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Cognitive neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820673/asymmetric-compression-of-representational-space-for-object-animacy-categorization-under-degraded-viewing-conditions
#1
Tijl Grootswagers, J Brendan Ritchie, Susan G Wardle, Andrew Heathcote, Thomas A Carlson
Animacy is a robust organizing principle among object category representations in the human brain. Using multivariate pattern analysis methods, it has been shown that distance to the decision boundary of a classifier trained to discriminate neural activation patterns for animate and inanimate objects correlates with observer RTs for the same animacy categorization task [Ritchie, J. B., Tovar, D. A., & Carlson, T. A. Emerging object representations in the visual system predict reaction times for categorization...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813353/motor-cognition-and-neuroscience-in-sport-psychology
#2
REVIEW
Paul S Holmes, David J Wright
Advances in technology have allowed research in cognitive neuroscience to contribute significantly to the discipline of sport psychology. In most cases, the research has become more rigorous and has directed current thinking on the mechanisms subserving a number of psychological theories and models of practice. Currently, the three most common neuroscience techniques informing sport and exercise research are electroencephalography, transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812270/oxytocin-and-facial-emotion-recognition
#3
Mark A Ellenbogen
The expression of emotion in faces serves numerous meaningful functions, such as conveying messages of danger or approach, facilitating communication, and promoting the formation of social bonds and relationships. The study of facial expressions of emotion has become integral to research in social psychology and social neuroscience, particularly with respect to the neuropeptide oxytocin. This chapter examines how oxytocin influences the processing of emotion in faces by reviewing intranasal administration studies of automatic processing, selective attention, and emotion recognition...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805580/tourette-syndrome-and-chronic-tic-disorders-the-clinical-spectrum-beyond-tics
#4
Davide Martino, Christos Ganos, Tamara M Pringsheim
The clinical surveillance and active management of Tourette syndrome (TS) and other primary chronic tic disorders cannot be limited to tics, as these patients manifest a spectrum of sensory-, behavioral-, cognitive-, and sleep-related problems that have a major impact on their functioning and quality of life, influencing enormously clinical decision making on a routine basis. The sensory phenomena of primary tic disorders consist of premonitory urges and heightened sensitivity to external somatosensory and interoceptive stimuli...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804508/a-psychology-of-the-human-brain-gut-microbiome-axis
#5
Andrew P Allen, Timothy G Dinan, Gerard Clarke, John F Cryan
In recent years, we have seen increasing research within neuroscience and biopsychology on the interactions between the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, the bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract, and the bidirectional relationship between these systems: the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Although research has demonstrated that the gut microbiota can impact upon cognition and a variety of stress-related behaviours, including those relevant to anxiety and depression, we still do not know how this occurs. A deeper understanding of how psychological development as well as social and cultural factors impact upon the brain-gut-microbiome axis will contextualise the role of the axis in humans and inform psychological interventions that improve health within the brain-gut-microbiome axis...
April 2017: Social and Personality Psychology Compass
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801185/neuroimaging-epigenetics-challenges-and-recommendations-for-best-practices
#6
REVIEW
Katie Lancaster, James P Morris, Jessica J Connelly
Neuroimaging epigenetics is an interdisciplinary application of epigenetics to cognitive neuroscience that seeks to identify molecular and neural predictors of human behavior. This approach can be sensitive to the dynamic interaction between biological predisposition and environmental influences, and is potentially more informative than an approach using static genetic code. Recent work in this field has generated considerable enthusiasm, yet caution is warranted since any novel cross-disciplinary approach lacks a set of established conventions or standards...
August 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800118/deep-source-localization-with-magnetoencephalography-based-on-sensor-array-decomposition-and-beamforming
#7
Yegang Hu, Yicong Lin, Baoshan Yang, Guangrui Tang, Tao Liu, Yuping Wang, Jicong Zhang
In recent years, the source localization technique of magnetoencephalography (MEG) has played a prominent role in cognitive neuroscience and in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological and psychological disorders. However, locating deep brain activities such as in the mesial temporal structures, especially in preoperative evaluation of epilepsy patients, may be more challenging. In this work we have proposed a modified beamforming approach for finding deep sources. First, an iterative spatiotemporal signal decomposition was employed for reconstructing the sensor arrays, which could characterize the intrinsic discriminant features for interpreting sensor signals...
August 11, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793239/ghosts-in-machine-learning-for-cognitive-neuroscience-moving-from-data-to-theory
#8
REVIEW
Thomas Carlson, Erin Goddard, David M Kaplan, Colin Klein, J Brendan Ritchie
The application of machine learning methods to neuroimaging data has fundamentally altered the field of cognitive neuroscience. Future progress in understanding brain function using these methods will require addressing a number of key methodological and interpretive challenges. Because these challenges often remain unseen and metaphorically "haunt" our efforts to use these methods to understand the brain, we refer to them as "ghosts". In this paper, we describe three such ghosts, situate them within a more general framework from philosophy of science, and then describe steps to address them...
August 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793238/principles-for-models-of-neural-information-processing
#9
REVIEW
Kendrick N Kay
The goal of cognitive neuroscience is to understand how mental operations are performed by the brain. Given the complexity of the brain, this is a challenging endeavor that requires the development of formal models. Here, I provide a perspective on models of neural information processing in cognitive neuroscience. I define what these models are, explain why they are useful, and specify criteria for evaluating models. I also highlight the difference between functional and mechanistic models, and call attention to the value that neuroanatomy has for understanding brain function...
August 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791729/applications-of-optogenetic-and-chemogenetic-methods-to-seizure-circuits-where-to-go-next
#10
REVIEW
Patrick A Forcelli
Epilepsy is the quintessential circuit disorder, with seizure activity propagating through anatomically constrained pathways. These pathways, necessary for normal sensory, motor, and cognitive function, are hijacked during seizures. Understanding the network architecture at the level of both local microcircuits and distributed macrocircuits may provide new therapeutic avenues for the treatment of epilepsy. Over the past decade, optogenetic and chemogenetic tools have enabled previously impossible levels of functional circuit mapping in neuroscience...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777995/beyond-stereotypes-of-adolescent-risk-taking-placing-the-adolescent-brain-in-developmental-context
#11
REVIEW
Daniel Romer, Valerie F Reyna, Theodore D Satterthwaite
Recent neuroscience models of adolescent brain development attribute the morbidity and mortality of this period to structural and functional imbalances between more fully developed limbic regions that subserve reward and emotion as opposed to those that enable cognitive control. We challenge this interpretation of adolescent development by distinguishing risk-taking that peaks during adolescence (sensation seeking and impulsive action) from risk taking that declines monotonically from childhood to adulthood (impulsive choice and other decisions under known risk)...
July 26, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774735/an-autonomous-automated-and-mobile-device-to-concurrently-assess-several-cognitive-functions-in-group-living-non-human-primates
#12
Fizet Jonas, Rimele Adam, Pebayle Thierry, Cassel Jean-Christophe, Kelche Christian, Meunier Hélène
Research methods in cognitive neuroscience using non-human primates have undergone notable changes over the last decades. Recently, several research groups have described freely accessible devices equipped with a touchscreen interface. Two characteristics of such systems are of particular interest: some apparatuses include automated identification of subjects, while others are mobile. Here, we designed, tested and validated an experimental system that, for the first time, combine automatization and mobility...
July 31, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768457/greater-delay-discounting-among-girls-but-not-boys-with-adhd-correlates-with-cognitive-control
#13
Connor H G Patros, Kristie L Sweeney, E Mark Mahone, Stewart H Mostofsky, Keri S Rosch
Cognitive neuroscience models suggest both reward valuation and cognitive control contribute to reward-based decision-making. The current study examined the relationship between cognitive control and delay discounting (i.e., choosing smaller, immediate over larger, delayed rewards) in a large sample of boys and girls diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; N = 95) and typically developing control children (TD; N = 59). Specifically, we examined performance on multiple measures of cognitive control (i...
August 2, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760786/how-are-age-related-differences-in-sleep-quality-associated-with-health-outcomes-an-epidemiological-investigation-in-a-uk-cohort-of-2406-adults
#14
Andrew Gadie, Meredith Shafto, Yue Leng, Rogier A Kievit
OBJECTIVES: To examine age-related differences in self-reported sleep quality and their associations with health outcomes across four domains: physical health, cognitive health, mental health and neural health. SETTING: Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) is a cohort study in East Anglia/England, which collected self-reported health and lifestyle questions as well as a range of objective measures from healthy adults. PARTICIPANTS: 2406 healthy adults (age 18-98) answered questions about their sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)) and measures of physical, cognitive, mental and neural health...
July 31, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759698/what-is-the-unconscious-and-where-is-it-located-in-the-brain-a-neuropsychoanalytic-perspective
#15
Mark Solms
This is a brief overview of my "neuropsychoanalytic" perspective on the unconscious. It should make clear how much psychoanalysis has to gain from incorporating the findings of neuroscientific disciplines studying the same part of nature-the workings of the human mind. I hope it makes equally clear what useful new perspectives can be cast on current issues in cognitive neuroscience, if they, in turn, incorporate the findings of psychoanalysis.
July 31, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757455/affordances-and-neuroscience-steps-towards-a-successful-marriage
#16
REVIEW
Matthieu M de Wit, Simon de Vries, John van der Kamp, Rob Withagen
The concept of affordance is rapidly gaining popularity in neuroscientific accounts of perception and action. This concept was introduced by James Gibson to refer to the action possibilities of the environment. By contrast, standard cognitive neuroscience typically uses the concept to refer to (action-oriented) representations in the brain. This paper will show that the view of affordances as representations firmly places the concept in the subject-object framework that dominates both psychology and neuroscience...
July 27, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755870/use-of-near-infrared-spectroscopy-in-the-investigation-of-brain-activation-during-cognitive-aging-a-systematic-review-of-an-emerging-area-of-research
#17
REVIEW
Nounagnon F Agbangla, Michel Audiffren, Cédric T Albinet
The cognitive neuroscience of aging is a growing and stimulating research area. The development of neuroimaging techniques in the past two decades has considerably increased our understanding of the brain mechanisms that might underlie cognitive performance and resulting changes due to normal aging. Beside traditional metabolic neuroimaging techniques, such as Positron Emission Tomography and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), an optical imaging technique allowing to monitor real-time cerebral blood oxygenation, has gained recent interest in this field...
September 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745241/the-role-of-innate-immune-system-receptors-in-epilepsy-research
#18
Oscar Arias-Carrion
Epilepsy is one of the most complex neurological disorders whose study requires a broad knowledge of neurology and neuroscience. It comprises a diverse group of neurological disorders that share the central feature of spontaneous recurrent seizures, and are often accompanied by cognitive deficits and mood disorder. This condition is one of the most common neurological disorders. Until recently, alterations of neuronal activities had been the focus of epilepsy research. This neurocentric emphasis did not address issues that arise in more complex models of epileptogenesis...
July 25, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743599/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-cbt-for-preventing-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
REVIEW
Larry D Reid, Faith E Avens, Alicia A Walf
This review provides the rationale for implementing cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD). There are known risk factors associated with the development of AD, some of which may be ameliorated with CBT. We posit that treating the risk factors of inactivity, poor diet, hyposmia and anosmia, sleep disorders and lack of regularly engaged challenging cognitive activity will modify the physiology of the brain sufficiently to avoid the accumulation of excess proteins, including amyloid beta, causal events in the development of AD...
July 23, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741100/training-and-the-attentional-blink-raising-the-ceiling-does-not-remove-the-limits
#20
James T Enns, Paul Kealong, Jennifer G Tichon, Troy A W Visser
The attentional blink (AB) is a widely studied deficit in reporting the second of two sequentially presented targets when they occur within 500 milliseconds. The AB often is interpreted to index a structural limit in sequential visual processing. However, this interpretation is challenged by reports that the deficit can be reduced with several hundred trials of specific training (Braun in Nature, 393(6684), 424-425, 1998; Choi et al. in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(30), 12242-12247, 2012; Taatgen et al...
July 24, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
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