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Cognitive neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785732/the-mental-representation-of-human-action
#1
Sydney Levine, Alan M Leslie, John Mikhail
Various theories of moral cognition posit that moral intuitions can be understood as the output of a computational process performed over structured mental representations of human action. We propose that action plan diagrams-"act trees"-can be a useful tool for theorists to succinctly and clearly present their hypotheses about the information contained in these representations. We then develop a methodology for using a series of linguistic probes to test the theories embodied in the act trees. In Study 1, we validate the method by testing a specific hypothesis (diagrammed by act trees) about how subjects are representing two classic moral dilemmas and finding that the data support the hypothesis...
May 21, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779740/the-influence-of-sensorimotor-experience-on-the-aesthetic-evaluation-of-dance-across-the-life-span
#2
Louise P Kirsch, Emily S Cross
Understanding how action perception, embodiment, and emotion interact is essential for advancing knowledge about how we perceive and interact with each other in a social world. One tool that has proved particularly useful in the past decade for exploring the relationship between perception, action, and affect is dance. Dance is, in its essence, a rich and multisensory art form that can be used to help answer not only basic questions about social cognition but also questions concerning how aging shapes the relationship between action perception, and the role played by affect, emotion, and aesthetics in social perception...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773777/seeking-biomarkers-of-early-childhood-malnutrition-s-long-term-effects
#3
Pedro A Valdés-Sosa, Janina R Galler, Cyralene P Bryce, Arielle G Rabinowitz, María L Bringas-Vega, Nibaldo Hernández-Mesa, Alberto Taboada-Crispi
Protein-energy malnutrition affects one in nine people worldwide and is most prevalent among children aged less than five years in low-income countries. Early childhood malnutrition can have damaging neurodevelopmental effects, with significant increases in cognitive, neurological and mental health problems over the lifespan, outcomes which can also extend to the next generation. This article describes a research collaboration involving scientists from five centers in Barbados, China, Cuba and the USA. It builds on longer-term joint work between the Barbados Nutrition Study (which, over a 45-year span, has extensively documented nutritional, health, behavioral, social and economic outcomes of individuals who experienced protein-energy malnutrition in the first year of life and healthy controls from the same classrooms and neighborhoods) and the Cuban Neuroscience Center (which has developed low-cost brain imaging methods that can be readily used in low income settings to identify biomarkers for early detection and treatment of adverse consequences of childhood malnutrition)...
April 2018: MEDICC Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773510/implications-of-the-abcd-study-for-developmental-neuroscience
#4
Sarah W Feldstein Ewing, James M Bjork, Monica Luciana
The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (ABCD) will capture a breadth of multi-faceted biobehavioral, environmental, familial, and genetic longitudinal developmental open-access data from over 11,000 9-10 year olds throughout the United States of America (USA) for an envisioned ten-year span. This will subsequently represent the largest study ever attempted with this level of brain phenotypic detail. This study holds the opportunity for exciting advances in the understanding of typical adolescent neurodevelopment, discovery of neurodevelopmental underpinnings of mental illness, as well as the neurodevelopmental influences of (and on) social factors, substance use, and critically - their interaction...
May 14, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772308/prostheses-as-extensions-of-the-body-progress-and-challenges
#5
REVIEW
Maria Niedernhuber, Damiano G Barone, Bigna Lenggenhager
Recent years have seen a surge of interest in the incorporation of artificial limbs. This research promises to provide individuals with sensorimotor disorders such as amputations with prostheses which feel like their own body part. While neuroscience made a leap towards uncovering the basic neurocognitive mechanisms of bodily self-consciousness, the development of incorporated prosthetic limbs still faces substantial challenges in basic neuroscience and in clinical reality. Here we critically examine recent findings on prosthesis incorporation to aid patient rehabilitation in the context of advances in cognitive and applied neuroscience as well as technology...
May 14, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759944/testing-assumptions-on-prefrontal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-comparison-of-electrode-montages-using-multimodal-fmri
#6
Jana Wörsching, Frank Padberg, Stephan Goerigk, Irmgard Heinz, Christine Bauer, Christian Plewnia, Alkomiet Hasan, Birgit Ertl-Wagner, Daniel Keeser
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been widely applied in cognitive neurosciences and advocated as a therapeutic intervention, e.g. in major depressive disorder. Although several targets and protocols have been suggested, comparative studies of tDCS parameters, particularly electrode montages and their cortical targets, are still lacking. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated a priori hypotheses on specific effects of prefrontal-tDCS montages by using multimodal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in healthy participants...
May 4, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759889/social-learning-strategies-bridge-building-between-fields
#7
REVIEW
Rachel L Kendal, Neeltje J Boogert, Luke Rendell, Kevin N Laland, Mike Webster, Patricia L Jones
While social learning is widespread, indiscriminate copying of others is rarely beneficial. Theory suggests that individuals should be selective in what, when, and whom they copy, by following 'social learning strategies' (SLSs). The SLS concept has stimulated extensive experimental work, integrated theory, and empirical findings, and created impetus to the social learning and cultural evolution fields. However, the SLS concept needs updating to accommodate recent findings that individuals switch between strategies flexibly, that multiple strategies are deployed simultaneously, and that there is no one-to-one correspondence between psychological heuristics deployed and resulting population-level patterns...
May 11, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758234/a-validation-of-dynamic-causal-modelling-for-7t-fmri
#8
S Tak, J Noh, C Cheong, P Zeidman, A Razi, W D Penny, K J Friston
BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in cognitive and clinical neuroscience studies. However, the benefits offered by higher field strength have not been evaluated in terms of effective connectivity and dynamic causal modelling (DCM). NEW METHOD: In this study, we address the validity of DCM for 7T functional MRI data at two levels. First, we evaluate the predictive validity of DCM estimates based upon 3T and 7T in terms of reproducibility...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756657/amplitude-envelope-correlations-measure-synchronous-cortical-oscillations-in-performing-musicians
#9
Anna Zamm, Stefan Debener, Anna-Katharina R Bauer, Martin G Bleichner, Alexander P Demos, Caroline Palmer
A major question facing cognitive neuroscience is measurement of interbrain synchrony between individuals performing joint actions. We describe the application of a novel method for measuring musicians' interbrain synchrony: amplitude envelope correlations (AECs). Amplitude envelopes (AEs) reflect energy fluctuations in cortical oscillations over time; AE correlations measure the degree to which two envelope fluctuations are temporally correlated, such as cortical oscillations arising from two individuals performing a joint action...
May 14, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745564/-research-progress-about-different-levels-of-cognitive-recession-using-resting-state-functional-connectivity-network-methods
#10
REVIEW
Yanan Liu, Yuanyuan Chen, Miao Sha, Hongzhi Qi, Dong Ming, Peng Zhou
Normal brain aging and a serious of neurodegenerative diseases may lead to decline in memory, attention and executive ability and poorer quality of life. The mechanism of the decline is not clear now and is still a hot issue in the fields of neuroscience and medicine. A large number of researches showed that resting state functional brain networks based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are sensitive and susceptive to the change of cognitive function. In this paper, the researches of brain functional connectivity based on resting fMRI in recent years were compared, and the results of subjects with different levels of cognitive decline including normal brain aging, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) were reviewed...
August 1, 2017: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745514/-research-development-of-real-time-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-neuro-feedback-technology-based-on-brain-network-connectivity
#11
REVIEW
Wenjie He, Haibing Bu, Li Tong, Fuquan Liu, Ying Zeng, Linyuan Wang, Bin Yan
The emergence of real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) has provided foundations for neurofeedback based on brain hemodynamics and has given the new opportunity and challenge to cognitive neuroscience research. Along with the study of advanced brain neural mechanisms, the regulation goal of rt-fMRI neurofeedback develops from the early specific brain region activity to the brain network connectivity more accordant with the brain functional activities, and the study of the latter may be a trend in the area...
June 1, 2017: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744956/imaging-resilience-and-recovery-in-alcohol-dependence
#12
REVIEW
Katrin Charlet, Annika Rosenthal, Falk W Lohoff, Andreas Heinz, Anne Beck
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Resilience and recovery are of increasing importance in the field of alcohol dependence (AD). This paper describes how imaging studies in man can be used to assess the neurobiological correlates of resilience and, if longitudinal, of disease trajectories, progression rates and markers for recovery to inform treatment and prevention options. METHODS: Original articles on recovery and resilience in alcohol addiction and its neurobiological correlates were identified from 'PubMed' and have been analyzed and condensed within a systematic literature review...
May 9, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742814/optogenetic-stimulation-understanding-memory-and-treating-deficits
#13
S C Barnett, B A L Perry, J C Dalrymple-Alford, L C Parr-Brownlie
Technology allowing genetically targeted cells to be modulated by light has revolutionised neuroscience in the past decade, and given rise to the field of optogenetic stimulation. For this, non-native, light activated proteins (e.g. channelrhodopsin) are expressed in a specific cell phenotype (e.g. glutamatergic neurons) in a subset of central nervous system nuclei, and short pulses of light of a narrow wavelength (e.g. blue, 473 nm) are used to modulate cell activity. Cell activity can be increased or decreased depending on which light activated protein is used...
May 9, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740306/topological-schemas-of-memory-spaces
#14
Andrey Babichev, Yuri A Dabaghian
Hippocampal cognitive map-a neuronal representation of the spatial environment-is widely discussed in the computational neuroscience literature for decades. However, more recent studies point out that hippocampus plays a major role in producing yet another cognitive framework-the memory space-that incorporates not only spatial, but also non-spatial memories. Unlike the cognitive maps, the memory spaces, broadly understood as "networks of interconnections among the representations of events," have not yet been studied from a theoretical perspective...
2018: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739735/effectiveness-of-a-blended-multidisciplinary-intervention-for-patients-with-moderate-medically-unexplained-physical-symptoms-parasol-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomized-clinical-trial
#15
Paula Elisabeth van Westrienen, Martijn F Pisters, Suze Aj Toonders, Marloes Gerrits, Cindy Veenhof, Niek J de Wit
BACKGROUND: Medically unexplained physical symptoms are an important health problem in primary care, with a spectrum from mild to chronic. The burden of chronic medically unexplained physical symptoms is substantial for patients, health care professionals, and society. Therefore, early identification of patients with moderate medically unexplained physical symptoms is needed in order to prevent chronicity. The preventive screening of medically unexplained physical symptoms (PRESUME) screening method was developed using data from the electronic medical record of the patients' general practitioner and demonstrated its prognostic accuracy to identify patients with moderate medically unexplained physical symptoms...
May 8, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733956/patterns-of-thought-population-variation-in-the-associations-between-large-scale-network-organisation-and-self-reported-experiences-at-rest
#16
Hao-Ting Wang, Danilo Bzdok, Daniel Margulies, Cameron Craddock, Michael Milham, Elizabeth Jefferies, Jonathan Smallwood
Contemporary cognitive neuroscience recognises unconstrained processing varies across individuals, describing variation in meaningful attributes, such as intelligence. It may also have links to patterns of on-going experience. This study examined whether dimensions of population variation in different modes of unconstrained processing can be described by the associations between patterns of neural activity and self-reports of experience during the same period. We selected 258 individuals from a publicly available data set who had measures of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, and self-reports of experience during the scan...
May 4, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733663/concepts-control-and-context-a-connectionist-account-of-normal-and-disordered-semantic-cognition
#17
Paul Hoffman, James L McClelland, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
Semantic cognition requires conceptual representations shaped by verbal and nonverbal experience and executive control processes that regulate activation of knowledge to meet current situational demands. A complete model must also account for the representation of concrete and abstract words, of taxonomic and associative relationships, and for the role of context in shaping meaning. We present the first major attempt to assimilate all of these elements within a unified, implemented computational framework. Our model combines a hub-and-spoke architecture with a buffer that allows its state to be influenced by prior context...
April 2018: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732566/physical-activity-as-a-model-for-health-neuroscience
#18
REVIEW
Chelsea M Stillman, Kirk I Erickson
Health neuroscience is a new interdisciplinary field that combines theories and techniques from health psychology and cognitive and social-affective neuroscience in order to understand how the brain affects and is affected by health behaviors. Physical activity (PA) research can serve as a useful model for various ways in which the brain can be incorporated into health neuroscience studies to better understand variability in the adoption and maintenance of, as well as benefits gained from, health behaviors...
May 6, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725317/psychopathy-to-altruism-neurobiology-of-the-selfish-selfless-spectrum
#19
REVIEW
James W H Sonne, Don M Gash
The age-old philosophical, biological, and social debate over the basic nature of humans as being "universally selfish" or "universally good" continues today highlighting sharply divergent views of natural social order. Here we analyze advances in biology, genetics and neuroscience increasing our understanding of the evolution, features and neurocircuitry of the human brain underlying behavior in the selfish-selfless spectrum. First, we examine evolutionary pressures for selection of altruistic traits in species with protracted periods of dependence on parents and communities for subsistence and acquisition of learned behaviors...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723244/the-social-brain-is-highly-sensitive-to-the-mere-presence-of-social-information-an-automated-meta-analysis-and-an-independent-study
#20
Ivy F Tso, Saige Rutherford, Yu Fang, Mike Angstadt, Stephan F Taylor
How the human brain processes social information is an increasingly researched topic in psychology and neuroscience, advancing our understanding of basic human cognition and psychopathologies. Neuroimaging studies typically seek to isolate one specific aspect of social cognition when trying to map its neural substrates. It is unclear if brain activation elicited by different social cognitive processes and task instructions are also spontaneously elicited by general social information. In this study, we investigated whether these brain regions are evoked by the mere presence of social information using an automated meta-analysis and confirmatory data from an independent study of simple appraisal of social vs...
2018: PloS One
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