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Cognitive neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352154/resting-state-brain-networks-in-the-prairie-vole
#1
Juan J Ortiz, Wendy Portillo, Raul G Paredes, Larry J Young, Sarael Alcauter
Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) has shown the hierarchical organization of the human brain into large-scale complex networks, referred as resting state networks. This technique has turned into a promising translational research tool after the finding of similar resting state networks in non-human primates, rodents and other animal models of great value for neuroscience. Here, we demonstrate and characterize the presence of resting states networks in Microtus ochrogaster, the prairie vole, an extraordinary animal model to study complex human-like social behavior, with potential implications for the research of normal social development, addiction and neuropsychiatric disorders...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352032/the-surprising-subtleties-of-changing-fear-memory-a-challenge-for-translational-science
#2
REVIEW
Merel Kindt
Current pharmacological and psychological treatments for disorders of emotional memory only dampen the affective response while leaving the original fear memory intact. Under adverse circumstances, these original memories regain prominence, causing relapses in many patients. The (re)discovery in neuroscience that after reactivation consolidated fear memories may return to a transient labile state, requiring a process of restabilization in order to persist, offers a window of opportunity for modifying fear memories with amnestic agents...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350832/the-developmental-trinity-of-mind-cognizance-executive-control-and-reasoning
#3
REVIEW
Andreas Demetriou, Nikolaos Makris, Smaragda Kazi, George Spanoudis, Michael Shayer
This paper summarizes research on how cognizance, that is, awareness of mental processes, interacts with executive control and reasoning from childhood to adolescence. Central positions are that (a) cognizance changes extensively with age; (b) it contributes to the formation of executive control, and (c) mediates between executive control and reasoning. Cognizance recycles with changes in executive and inferential possibilities in four developmental cycles: it registers their present state, yielding insight into their operation, allowing their better management; this catalyzes their transformation into the next level...
January 19, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345974/cognitive-effects-of-cancer-and-cancer-treatments
#4
Tim A Ahles, James C Root
As the population of cancer survivors has grown into the millions, there has been increasing emphasis on understanding how the late effects of treatment affect survivors' ability to return to work/school, their capacity to function and live independently, and their overall quality of life. This review focuses on cognitive change associated with cancer and cancer treatments. Research in this area has progressed from a pharmacotoxicology perspective to a view of the cognitive change as a complex interaction of aspects of the treatment, vulnerability factors that increase risk for posttreatment cognitive decline, cancer biology, and the biology of aging...
January 18, 2018: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340300/shared-mechanisms-in-the-estimation-of-self-generated-actions-and-the-prediction-of-other-s-actions-by-humans
#5
Tsuyoshi Ikegami, Gowrishankar Ganesh
The question of how humans predict outcomes of observed motor actions by others is a fundamental problem in cognitive and social neuroscience. Previous theoretical studies have suggested that the brain uses parts of the forward model (used to estimate sensory outcomes of self-generated actions) to predict outcomes of observed actions. However, this hypothesis has remained controversial due to the lack of direct experimental evidence. To address this issue, we analyzed the behavior of darts experts in an understanding learning paradigm and utilized computational modeling to examine how outcome prediction of observed actions affected the participants' ability to estimate their own actions...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337440/-addictions
#6
Jacques Besson, Jeremy Grivel, Alexander Tomei, Mélina Andronicos, Daniele Zullino, Gabriel Thorens, Stergios Tsartsalis, Isabelle Gothuey, Monique Séguin
This year, the actuality for addictions in this edition addresses four points. The disease model of addiction is criticized by the cognitive neurosciences which need to consider the agentivity of the persons. Regarding the societal actuality, clinical pharmacology review of cannabidiol presents an update on legal cannabis. The suicidality of excessive gamblers may be prevented specifically. Addiction and first psychotic episodes need an integrated care.
January 10, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329978/data-quality-over-data-quantity-in-computational-cognitive-neuroscience
#7
Antonio Kolossa, Bruno Kopp
We analyzed factors that may hamper the advancement of computational cognitive neuroscience (CCN). These factors include a particular statistical mindset, which paves the way for the dominance of statistical power theory and a preoccupation with statistical replicability in the behavioral and neural sciences. Exclusive statistical concerns about sampling error occur at the cost of an inadequate representation of the problem of measurement error. We contrasted the manipulation of data quantity (sampling error, by varying the number of subjects) against the manipulation of data quality (measurement error, by varying the number of data per subject) in a simulated Bayesian model identifiability study...
January 9, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325701/developmental-cognitive-neuroscience-using-latent-change-score-models-a-tutorial-and-applications
#8
REVIEW
Rogier A Kievit, Andreas M Brandmaier, Gabriel Ziegler, Anne-Laura van Harmelen, Susanne M M de Mooij, Michael Moutoussis, Ian M Goodyer, Ed Bullmore, Peter B Jones, Peter Fonagy, Ulman Lindenberger, Raymond J Dolan
Assessing and analysing individual differences in change over time is of central scientific importance to developmental neuroscience. However, the literature is based largely on cross-sectional comparisons, which reflect a variety of influences and cannot directly represent change. We advocate using latent change score (LCS) models in longitudinal samples as a statistical framework to tease apart the complex processes underlying lifespan development in brain and behaviour using longitudinal data. LCS models provide a flexible framework that naturally accommodates key developmental questions as model parameters and can even be used, with some limitations, in cases with only two measurement occasions...
November 22, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319603/population-neuroscience-dementia-epidemiology-serving-precision-medicine-and-population-health
#9
Mary Ganguli, Emiliano Albanese, Sudha Seshadri, David A Bennett, Constantine Lyketsos, Walter A Kukull, Ingmar Skoog, Hugh C Hendrie
Over recent decades, epidemiology has made significant contributions to our understanding of dementia, translating scientific discoveries into population health. Here, we propose reframing dementia epidemiology as "population neuroscience," blending techniques and models from contemporary neuroscience with those of epidemiology and biostatistics. On the basis of emerging evidence and newer paradigms and methods, population neuroscience will minimize the bias typical of traditional clinical research, identify the relatively homogenous subgroups that comprise the general population, and investigate broader and denser phenotypes of dementia and cognitive impairment...
January 9, 2018: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317247/development-of-stereotaxic-recording-system-for-awake-marmosets-callithrix-jacchus
#10
Masahiro Wakabayashi, Daisuke Koketsu, Hideki Kondo, Shigeki Sato, Kiichi Ohara, Zlata Polyakova, Satomi Chiken, Nobuhiko Hatanaka, Atsushi Nambu
The common marmoset has been proposed as a potential alternative to macaque monkey as a primate model for neuroscience and medical research. Here, we have newly developed a stereotaxic neuronal recording system for awake marmosets under the head-fixed condition by modifying that for macaque monkeys. Using this system, we recorded neuronal activity in the cerebral cortex of awake marmosets and successfully identified the primary motor cortex by intracortical microstimulation. Neuronal activities of deep brain structures, such as the basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum, in awake marmosets were also successfully recorded referring to magnetic resonance images...
January 6, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317106/resting-brains-never-rest-computational-insights-into-potential-cognitive-architectures-trends-in-neurosciences-36-268-274-2013
#11
Gustavo Deco, Viktor K Jirsa, Anthony R McIntosh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 6, 2018: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308987/evidence-for-a-functional-hierarchy-of-association-networks
#12
Eun Young Choi, Garrett K Drayna, David Badre
Patient lesion and neuroimaging studies have identified a rostral-to-caudal functional gradient in the lateral frontal cortex (LFC) corresponding to higher-order (complex or abstract) to lower-order (simple or concrete) cognitive control. At the same time, monkey anatomical and human functional connectivity studies show that frontal regions are reciprocally connected with parietal and temporal regions, forming parallel and distributed association networks. Here, we investigated the link between the functional gradient of LFC regions observed during control tasks and the parallel, distributed organization of association networks...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307548/rigor-and-reproducibility-in-rodent-behavioral-research
#13
Maria Gulinello, Heather A Mitchell, Qiang Chang, W Timothy O'Brien, Zhaolan Zhou, Ted Abel, Li Wang, Joshua G Corbin, Surabi Veeraragavan, Rodney C Samaco, Nick A Andrews, Michela Fagiolini, Toby B Cole, Thomas M Burbacher, Jacqueline N Crawley
Behavioral neuroscience research incorporates the identical high level of meticulous methodologies and exacting attention to detail as all other scientific disciplines. To achieve maximal rigor and reproducibility of findings, well-trained investigators employ a variety of established best practices. Here we explicate some of the requirements for rigorous experimental design and accurate data analysis in conducting mouse and rat behavioral tests. Novel object recognition is used as an example of a cognitive assay which has been conducted successfully with a range of methods, all based on common principles of appropriate procedures, controls, and statistics...
January 4, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297140/embedding-anatomical-or-functional-knowledge-in-whole-brain-multiple-kernel-learning-models
#14
Jessica Schrouff, J M Monteiro, L Portugal, M J Rosa, C Phillips, J Mourão-Miranda
Pattern recognition models have been increasingly applied to neuroimaging data over the last two decades. These applications have ranged from cognitive neuroscience to clinical problems. A common limitation of these approaches is that they do not incorporate previous knowledge about the brain structure and function into the models. Previous knowledge can be embedded into pattern recognition models by imposing a grouping structure based on anatomically or functionally defined brain regions. In this work, we present a novel approach that uses group sparsity to model the whole brain multivariate pattern as a combination of regional patterns...
January 3, 2018: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290330/affective-science-and-avoidant-end-of-life-communication-can-the-science-of-emotion-help-physicians-talk-with-their-patients-about-the-end-of-life
#15
Jesse A Soodalter, Greg J Siegle, Michele Klein-Fedyshin, Robert Arnold, Yael Schenker
Despite believing end-of-life (EOL) discussions with patients are important, doctors often do not have them. Multiple factors contribute to this shortfall, which interventions including reimbursement changes and communication skills training have not significantly improved to date. One commonly cited but under-researched reason for physician avoidance of EOL discussion is emotional difficulty. High occupational demand for frequent difficult discussions may overload physicians' normal emotional functioning, leading to avoidance or failure...
December 11, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283631/awards-for-distinguished-scientific-early-career-contributions-to-psychology
#16
(no author information available yet)
The Early Career Awards, given for the first time in 1974, recognize the large number of excellent young psychologists. Recipients of this award may not have held a doctoral degree for more than nine years. For purposes of this award, psychology has been divided into 10 areas: animal learning and behavior, comparative; developmental; health; cognition/human learning; psychopathology; behavioral and cognitive neuroscience; perception/motor performance; social; applied research; and individual differences. Five areas are considered each year, with areas rotated in two-year cycles...
December 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283020/gaba-from-inhibition-to-cognition-emerging-concepts
#17
T Schmidt-Wilcke, E Fuchs, K Funke, A Vlachos, F Müller-Dahlhaus, N A J Puts, R E Harris, R A E Edden
Neural functioning and plasticity can be studied on different levels of organization and complexity ranging from the molecular and synaptic level to neural circuitry of whole brain networks. Across neuroscience different methods are being applied to better understand the role of various neurotransmitter systems in the evolution of perception and cognition. GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult mammalian brain and, depending on the brain region, up to 25% of the total number of cortical neurons are GABAergic interneurons...
October 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279225/the-aggressive-brain-insights-from-neuroscience
#18
REVIEW
Bruce D Bartholow
Aggression is a complex, multifaceted behavior often caused by numerous factors and expressed in innumerable ways. Like all behaviors, aggression represents the outcome of sets of biological and physiological processes emerging from the brain. Although this may seem obvious, discovering the specific neural circuits and neurophysiological processes responsible for engendering aggressive responses has proven anything but simple. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief overview of discoveries in both human cognitive neuroscience and animal behavioral neuroscience that have begun to shed light-literally in some cases-on the heretofore mysterious neural processes and connections responsible for producing aggressive behavioral responses...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276486/combined-computational-systems-biology-and-computational-neuroscience-approaches-help-develop-of-future-cognitive-developmental-robotics
#19
Faramarz Faghihi, Ahmed A Moustafa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275186/neuroimaging-of-person-perception-a-social-visual-interface
#20
REVIEW
Jeffrey A Brooks, Jonathan B Freeman
The visual system is able to extract an enormous amount of socially relevant information from the face, including social categories, personality traits, and emotion. While facial features may be directly tied to certain perceptions, emerging research suggests that top-down social cognitive factors (e.g., stereotypes, social-conceptual knowledge, prejudice) considerably influence and shape the perceptual process. The rapid integration of higher-order social cognitive processes into visual perception gives rise to systematic biases in perceptions of another's face and may potentially act as a mediating factor for intergroup behavioral and evaluative biases...
December 21, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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