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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734089/dementia-risk-and-prevention-by-targeting-modifiable-vascular-risk-factors
#1
REVIEW
Sana Tariq, Philip A Barber
The incidence of dementia is expected to double in the next 20 years and will contribute to heavy social and economic burden. Dementia is caused by neuronal loss that leads to brain atrophy years before symptoms manifest. Currently, no cure exists and extensive efforts are being made to mitigate cognitive impairment in late life in order to reduce the burden on patients, caregivers, and society. The most common type of dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD) often co-exists in the brain and shares common, modifiable risk factors, which are targeted in numerous secondary prevention trials...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733370/reliable-adherence-to-a-copd-care-bundle-mitigates-system-level-failures-and-reduces-copd-readmissions-a-system-redesign-using-improvement-science
#2
Muhammad Ahsan Zafar, Ralph J Panos, Jonathan Ko, Lisa C Otten, Anthony Gentene, Maria Guido, Katherine Clark, Caroline Lee, Jamie Robertson, Evaline A Alessandrini
BACKGROUND: Readmissions of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have devastating effects on patient quality-of-life, disease progression and healthcare cost. Effective interventions to reduce COPD readmissions are needed. OBJECTIVES: Reduce 30-day all-cause readmissions by (1) creating a COPD care bundle that addresses care delivery failures, (2) using improvement science to achieve 90% bundle adherence. SETTING: An 800-bed academic hospital in Ohio, USA...
July 21, 2017: BMJ Quality & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729232/development-feasibility-and-small-scale-implementation-of-a-web-based-prognostic-tool-surveillance-epidemiology-and-end-results-cancer-survival-calculator
#3
Michelle Henton, Bridget Gaglio, Laurie Cynkin, Eric J Feuer, Borsika A Rabin
BACKGROUND: Population datasets and the Internet are playing an ever-growing role in the way cancer information is made available to providers, patients, and their caregivers. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Cancer Survival Calculator (SEER*CSC) is a Web-based cancer prognostic tool that uses SEER data, a large population dataset, to provide physicians with highly valid, evidence-based prognostic estimates for increasing shared decision-making and improving patient-provider communication of complex health information...
July 20, 2017: JMIR Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724497/a-redesign-approach-for-improving-animal-care-services-for-researchers
#4
Orighomisan Okpe, Jamison V Kovach
Because a research institution's animal care and use program oversees the provision of services specified in approved protocols designed by researchers, the effective provision of services within these programs is paramount to ensuring the humane care and treatment of research animals in accordance with federal, state, and local regulations and institutional policies. To improve the services provided to researchers through animal care and use programs, we investigated the relationship between the researchers who conduct these types of studies and the veterinary operations that provide care and treatment for research animals...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724446/economic-burden-of-malaria-inpatients-during-national-malaria-elimination-programme-estimation-of-hospitalization-cost-and-its-inter-province-variation
#5
Shangfeng Tang, Da Feng, Ruoxi Wang, Bishwajit Ghose, Tao Hu, Lu Ji, Tailai Wu, Hang Fu, Yueying Huang, Zhanchun Feng
BACKGROUND: Apart from its direct impact on public health and well-being, malaria had placed significant socioeconomic burden on both individuals and whole health systems. This study was conducted to investigate the hospitalization cost of malaria and explore the inter-province variation during the National Malaria Elimination Programme in China. METHODS: Information on medical expenditure for malaria treatment was extracted from inpatient medical records in Henan, Hainan and Guangxi Province...
July 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723845/lean-six-sigma-techniques-to-improve-ophthalmology-clinic-efficiency
#6
Thomas A Ciulla, Mohan V Tatikonda, Yehya A ElMaraghi, Rehan M Hussain, Amanda L Hill, Julie M Clary, Eyas Hattab
PURPOSE: Ophthalmologists serve an increasing volume of a growing elderly population undergoing increasingly complex outpatient medical care, including extensive diagnostic testing and treatment. The resulting prolonged patient visit times ("patient flow times") limit quality, patient and employee satisfaction, and represent waste. Lean Six Sigma process improvement was used in a vitreoretinal practice to decrease patient flow time, demonstrating that this approach can yield significant improvement in health care...
July 18, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721526/genetic-characterization-of-human-hydatid-cysts-shows-coinfection-by-echinococcus-canadensis-g7-and-echinococcus-granulosus-sensu-stricto-g1-in-argentina
#7
María Florencia Debiaggi, Silvia Viviana Soriano, Nora Beatriz Pierangeli, Lorena Evelina Lazzarini, Luis Alfredo Pianciola, Melina Leonor Mazzeo, Sergio Moguillansky, Juan Angel Basualdo Farjat
Human cystic echinococcosis caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a highly endemic disease in the province of Neuquén, Patagonia, Argentina. Human infections with E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) G1 and Echinococcus canadensis G6 were reported in Neuquén in previous studies, whereas four genotypes were identified in livestock: G1, G3, G6, and G7. The aim of this study was to identify the genotypes of E. granulosus s.l. isolates from humans of Neuquén province, Patagonia, Argentina, through the 2005-2014 period...
July 18, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719183/streptomyces-virginiae-ppdc-is-a-new-type-of-phenylpyruvate-decarboxylase-composed-of-two-subunits
#8
Xiaoshu Xu, Chao Wang, Jun Chen, Sheng Yang
Streptomyces virginiae phenylpyruvate decarboxylase (PPDC) has not been identified before. Two putative branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase subunit genes bkdC and bkdD from S. virginiae are similar to halves of other PPDC coding sequences. We cloned and characterized them biochemically in this work. The two proteins formed a stable complex attested by pull-down assay, consistent with the finding that their soluble expression was obtained only when they were coexpressed in Escherichia coli. The subunits were redesignated as SvPPDCα and SvPPDCβ, because the SvPPDCα/β complex catalyzed the conversion of phenylpyruvate to phenylacetaldehyde, reflecting the nature of the enzyme...
July 18, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717669/pitfalls-in-genetic-testing-a-case-of-a-snp-in-primer-annealing-region-leading-to-allele-dropout-in-brca1
#9
Felipe Carneiro Silva, Giovana Tardin Torrezan, Rafael Canfield Brianese, Raquel Stabellini, Dirce Maria Carraro
BACKGROUND: Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer is characterized by mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes and PCR-based screening techniques, such as capillary sequencing and next-generation sequencing (NGS), are considered gold standard methods for detection of pathogenic mutations in these genes. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) constitute a vast source of variation in the human genome and represent a risk for misdiagnosis in genetic testing, since the presence of a SNP in primer-annealing sites may cause false negative results due to allele dropout...
July 2017: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716784/protocol-for-a-prospective-observational-study-to-improve-prehospital-notification-of-injured-patients-presenting-to-trauma-centres-in-india
#10
Biswadev Mitra, Joseph Mathew, Amit Gupta, Peter Cameron, Gerard O'Reilly, Kapil Dev Soni, Gaurav Kaushik, Teresa Howard, Madonna Fahey, Michael Stephenson, Vineet Kumar, Sharad Vyas, Satish Dharap, Pankaj Patel, Advait Thakor, Naveen Sharma, Tony Walker, Mahesh Chandra Misra, Russell Gruen, Mark Fitzgerald
INTRODUCTION: Prehospital notification of injured patients enables prompt and timely care in hospital through adequate preparation of trauma teams, space, equipment and consumables necessary for resuscitation, and may improve outcomes. In India, anecdotal reports suggest that prehospital notification, in those few places where it occurs, is unstructured and not linked to a well-defined hospital response. The aim of this manuscript is to describe, in detail, a study protocol for the evaluation of a formalised approach to prehospital notification...
July 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710462/plasticity-in-the-oxidative-folding-pathway-of-the-high-affinity-nerita-versicolor-carboxypeptidase-inhibitor-nvci
#11
Sebastián A Esperante, Giovanni Covaleda, Sebastián A Trejo, Sílvia Bronsoms, Francesc X Aviles, Salvador Ventura
Nerita Versicolor carboxypeptidase inhibitor (NvCI) is the strongest inhibitor reported so far for the M14A subfamily of carboxypeptidases. It comprises 53 residues and a protein fold composed of a two-stranded antiparallel β sheet connected by three loops and stabilized by three disulfide bridges. Here we report the oxidative folding and reductive unfolding pathways of NvCI. Much debate has gone on whether protein conformational folding guides disulfide bond formation or instead they are disulfide bonds that favour the arrangement of local or global structural elements...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702863/walking-together-towards-a-collaborative-model-for-maternal-health-care-in-pastoralist-communities-of-laikipia-and-samburu-kenya
#12
Michelle Kermode, Alison Morgan, Josephat Nyagero, Florence Nderitu, Tanya Caulfield, Matthew Reeve, John Nduba
Purpose In 2009 the Kenyan Government introduced health system reforms to address persistently high maternal and newborn mortality including deployment of skilled birth attendants (SBAs) to health facilities in remote areas, and proscription of births attended by traditional birth attendants (TBAs). Despite these initiatives, uptake of SBA services remains low and inequitably distributed. This paper describes the development of an SBA/TBA collaborative model of maternal health care for pastoralist communities in Laikipia and Samburu...
July 12, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700194/california-public-hospitals-improved-quality-of-care-under-medicaid-waiver-program
#13
Nederah Pourat
California has 12 county-owned and operated hospital systems and 5 University of California hospitals designated as public hospitals. These organizations deliver the majority of inpatient care and a significant amount of outpatient care to Medicaid patients in the state. In 2010, California was the first state in the nation to implement a five-year Delivery System Reform Incentive Payment (DSRIP) program under the Section §1115 Medicaid "Bridge to Reform" waiver to improve the capacity of these hospitals to deliver high quality and more efficient care...
June 2017: Policy Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697722/introduction-of-a-novel-service-model-to-improve-uptake-and-adherence-with-cardiac-rehabilitation-within-buckinghamshire-healthcare-nhs-trust
#14
Fiona McCartan, Nicola Bowers, Jack Turner, Mirren Mandalia, Nayan Kalnad, Anna Bishop-Bailey, Jiayu Fu, Piers Clifford
BACKGROUND: Buckinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust (BHT) carried out a cardiac rehabilitation (CR) service redesign aimed at optimising patient recruitment and retention and decreasing readmissions. METHODS: A single centre observational study and local service evaluation were carried out to describe the impact of the novel technology-enabled CR model. Data were collected for adult patients referred for CR at BHT, retrospectively for patients referred during the 12-month pre-implementation period (Cohort 1) and prospectively for patients referred during the 12-month post-implementation period (Cohort 2)...
July 11, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697645/biomechanical-investigation-of-prolonged-driving-in-an-ergonomically-designed-truck-seat-prototype
#15
Michelle Cardoso, Colin McKinnon, Dan Viggiani, Michel J Johnson, Jack P Callaghan, Wayne J Albert
A postural evaluation during a prolonged driving task was conducted to determine the ergonomic validity of a new freely adjustable truck seat prototype. Twenty participants were recruited to perform two 2-hour simulated driving sessions. Postures were assessed using motion capture, accelerometers and pressure pads. Subjective discomfort was also monitored in 15-minute increments using ratings of perceived discomfort (RPD) and the automotive seating discomfort questionnaire (ASDQ). Participants had a more neutral spine posture during the first hour of the drive and reported lower RPDs while sitting in the prototype...
July 11, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696485/repeatability-of-a-dislocation-spinal-cord-injury-model-in-a-rat-a-high-speed-biomechanical-analysis
#16
Stephen Mattucci, Jie Liu, Paul Fijal, Wolfram Tetzlaff, Thomas R Oxland
Dislocation is the most common, and severe, spinal cord injury (SCI) mechanism in humans, yet there are few preclinical models. While dislocation in the rat model has been shown to produce unique outcomes, like other closed column models it exhibits higher outcome variability. Refinement of the dislocation model will enhance the testing of neuroprotective strategies, further biomechanical understanding, and guide therapeutic decisions. The overall objective of this study is to improve biomechanical repeatability of a dislocation SCI model in the rat, through the following specific aims: i) design new injury clamps that pivot and self-align to the vertebrae; ii) measure intervertebral kinematics during injury using the existing and redesigned clamps; and iii) compare relative motion at the vertebrae-clamp interface to determine which clamps provide the most rigid connection...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695183/a-randomized-controlled-trial-to-compare-component-placement-in-navigated-total-knee-arthroplasty-using-original-and-streamlined-registration-processes
#17
Nadia C Sciberras, Mohammed Almustafa, Benjamin R K Smith, David J Allen, Frederic Picard, Angela H Deakin
BACKGROUND: This randomized controlled trial validated a redesigned version of navigated total knee arthroplasty software with a streamlined registration (Smart) against the previous version (Classic). The objectives were to determine if Smart software had the same accuracy of component positioning and whether registration and operative time were reduced. METHODS: A total of 220 patients were recruited and had a navigated total knee arthroplasty performed. With the exception of the software, all patients had the same perioperative care...
June 2017: Arthroplasty Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693547/longitudinal-associations-between-built-environment-characteristics-and-changes-in-active-commuting
#18
Lin Yang, Simon Griffin, Kay-Tee Khaw, Nick Wareham, Jenna Panter
BACKGROUND: Few studies have assessed the predictors of changes in commuting. This study investigated the associations between physical environmental characteristics and changes in active commuting. METHODS: Adults from the population-based European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort self-reported commuting patterns in 2000 and 2007. Active commuters were defined as those who reported 'always' or 'usually' walking or cycling to work. Environmental attributes around the home and route were assessed using Geographical Information Systems...
May 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693330/reducing-unnecessary-blood-chemistry-testing-in-the-emergency-department-implementation-of-choosing-wisely
#19
Arjun K Venkatesh, David Hajdasz, Craig Rothenberg, Meir Dashevsky, Vivek Parwani, Mark Sevilla, Marc Shapiro, Ian Schwartz
Point of care (POC) laboratory testing is used to improve emergency department (ED) throughput but often overuses resources by duplicating formal laboratory testing. This study sought to evaluate the effect of a multimodal intervention on duplicate chemistry testing. This pre-post analysis included all visits to 2 urban EDs between June 2014 and June 2016. The multimodal intervention including provider education, signage, electronic health record redesign, and audit and feedback focused on reducing duplicate chemistry testing...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Medical Quality: the Official Journal of the American College of Medical Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692138/the-2025-big-g-geriatrician-defining-job-roles-to-guide-fellowship-training
#20
Deborah Simpson, Rosanne M Leipzig, Karen Sauvigné
Changes in health care that are already in progress, including value- and population-based care, use of new technologies for care, big data and machine learning, and the patient as consumer and decision maker, will determine the job description for geriatricians practicing in 2025. Informed by these future certainties, 115 geriatrics educators attending the 2016 Donald W. Reynolds Foundation Annual meeting identified five 2025 geriatrician job roles: complexivist; consultant; health system leader and innovator; functional preventionist; and educator for big "G" and little "g" providers...
July 10, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
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