescent and younger adult (AYA) patients is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage such that curative treatments are often not possible. The aimed of this study was to compare the outcome of attempted curative treatment, liver resection (LR) versus transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), in AYA patients presenting with intermediate or advanced HCC defined by the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage B and C. METHODS: All AYA patients diagnosed with BCLC stage B or C HCC undertaking LR (n = 276) and TACE (n = 136) were included in our study...
March 27, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601997/effectiveness-of-a-carbohydrate-restricted-diet-to-treat-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-adolescents-with-obesity-trial-design-and-methodology
#19
Shima Dowla, May Pendergrass, Mark Bolding, Barbara Gower, Kevin Fontaine, Ambika Ashraf, Taraneh Soleymani, Shannon Morrison, Amy Goss
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disorder among children in the developed world and can progress to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver failure. No evidence-based dietary guidelines exist on the most effective diet prescription to treat NAFLD. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of a carbohydrate (CHO)-restricted diet vs fat-restricted diet, the current standard of care, on changes in hepatic fat infiltration, body composition, and metabolic health over an 8-week period among overweight and obese children diagnosed with NAFLD...
March 27, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596182/chapter-6-1-pediatric-chronic-hepatitis-b-and-c-30-years-of-espghan-clinical-research-and-recommendations
#20
Etienne M Sokal, Pilar Nannini
The expression of hepatitis B and C virus infections in children differs from that in adults and requires specific paediatric expertise. The European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) has been a pioneer in this field, having stressed the need for straightforward recommendations since the mid-1980s. Following much observation, surveillance, and research, a panel of ESPGHAN experts was able to develop such recommendations on hepatitis B infection in children in 2009, which was then followed in June 2013 by proper guidelines...
April 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
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