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Cognitive neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101429/chronic-wide-field-imaging-of-brain-hemodynamics-in-behaving-animals
#1
Peng Miao, Lingke Zhang, Miao Li, Yiguang Zhang, Shihan Feng, Qihong Wang, Nitish V Thakor
Chronically monitoring cerebral activities in awake and freely moving status is very important in physiological and pathological studies. We present a novel standalone micro-imager for monitoring the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and total hemoglobin (HbT) activities in freely moving animals using the laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) and optical intrinsic signal (OIS) methods. A new cranial window method, using contact lens and wide field optics, is also proposed to achieve the chronic and wide-field imaging of rat's cerebral cortex...
January 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094464/test-retest-reliability-of-functional-connectivity-networks-during-naturalistic-fmri-paradigms
#2
Jiahui Wang, Yudan Ren, Xintao Hu, Vinh Thai Nguyen, Lei Guo, Junwei Han, Christine Cong Guo
Functional connectivity analysis has become a powerful tool for probing the human brain function and its breakdown in neuropsychiatry disorders. So far, most studies adopted resting-state paradigm to examine functional connectivity networks in the brain, thanks to its low demand and high tolerance that are essential for clinical studies. However, the test-retest reliability of resting-state connectivity measures is moderate, potentially due to its low behavioral constraint. On the other hand, naturalistic neuroimaging paradigms, an emerging approach for cognitive neuroscience with high ecological validity, could potentially improve the reliability of functional connectivity measures...
January 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092199/book-reviewsreviews
#3
Márta Virág, Kollár Tamás
Michael S. Gazzaniga, Richard B. Ivry and George R. Mangun Cognitive neuroscience: The biology of the mind (International student edition) (4th ed.) Trevor W. Robbins, Barry J. Everitt and David J. Nutt The neurobiology of addiction Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2010, 318 pp. ISBN: 978-0-1995-6215-2.
March 2016: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088350/the-emotive-nature-of-conflict-monitoring-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#4
Blair Saunders, Hause Lin, Marina Milyavskaya, Michael Inzlicht
The detection of conflict between incompatible impulses, thoughts, and actions is a ubiquitous source of motivation across theories of goal-directed action. In this overview, we explore the hypothesis that conflict is emotive, integrating perspectives from affective science and cognitive neuroscience. Initially, we review evidence suggesting that the mental and biological processes that monitor for information processing conflict-particularly those generated by the anterior midcingulate cortex-track the affective significance of conflict and use this signal to motivate increased control...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086889/hybrid-brain-computer-interface-for-biomedical-cyber-physical-system-application-using-wireless-embedded-eeg-systems
#5
Rifai Chai, Ganesh R Naik, Sai Ho Ling, Hung T Nguyen
BACKGROUND: One of the key challenges of the biomedical cyber-physical system is to combine cognitive neuroscience with the integration of physical systems to assist people with disabilities. Electroencephalography (EEG) has been explored as a non-invasive method of providing assistive technology by using brain electrical signals. METHODS: This paper presents a unique prototype of a hybrid brain computer interface (BCI) which senses a combination classification of mental task, steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) and eyes closed detection using only two EEG channels...
January 7, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081519/interoception-and-psychopathology-a-developmental-neuroscience-perspective
#6
REVIEW
Jennifer Murphy, Rebecca Brewer, Caroline Catmur, Geoffrey Bird
Interoception refers to the perception of the physiological condition of the body, including hunger, temperature, and heart rate. There is a growing appreciation that interoception is integral to higher-order cognition. Indeed, existing research indicates an association between low interoceptive sensitivity and alexithymia (a difficulty identifying one's own emotion), underscoring the link between bodily and emotional awareness. Despite this appreciation, the developmental trajectory of interoception across the lifespan remains under-researched, with clear gaps in our understanding...
December 23, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081148/characterization-of-multi-drug-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-isolated-from-cephalic-recording-chambers-in-research-macaques-macaca-spp
#7
Stephanie E Woods, Mia T Lieberman, Francois Lebreton, Elise Trowel, César de la Fuente-Núñez, Joanne Dzink-Fox, Michael S Gilmore, James G Fox
Nonhuman primates are commonly used for cognitive neuroscience research and often surgically implanted with cephalic recording chambers for electrophysiological recording. Aerobic bacterial cultures from 25 macaques identified 72 bacterial isolates, including 15 Enterococcus faecalis isolates. The E. faecalis isolates displayed multi-drug resistant phenotypes, with resistance to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, bacitracin, and erythromycin, as well as high-level aminoglycoside resistance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080966/active-interoceptive-inference-and-the-emotional-brain
#8
REVIEW
Anil K Seth, Karl J Friston
We review a recent shift in conceptions of interoception and its relationship to hierarchical inference in the brain. The notion of interoceptive inference means that bodily states are regulated by autonomic reflexes that are enslaved by descending predictions from deep generative models of our internal and external milieu. This re-conceptualization illuminates several issues in cognitive and clinical neuroscience with implications for experiences of selfhood and emotion. We first contextualize interoception in terms of active (Bayesian) inference in the brain, highlighting its enactivist (embodied) aspects...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080961/interoception-beyond-homeostasis-affect-cognition-and-mental-health
#9
Manos Tsakiris, Hugo Critchley
Interoception refers to the sensing of the internal state of one's body. Interoception is distinct from the processing of sensory information concerning external (non-self) stimuli (e.g. vision, hearing, touch and smell) and is the afferent axis to internal (autonomic and hormonal) physiological control. However, the impact of interoception extends beyond homeostatic/allostatic reflexes: it is proposed to be fundamental to motivation, emotion (affective feelings and behaviours), social cognition and self-awareness...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077259/the-growth-of-language-universal-grammar-experience-and-principles-of-computation
#10
REVIEW
Charles Yang, Stephen Crain, Robert C Berwick, Noam Chomsky, Johan J Bolhuis
YANG, C., S. Crain, R.C. Berwick, N. Chomsky and J.J. Bolhuis. The growth of language. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV VOL (ISSUE) XXX-XXX, 2016. Human infants develop language remarkably rapidly and without overt instruction. We argue that the distinctive ontogenesis of child language arises from the interplay of three factors: domain-specific principles of language (Universal Grammar), external experience, and properties of non-linguistic domains of cognition including general learning mechanisms and principles of efficient computation...
January 7, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074926/disrupted-global-metastability-and-static-and-dynamic-brain-connectivity-across-individuals-in-the-alzheimer-s-disease-continuum
#11
Aldo Córdova-Palomera, Tobias Kaufmann, Karin Persson, Dag Alnæs, Nhat Trung Doan, Torgeir Moberget, Martina Jonette Lund, Maria Lage Barca, Andreas Engvig, Anne Brækhus, Knut Engedal, Ole A Andreassen, Geir Selbæk, Lars T Westlye
As findings on the neuropathological and behavioral components of Alzheimer's disease (AD) continue to accrue, converging evidence suggests that macroscale brain functional disruptions may mediate their association. Recent developments on theoretical neuroscience indicate that instantaneous patterns of brain connectivity and metastability may be a key mechanism in neural communication underlying cognitive performance. However, the potential significance of these patterns across the AD spectrum remains virtually unexplored...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073112/space-and-objects-on-the-phenomenology-and-cognitive-neuroscience-of-anomalous-perception-in-schizophrenia-ancillary-article-to-eawe-domain-1
#12
Steven M Silverstein, Docia Demmin, Borut Škodlar
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Perception of space and objects is a traditional focus within phenomenology, and disturbances in these aspects of perception among people with schizophrenia have long been discussed within phenomenological psychiatry. Despite this, there has been little empirical work on the causes and effects of most of these perceptual alterations in people with schizophrenia. Progress towards this goal can be accelerated by the use of EAWE (Examination of Anomalous World Experience), an interview-based tool to elicit, categorize, and quantify abnormal perceptual and other experiential phenomena...
January 11, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072380/network-functional-connectivity-and-whole-brain-functional-connectomics-to-investigate-cognitive-decline-in-neurodegenerative-conditions
#13
REVIEW
O Dipasquale, Mara Cercignani
Non-invasive mapping of brain functional connectivity (FC) has played a fundamental role in neuroscience, and numerous scientists have been fascinated by its ability to reveal the brain's intricate morphology and functional properties. In recent years, two different techniques have been developed that are able to explore FC in pathophysiological conditions and to provide simple and non-invasive biomarkers for the detection of disease onset, severity and progression. These techniques are independent component analysis, which allows a network-based functional exploration of the brain, and graph theory, which provides a quantitative characterization of the whole-brain FC...
October 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064175/neuroimaging-of-inflammation-in-memory-and-related-other-disorders-nimrod-study-protocol-a-deep-phenotyping-cohort-study-of-the-role-of-brain-inflammation-in-dementia-depression-and-other-neurological-illnesses
#14
W Richard Bevan-Jones, Ajenthan Surendranathan, Luca Passamonti, Patricia Vázquez Rodríguez, Robert Arnold, Elijah Mak, Li Su, Jonathan P Coles, Tim D Fryer, Young T Hong, Guy Williams, Franklin Aigbirhio, James B Rowe, John T O'Brien
INTRODUCTION: Inflammation of the central nervous system is increasingly regarded as having a role in cognitive disorders such as dementia and depression, but it is not clear how such inflammation relates to other aspects of neuropathology, structural and functional changes in the brain and symptoms (as assessed via clinical and neuropsychological assessment and MRI). This study will explore these pathophysiological mechanisms using positron emission tomography (PET) which allows in vivo imaging of inflammation, amyloid and τ deposition, together with neuropsychological profiling, MRI and peripheral biomarker analysis...
January 7, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045302/using-personality-neuroscience-to-study-personality-disorder
#15
Samantha V Abram, Colin G DeYoung
Personality neuroscience integrates techniques from personality psychology and neuroscience to elucidate the neural basis of individual differences in cognition, emotion, motivation, and behavior. This endeavor is pertinent not only to our understanding of healthy personality variation, but also to the aberrant trait manifestations present in personality disorders and severe psychopathology. In the current review, we focus on the advances and limitations of neuroimaging methods with respect to personality neuroscience...
January 2017: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044019/resolving-the-neural-dynamics-of-visual-and-auditory-scene-processing-in-the-human-brain-a-methodological-approach
#16
REVIEW
Radoslaw Martin Cichy, Santani Teng
In natural environments, visual and auditory stimulation elicit responses across a large set of brain regions in a fraction of a second, yielding representations of the multimodal scene and its properties. The rapid and complex neural dynamics underlying visual and auditory information processing pose major challenges to human cognitive neuroscience. Brain signals measured non-invasively are inherently noisy, the format of neural representations is unknown, and transformations between representations are complex and often nonlinear...
February 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036071/the-interplay-of-hippocampus-and-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-in-memory-based-decision-making
#17
REVIEW
Regina A Weilbächer, Sebastian Gluth
Episodic memory and value-based decision making are two central and intensively studied research domains in cognitive neuroscience, but we are just beginning to understand how they interact to enable memory-based decisions. The two brain regions that have been associated with episodic memory and value-based decision making are the hippocampus and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, respectively. In this review article, we first give an overview of these brain-behavior associations and then focus on the mechanisms of potential interactions between the hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex that have been proposed and tested in recent neuroimaging studies...
December 29, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033550/alignment-in-social-interactions
#18
M Gallotti, M T Fairhurst, C D Frith
According to the prevailing paradigm in social-cognitive neuroscience, the mental states of individuals become shared when they adapt to each other in the pursuit of a shared goal. We challenge this view by proposing an alternative approach to the cognitive foundations of social interactions. The central claim of this paper is that social cognition concerns the graded and dynamic process of alignment of individual minds, even in the absence of a shared goal. When individuals reciprocally exchange information about each other's minds processes of alignment unfold over time and across space, creating a social interaction...
December 26, 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033030/kinesthetic-imagery-provides-additive-benefits-to-internal-visual-imagery-on-slalom-task-performance
#19
Nichola Callow, Dan Jiang, Ross Roberts, Martin G Edwards
Recent brain imaging research demonstrates that the use of internal visual imagery (IVI) or kinesthetic imagery (KIN) activates common and distinct brain areas. In this paper we argue that combining the imagery modalities (IVI & KIN) will lead to a greater cognitive representation (with more brain areas activated), and this will cause a greater slalom-based motor performance compared to when using IVI alone. To examine this assertion, we randomly allocated 56 participants to one of three groups: IVI, IVI & KIN, or a math-control...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030362/the-guilty-brain-the-utility-of-neuroimaging-and-neurostimulation-studies-in-forensic-field
#20
Francesca Mameli, Cristina Scarpazza, Emanuele Tomasini, Roberta Ferrucci, Fabiana Ruggiero, Giuseppe Sartori, Alberto Priori
Several studies have aimed to address the natural inability of humankind to detect deception and accurately discriminate lying from truth in the legal context. To date, it has been well established that telling a lie is a complex mental activity. During deception, many functions of higher cognition are involved: the decision to lie, withholding the truth, fabricating the lie, monitoring whether the receiver believes the lie, and, if necessary, adjusting the fabricated story and maintaining a consistent lie...
December 28, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
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