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Cognitive neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324983/the-precuneus-may-encode-irrationality-in-human-gambling
#1
P Sacre, M S D Kerr, S Subramanian, K Kahn, J Gonzalez-Martinez, M A Johnson, S V Sarma, J T Gale
Humans often make irrational decisions, especially psychiatric patients who have dysfunctional cognitive and emotional circuitry. Understanding the neural basis of decision-making is therefore essential towards patient management, yet current studies suffer from several limitations. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in humans have dominated decision-making neuroscience, but have poor temporal resolution and the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal is only a proxy for neural activity. On the other hand, lesion studies in humans used to infer functionality in decision-making lack characterization of neural activity altogether...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324757/perceptual-category-learning-and-visual-processing-an-exercise-in-computational-cognitive-neuroscience
#2
George Cantwell, Maximilian Riesenhuber, Jessica L Roeder, F Gregory Ashby
The field of computational cognitive neuroscience (CCN) builds and tests neurobiologically detailed computational models that account for both behavioral and neuroscience data. This article leverages a key advantage of CCN-namely, that it should be possible to interface different CCN models in a plug-and-play fashion-to produce a new and biologically detailed model of perceptual category learning. The new model was created from two existing CCN models: the HMAX model of visual object processing and the COVIS model of category learning...
March 6, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314445/where-does-eeg-come-from-and-what-does-it-mean
#3
REVIEW
Michael X Cohen
Electroencephalography (EEG) has been instrumental in making discoveries about cognition, brain function, and dysfunction. However, where do EEG signals come from and what do they mean? The purpose of this paper is to argue that we know shockingly little about the answer to this question, to highlight what we do know, how important the answers are, and how modern neuroscience technologies that allow us to measure and manipulate neural circuits with high spatiotemporal accuracy might finally bring us some answers...
March 14, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303479/testing-the-generality-of-the-zoom-lens-model-evidence-for-visual-pathway-specific-effects-of-attended-region-size-on-perception
#4
Stephanie C Goodhew, Rebecca K Lawrence, Mark Edwards
There are volumes of information available to process in visual scenes. Visual spatial attention is a critically important selection mechanism that prevents these volumes from overwhelming our visual system's limited-capacity processing resources. We were interested in understanding the effect of the size of the attended area on visual perception. The prevailing model of attended-region size across cognition, perception, and neuroscience is the zoom-lens model. This model stipulates that the magnitude of perceptual processing enhancement is inversely related to the size of the attended region, such that a narrow attended-region facilitates greater perceptual enhancement than a wider region...
March 16, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286346/integrating-theoretical-models-with-functional-neuroimaging
#5
Michael S Pratte, Frank Tong
The development of mathematical models to characterize perceptual and cognitive processes dates back almost to the inception of the field of psychology. Since the 1990s, human functional neuroimaging has provided for rapid empirical and theoretical advances across a variety of domains in cognitive neuroscience. In more recent work, formal modeling and neuroimaging approaches are being successfully combined, often producing models with a level of specificity and rigor that would not have been possible by studying behavior alone...
February 2017: Journal of Mathematical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285825/corrigendum-to-the-ameliorative-effects-of-exercise-on-cognitive-impairment-and-white-matter-injury-from-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-induced-by-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-in-adolescent-rats-neurosci-lett-638-2017-83-89
#6
Jae-Min Lee, Jong-Min Park, Min Kyung Song, Yoo Joung Oh, Chang-Ju Kim, Youn-Jung Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281140/human-predisposition-to-cognitive-impairment-and-its-relation-with-environmental-exposure-to-potentially-toxic-elements
#7
Marina M S Cabral Pinto, A Paula Marinho-Reis, Agostinho Almeida, Carlos M Ordens, Maria M V G Silva, Sandra Freitas, Mário R Simões, Paula I Moreira, Pedro A Dinis, M Luísa Diniz, Eduardo A Ferreira da Silva, M Teresa Condesso de Melo
New lines of evidence suggest that less than 10% of neurodegenerative diseases have a strict genetic aetiology and other factors may be prevalent. Environmental exposures to potentially toxic elements appear to be a risk factor for Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and sclerosis diseases. This study proposes a multidisciplinary approach combining neurosciences, psychology and environmental sciences while integrating socio-economic, neuropsychological, environmental and health data. We present the preliminary results of a neuropsychological assessment carried out in elderly residents of the industrial city of Estarreja...
March 9, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280463/notes-on-human-trials-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-between-1960-and-1998
#8
REVIEW
Zeinab Esmaeilpour, Pedro Schestatsky, Marom Bikson, André R Brunoni, Ada Pellegrinelli, Fernanda X Piovesan, Mariana M S A Santos, Renata B Menezes, Felipe Fregni
Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is investigated to modulate neuronal function including cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychiatric therapies. While cases of human stimulation with rudimentary batteries date back more than 200 years, clinical trials with current controlled stimulation were published intermittently since the 1960s. The modern era of tDCS only started after 1998. Objectives: To review methods and outcomes of tDCS studies from old literature (between 1960 and 1998) with intention of providing new insight for ongoing tDCS trials and development of tDCS protocols especially for the purpose of treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274677/pediatric-irritability-a-systems-neuroscience-approach
#9
REVIEW
Ellen Leibenluft
Irritability, defined as an increased propensity to exhibit increased anger relative to one's peers, is a common clinical problem in youth. Irritability can be conceptualized as aberrant responses to frustration (where frustration is the emotional response to blocked goal attainment) and/or aberrant 'approach' responses to threat. Irritable youth show hyper-reactivity to threat mediated by dysfunction in amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), insula, striatum, and association cortex...
March 5, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273899/in-vivo-microscopic-voxel-based-morphometry-with-a-brain-template-to-characterize-strain-specific-structures-in-the-mouse-brain
#10
Keigo Hikishima, Yuji Komaki, Fumiko Seki, Yasuyuki Ohnishi, Hirotaka J Okano, Hideyuki Okano
Hundreds of inbred mouse strains are established for use in a broad spectrum of basic research fields, including genetics, neuroscience, immunology, and cancer. Inbred mice exhibit identical intra-strain genetics and divergent inter-strain phenotypes. The cognitive and behavioral divergences must be controlled by the variances of structure and function of their brains; however, the underlying morphological features of strain-to-strain difference remain obscure. Here, in vivo microscopic magnetic resonance imaging was optimized to image the mouse brains by using an isotropic resolution of 80 μm...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269778/dissociating-normal-aging-from-alzheimer-s-disease-a-view-from-cognitive-neuroscience
#11
Max Toepper
Both normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with changes in cognition, grey and white matter volume, white matter integrity, neural activation, functional connectivity, and neurotransmission. Obviously, all of these changes are more pronounced in AD and proceed faster providing the basis for an AD diagnosis. Since these differences are quantitative, however, it was hypothesized that AD might simply reflect an accelerated aging process. The present article highlights the different neurocognitive changes associated with normal aging and AD and shows that, next to quantitative differences, there are multiple qualitative differences as well...
February 25, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269604/effects-of-high-frequency-rtms-on-sleep-deprivation-a-pilot-study
#12
D P Martinez-Cancino, J Azpiroz-Leehan, L Jimenez-Angeles, A Garcia-Quintanar, R Santana-Miranda
Transcranial magnetic stimulation is a neurostimulation technique which has the potential to serve as a unique research tool for investigating a wide variety of fields in cognitive neuroscience. TMS has been approved by the FDA to serve as a treatment to depression and has also been used to evaluate its effects among several conditions such as Alzheimer, Parkinson disease, chronic pain and stroke. High frequency TMS has been previously used with the intention to measure and modulate the negative effects of sleep deprivation in cognitive performance, but there is no consensus about the ideal protocol yet...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268331/toward-an-analysis-of-emotion-regulation-in-children-using-late-positive-potential
#13
Raja Majid Mehmood, Hyo Jong Lee
The ability of emotion regulation and emotional responses in children is a main component of emotional competence through the development process. We had employed electroencephalography (EEG) a well-known noninvasive method for recording of brain emotion signals in order to analyze the emotion regulations in children. The international affective picture system (IAPS) pictures dataset was used for selection of stimuli presentation. The stimulus presentation was commonly practiced to induce the emotional responses from human brain...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266791/autism-spectrum-disorder-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-comprehensive-scoping-review
#14
REVIEW
Lauren Franz, Nola Chambers, Megan von Isenburg, Petrus J de Vries
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is recognized as a global public health concern, yet almost everything we know about ASD comes from high-income countries. Here we performed a scoping review of all research on ASD ever published in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in order to identify ASD knowledge gaps in this part of the world. Fifty-three publications met inclusion criteria. Themes included the phenotype, genetics and risk factors for ASD in SSA, screening and diagnosis, professional knowledge, interventions for ASD, parental perceptions, and social-cognitive neuroscience...
March 7, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264981/reason-s-enemy-is-not-emotion-engagement-of-cognitive-control-networks-explains-biases-in-gain-loss-framing
#15
Rosa Li, David V Smith, John A Clithero, Vinod Venkatraman, R McKell Carter, Scott A Huettel
In the classic gain/loss framing effect, describing a gamble as a potential gain or loss biases people to make risk-averse or risk-seeking decisions, respectively. The canonical explanation for this effect is that frames differentially modulate emotional processes - which in turn leads to irrational choice behavior. Here, we evaluate the source of framing biases by integrating functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 143 human participants performing a gain/loss framing task with meta-analytic data from over 8000 neuroimaging studies...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263047/mapping-the-connectome-in-awake-surgery-for-gliomas-an-update
#16
Hugues Duffau
The traditional principle underlying oncological neurosurgery is to remove a tumor mass displacing the brain in order to increase survival. Recently, advances in connectomics enabled an improved understanding of cerebral processing, and led to a paradigmatic shift in tumor surgery based upon interactions between neurooncology and cognitive neurosciences. First, glioma is not a focal tumor invaginated within the parenchyma but a diffuse neoplastic disease migrating in the brain. This concept resulted in a new surgical ideology, i...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261127/the-theory-of-localist-representation-and-of-a-purely-abstract-cognitive-system-the-evidence-from-cortical-columns-category-cells-and-multisensory-neurons
#17
Asim Roy
The debate about representation in the brain and the nature of the cognitive system has been going on for decades now. This paper examines the neurophysiological evidence, primarily from single cell recordings, to get a better perspective on both the issues. After an initial review of some basic concepts, the paper reviews the data from single cell recordings - in cortical columns and of category-selective and multisensory neurons. In neuroscience, columns in the neocortex (cortical columns) are understood to be a basic functional/computational unit...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261075/prefrontal-electrical-stimulation-in-non-depressed-reduces-levels-of-reported-negative-affects-from-daily-stressors
#18
REVIEW
Nick J Davis
Advances in neuroscience and pharmacology have led to improvements in the cognitive performance of people with neurological disease and other forms of cognitive decline. These same methods may also afford cognitive enhancement in people of otherwise normal cognitive abilities. "Cosmetic", or supranormal, cognitive enhancement offers opportunities to enrich our social or financial status, our interactions with others, and the common wealth of our community. It is common to focus on the potential benefits of cognitive enhancement, while being less than clear about the possible drawbacks...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261070/dissociation-between-semantic-representations-for-motion-and-action-verbs-evidence-from-patients-with-left-hemisphere-lesions
#19
Lawrence J Taylor, Carys Evans, Joanna Greer, Carl Senior, Kenny R Coventry, Magdalena Ietswaart
This multiple single case study contrasted left hemisphere stroke patients (N = 6) to healthy age-matched control participants (N = 15) on their understanding of action (e.g., holding, clenching) and motion verbs (e.g., crumbling, flowing). The tasks required participants to correctly identify the matching verb or associated picture. Dissociations on action and motion verb content depending on lesion site were expected. As predicted for verbs containing an action and/or motion content, modified t-tests confirmed selective deficits in processing motion verbs in patients with lesions involving posterior parietal and lateral occipitotemporal cortex...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259799/gray-and-white-matter-correlates-of-the-big-five-personality-traits
#20
Jesús Privado, Francisco J Román, Carlota Saénz-Urturi, Miguel Burgaleta, Roberto Colom
Personality neuroscience defines the scientific study of the neurobiological basis of personality. This field assumes that individual differences in personality traits are related with structural and functional variations of the human brain. Gray and white matters are structural properties considered separately in previous research. Available findings in this regard are largely disparate. Here we analyze the relationships between gray matter (cortical thickness (CT), cortical surface area (CSA), and cortical volume) and integrity scores obtained after several white matter tracts connecting different brain regions, with individual differences in the personality traits comprised by the Five-Factor Model (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience)...
March 1, 2017: Neuroscience
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