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NMSC pathogenesis

Héctor C Perez, Xiomara Benavides, Juan S Perez, Maria A Pabon, Jaime Tschen, Silvia J Maradei-Anaya, Luis Lopez, Eyner Lozano
INTRODUCTION: As numbers of transplant recipients and survival rates increase, the vulnerability of this population to several malignancies also rises. Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) carries the highest rates of morbidity and mortality in this population. To avoid these malignancies, it is necessary to identify particular risk factors in transplant recipients and to follow preventive protocols. METHODS: The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were reviewed using as keywords the medical subject headings (MeSH) "transplantation", "skin neoplasm" and "prevention"...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Dermatology
A Cegielska, A Dębska-Ślizień, G Moszkowska, B Imko-Walczuk, B Rutkowski
BACKGROUND: Organ transplant recipients (OTRs) are more susceptible to various diseases, among them cancers. Nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC) represent the most common malignancies in OTRs in Europe. Due to the significantly higher morbidity, aggressive and rapid progression, and poor prognosis of NMSC in the OTR population, these patients require a special oncological approach. Intensive attention should therefore be paid to factors predisposing OTRs to the development of cancer. The aim of this study was to establish the role of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of skin cancer in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs)...
June 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Prajakta D Jaju, Katherine J Ransohoff, Jean Y Tang, Kavita Y Sarin
Nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) represent the most common malignancies worldwide, with reported incidence rising each year. Both cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC), as well as other NMSCs, represent complex diseases with a combination of environmental and genetic risk factors. In general, hereditary cancer syndromes that increase the risk of NMSC fall under several broad categories: those associated with immunodeficiencies, those that affect skin pigmentation, and those that perturb key molecular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of NMSCs...
March 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Frank I Scott, Ronac Mamtani, Colleen M Brensinger, Kevin Haynes, Zelma C Chiesa-Fuxench, Jie Zhang, Lang Chen, Fenglong Xie, Huifeng Yun, Mark T Osterman, Timothy Beukelman, David J Margolis, Jeffrey R Curtis, James D Lewis
IMPORTANCE: Immune dysfunction underlies the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Immunosuppressive therapy is the standard of care for these diseases. Both immune dysfunction and therapy-related immunosuppression can inhibit cancer-related immune surveillance in this population. Drug-induced immunosuppression is a risk factor for nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), particularly squamous cell tumors. For patients with a history of NMSC, data are limited on the effect of these drugs on the risk of additional NMSCs...
February 2016: JAMA Dermatology
Saverio Caini, Sara Raimondi, Harriet Johansson, Vincenzo De Giorgi, Ines Zanna, Domenico Palli, Sara Gandini
There is much evidence supporting the role of telomeres in cancer pathogenesis, however the studies that investigated the association between telomere length and skin cancer risk provided inconsistent results. To help clarify this issue, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published papers on the association between peripheral leukocytes telomere length (PLTL) and the risk of cutaneous melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). We calculated summary relative risks (SRR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) using random effect models with maximum likelihood estimates, and explored causes of between-studies heterogeneity of risk estimates...
December 2015: Journal of Dermatological Science
Paola Savoia, Ottavio Cremona, Paolo Fava
Non-melanoma skin cancers are the most common malignancy in humans, with a basal/squamous cell carcinoma incidence ratio of 4:1 in immunocompetent patients. Basal cell carcinoma rarely metastasizes but commonly causes significant local tissue destruction and disfigurement, whereas squamous cell carcinoma is associated with a substantial risk of recurrence and metastasis; the prognosis in metastatic patients is poor. Surgical approaches give a cure rate greater than 90% if appropriately applied, on the basis of the characteristics of the primary tumors and of the patients, but in selected cases, medical treatment (5-fluorouracil, imiquimod, diclofenac and, more recently, ingenol mebutate) is preferable to invasive procedures and provides a good chance of cure, with generally excellent cosmetic outcomes...
2016: Current Drug Targets
Chrisostomos Chrisostomidis, Petros Konofaos, Dimitrios Karypidis, Andreas Lazaris, Alkiviadis Kostakis, Othon Papadopoulos
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate if the expression of CD105 and Ets-1 was predictive of aggressive biologic behavior of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) and to evaluate indicators of local recurrence. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 144 patients with NMSC were included in the current study. Surgical specimens were independently examined for diagnosis confirmation and immunohistochemical expression of Ets-1 and CD105 by two dermatopathologists...
September 2015: International Journal of Dermatology
Iman Seleit, Ola Ahmed Bakry, Dalia Al Sharaky, Eman Ragheb
Aquaporin-3 (AQP3), is an aquaglyceroporin, that plays a role in cell proliferation, tumorigenesis, and cell migration. This study aimed at evaluating the possible role of AQP3 in nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) pathogenesis through its immunohistochemical expression in skin biopsies of these diseases. One-hundred and thirty cutaneous specimens were studied. These included 60 cases of NMSC and 40 normal skin and 30 psoriasis samples, from age- and gender-matched subjects, as a control group. AQP3 was expressed in 66...
2015: Ultrastructural Pathology
P Sollena, L Del Regno, M C Fargnoli, K Peris
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common non melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in white individuals over the age of 40 years. BCCs usually grow slowly and rarely metastasize, but can be locally invasive if neglected or of an aggressive subtype. The local tissue destruction caused by an untreated BCC can be extensive, therefore optimal treatment should lead to tumour clearance. Surgery and topical medical treatments are successful therapeutic options for most superficial and nodular BCC. Systemic medical treatments may be considered when surgical procedures are not recommended on the basis of the anatomical site and tumor extension, and patients' associated comorbidities...
August 2015: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
Prasan R Bhandari, Varadraj V Pai
The incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) continues to rise, partly because of aging, the frequency of early childhood sunburns, and sporadic extreme recreational sun exposure. A nonsurgical approach to selected cutaneous malignancy could possibly reduce the cost as well as morbidity of surgical treatment for NMSC. There has been growing interest in isolating compounds that could suppress or reverse the biochemical changes necessary for cutaneous malignancies to progress by pharmacologic intervention...
November 2014: Indian Journal of Dermatology
M Binstock, F Hafeez, C Metchnikoff, S T Arron
Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer in the U.S.A. The two most common NMSCs are basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The associations of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in pigmentation pathway genes with NMSC are not well characterized. There is a series of epidemiological studies that have tested these relationships, but there is no recent summary of these findings. To explain overarching trends, we undertook a systematic review of published studies. The summarized data support the concept that specific SNPs in the pigmentation pathway are of importance for the pathogenesis of NMSC...
October 2014: British Journal of Dermatology
Brian Poligone, Elaine S Gilmore, Carolina V Alexander, David Oleksyn, Kathleen Gillespie, Jiyong Zhao, Sherrif F Ibrahim, Alice P Pentland, Marc D Brown, Luojing Chen
Non-melanoma skin cancer represents the most common cancer in the United States. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin is a subtype of NMSC that shows a greater potential for invasion and metastasis. The current study identifies the protein kinase C-associated kinase (PKK), which is also known as the receptor-interacting protein kinase 4, as a suppressor of tumor growth in SCC of the skin. We show that expression of PKK is decreased in human SCC of the skin compared with normal skin. Further, suppression of PKK in human keratinocytes leads to increased cell proliferation...
March 2015: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Karin A Vineretsky, Margaret R Karagas, Jacquelyn K Kuriger-Laber, Tim Waterboer, Michael Pawlita, Heather H Nelson
A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 35 kb upstream of the HLA-C gene is associated with HLA-C expression, and the high expressing genotype (CC) has been associated with HIV-I control. HLA-C is unique among the classical MHC class I molecules for its role in the control of viral infections and recognition of abnormal or missing self. This immunosurveillance is central to the pathogenesis of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), and of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in particular. While sun exposure is a major risk factor for these cancers, cutaneous infections with genus β-HPV have been implicated in the development of SCC...
2014: PloS One
Iman Seleit, Ola Ahmed Bakry, Rehab Munir Samaka, Mona Abdel Malak
Sperm-associated antigen 9 (SPAG9) is a scaffold protein for c-Jun-NH2-kinases, which play an important role in cell survival, proliferation, apoptosis, and tumor development. SPAG9 was claimed to be involved in the pathogenesis of carcinoma in different organs. The aim of this work was to investigate its role in the pathogenesis of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) through its immunohistochemical (IHC) localization in skin biopsies of these tumors. This retrospective and prospective study included 67 cutaneous specimens; 42 of NMSC [20 cases with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and 22 cases with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)] and 25 normal sun-exposed skin biopsies from age and gender-matched healthy subjects as a control group...
January 2015: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Craig A Elmets, Johnathan J Ledet, Mohammad Athar
Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) are among the most common human malignancies. Current methods for their prevention include avoidance of natural and artificial sources of UV radiation and using photoprotective clothing and sunscreens. However, these methods have proven to be inadequate in stemming the rise in skin cancer incidence over the past several years. There is accumulating evidence that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an enzyme involved in prostaglandin synthesis, may be involved in the pathogenesis of NMSC...
October 2014: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Enzo Emanuele, James M Spencer, Martin Braun
Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) are the most common human neoplasms and continue to represent an important public health issue with greater than one million cases diagnosed each year. The primary factor contributing to the molecular pathogenesis of NMSC is unprotected skin exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, ie, UVA (wavelength: 315-400 nm) and UVB rays (wavelength: 280-315 nm) with additional albeit less damaging factors of infrared radiation (wavelength: ~750 nm-1 mm) and environmental pollutants. Skin carcinogenesis by DNA damage is the current predominant paradigm of UV toxicity, which may be caused by direct damaging effects of energy deposited by photons or indirect oxidative action of short-lived reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed from water that reacts with biomacromolecules...
March 2014: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
Aadithya Arumugam, Zhiping Weng, Sarang S Talwelkar, Sandeep C Chaudhary, Levy Kopelovich, Craig A Elmets, Farrukh Afaq, Mohammad Athar
Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common type of skin cancer in Caucasian populations. Its increasing incidence has been a major public health concern. Elevated expressions of ODC and COX-2 are associated with both murine and human NMSCs. Inhibition of these molecular targets singly employing their respective small molecule inhibitors showed limited success. Here, we show that combined blockade of ODC and COX-2 using their potent inhibitors, DFMO and diclofenac respectively abrogates growth of A431 epidermal xenograft tumors in nu/nu mice by more than 90%...
2013: PloS One
Jedrzej Grzegrzolka, Katarzyna Swiatko, Bartosz Pula, Aleksandra Zamirska, Mateusz Olbromski, Andrzej Bieniek, Jacek Szepietowski, Janusz Rys, Piotr Dziegiel, Marzenna Podhorska-Okolow
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is known mainly as a regulator of cardiovascular homeostasis. However, it has also been shown to mediate processes such as proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and carcinogenesis. Nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC) - including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) - are among the most common cancers. The aim of the present study was to determine the immunohistochemical expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and Ki-67 antigen in archival samples of normal skin, actinic keratosis, and malignant skin lesions...
2013: Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica
Xueling Yang, Baohong Yang, Ya Liu, Shanshan Xu, Bo Li
BACKGROUND: The p53 gene is a critical molecular in the protection of cells from DNA damage due to Ultraviolet (UV) exposure, and TP53 mutation is very common in non-melanoma skin cancer. OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between the TP53 Arg72Pro polymorphism and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) risk. METHODS: We performed this meta-analysis with 13 case-control studies involving 3,520 cases and 3,587 controls. RESULTS: Our meta-analysis showed that TP53 Arg72Pro polymorphism was not associated with non-melanoma skin cancer susceptibility in overall population...
May 2013: Indian Journal of Dermatology
Simona Surdu, Edward F Fitzgerald, Michael S Bloom, Francis P Boscoe, David O Carpenter, Richard F Haase, Eugen Gurzau, Peter Rudnai, Kvetoslava Koppova, Joëlle Févotte, Giovanni Leonardi, Marie Vahter, Walter Goessler, Rajiv Kumar, Tony Fletcher
BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that ambient sunlight plays an important role in the pathogenesis of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC). However, there is ongoing controversy regarding the relevance of occupational exposure to natural and artificial ultraviolet radiation (UV) radiation. OBJECTIVES: We investigated potential associations between natural and artificial UV radiation exposure at work with NMSC in a case-control study conducted in Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia...
2013: PloS One
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