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gender differences in mental illness

Andrew C Patterson, Gerry Veenstra
OBJECTIVES: Intersectionality theory proposes that each combination of social categories derived from gender, race and nationality, such as immigrant White man or native-born Black woman, is associated with unique social experiences. We tested the potential of intersectionality theory for explicating racial inequalities in Canada by investigating whether Black-White health inequalities are conditioned by gender and immigrant status in a synergistic way. METHODS: Our dataset comprised 10 cycles (2001-2013) of the Canadian Community Health Survey...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Julia F Sowislo, Claudia Lange, Sebastian Euler, Henning Hachtel, Marc Walter, Stefan Borgwardt, Undine E Lang, Christian G Huber
Background There is evidence for two different types and/or sources of mental illness stigma, namely the display of psychiatric symptoms and the use of psychiatric service institutions. However, no current study has compared the two. Furthermore, gaps exist in our knowledge of both types of stigma. Little is known about the perceived stigma of specific psychiatric service treatment environments, for instance forensic settings. In addition, systematic research on stigma attached to symptoms of personality disorders in the general population is scarce, and for borderline personality disorder, nonexistent...
October 19, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Nuria Berrocal-Izquierdo, Miquel Bioque, Miguel Bernardo
Patients with chronic schizophrenia-related disorders are at a heightened risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The presence and interpretation of cerebral vascular lesions in neuroimaging tests in these patients represents a common clinical challenge. Nevertheless, the literature on cerebrovascular disease in this population is scarce and contradictory. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between schizophrenia-related disorders and cerebrovascular morbidity. A case-control study compared cerebrovascular morbidity in a group of patients with schizophrenia-related disorder versus a group of patients with another severe mental illness...
October 14, 2016: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Camilla Lauritzen, Charlotte Reedtz
BACKGROUND: Children who have parents with mental health problems are a vulnerable group. Intervening early to support parents with a mental illness can contribute to improve outcomes for children. Rigging the adult mental health system in such a manner that child responsible personnel are designated in wards is a strategy to systematically address the needs of families. It has since 2010 been mandatory for Norwegian hospitals to appoint such personnel in all hospital wards. The current study aimed to investigate the appointment of child responsible personnel in the adult mental health services in a regional hospital with local clinics...
2016: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
Nidhal Soualeh, Imen Dridi, Gauthier Eppe, Christophe Némos, Rachid Soulimani, Jaouad Bouayed
Several lines of evidence indicate that early-life inflammation may predispose to mental illness, including depression, in later-life. We investigated the impact of perinatal exposure to polluted eels on neonatal, postnatal, and adult brain inflammation, and on the resignation behavior of male and female adult offspring mice. The effects of maternal standard diet (laboratory food) were compared to the same diet enriched with low, intermediate, or highly polluted eels. Brain inflammatory markers including cytokines were assessed in offspring mice on the day of birth (i...
October 1, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Allison N Kurti, Diana R Keith, Alyssa Noble, Jeff S Priest, Brian Sprague, Stephen T Higgins
Few studies have attempted to characterize how co-occurring risk factors for substance use disorders intersect. A recent study examined this question regarding cigarette smoking and demonstrated that co-occurring risk factors generally act independently. The present study examines whether that same pattern of independent intersection of risk factors extends to illicit drug abuse/dependence using a U.S. nationally representative sample (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2011-2013). Logistic regression and classification and regression tree (CART) modeling were used to examine risk of past-year drug abuse/dependence associated with a well-established set of risk factors for substance use (age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, poverty, smoking status, alcohol abuse/dependence, mental illness)...
September 26, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Savannah N Gosnell, Kenia M Velasquez, David L Molfese, Peter J Molfese, Alok Madan, James C Fowler, B Christopher Frueh, Philip R Baldwin, Ramiro Salas
Suicide is a leading cause of death in America, with over 40,000 reported suicides per year. Mental illness is a major risk factor for suicidality. This study attempts to validate findings of volumetric differences from studies on suicidality. Psychiatric inpatients classified as having mildly severe or severe depression were separated into two groups: suicide attempted in the past two months (SA; n=20), non-suicidal control group (DA; n=20); these patients were all depressed and not significantly different for age, gender, race, marital status, education level, anxiety level, and substance abuse...
October 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
James Reavell, Qulsom Fazil
BACKGROUND: With an increasing number of refugees migrating across continents, the crisis is very apparent. AIM: A literature review of patterns, risk factors and effects of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression in refugee minors was carried out involving those who have resettled in different developed countries. METHODS: Papers were narrowed down by reading the abstracts and methods to ascertain whether the refugee children had resettled in developed countries and to ensure that they had not just been internally displaced...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Mental Health
Antonios Paraschakis, Ioannis Michopoulos, Christos Christodoulou, Filippos Koutsaftis, Athanassios Douzenis
Frequency and gender differences of psychiatric medication intake in a sample of suicide victims from the Athens Greater Area were investigated with a particular focus on the implications for suicide prevention. Data were collected from the toxicological analyses of the suicide cases of the period November 2007-October 2009. Information was available for 262 individuals, 196 men (74.8%) and 66 women (25.2%); 109 of these (41.6%) were receiving psychiatric medication(s). Women were statistically more frequently under treatment: antidepressants (32...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Su-Yin Tan, Robert Haining
Public health and criminology have developed largely independently of one another at the research and policy levels so that the links between crime victimization and health status are not well understood. Although it is not difficult to support the idea of crime as a threat to the health of individuals and the wider community, the difficulty lies in quantifying the impact of crime on public health, while controlling other variables, including gender and ethnicity. We report the results of a study, the goals of which were to: develop an understanding conceptually of the relationships between different types of crime (violent and non-violent) and health; explore the impact of victimization on quality of life and physical and psychological wellbeing; investigate the role of social and demographic factors in shaping any relationships...
October 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Helen-Maria Vasiliadis, Catherine Lamoureux-Lamarche, Samantha Gontijo Guerra
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether health service use influences the association between psychiatric and physical co-morbidity and suicide risk in older adults. METHODS: Controls were older adults (n = 2,494) participating in a longitudinal study on the health of the elderly carried out between 2004 and 2007, in Quebec. The cases were all suicide decedents (n = 493) between 2004 and 2007, confirmed by the Quebec Coroner's office. Multivariate analyses were carried out to test the association between suicide and the presence of psychiatric and physical illnesses controlling for health service use and socio-demographic factors by gender and age group...
September 8, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
R Carney, A R Yung, G P Amminger, T Bradshaw, N Glozier, D F Hermens, I B Hickie, E Killackey, P McGorry, C Pantelis, S J Wood, R Purcell
BACKGROUND: People with schizophrenia have high rates of substance use which contributes to co-morbidity and premature mortality. Some evidence suggests people at-risk for psychosis have high rates of substance use. We aimed to assess substance use in a help-seeking cohort, comparing those at-risk and not at-risk for psychosis, and to establish any relationship with clinical symptoms. METHOD: Participants were help-seeking youth presenting to mental health services in Sydney and Melbourne...
August 30, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
María Lopez-Ruiz, Fernando G Benavides, Alejandra Vives, Lucía Artazcoz
OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationship between paid work, family characteristics and health status in Central American workers; and to examine whether patterns of association differ by gender and informal or formal employment. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 8680 non-agricultural workers, based on the First Central American Survey of Working Conditions and Health (2011). Main explicative variables were paid working hours, marital status, caring for children, and caring for people with functional diversity or ill...
August 29, 2016: International Journal of Public Health
Louisa Picco, Mythily Subramaniam, Edimansyah Abdin, Janhavi Ajit Vaingankar, Siow Ann Chong
INTRODUCTION: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders worldwide, and various sociodemographic risk factors including age, gender and ethnicity have been associated with MDD. The present study aimed to establish whether gender-specific differences relating to the prevalence and correlates of MDD existed in the Singapore adult resident population. METHODS: The Singapore Mental Health Study was a population-based, cross-sectional, epidemiological study among Singapore citizens and permanent residents aged 18 years and above...
August 16, 2016: Singapore Medical Journal
M Meyers, J Geldmacher, S Mattausch, M Brand, D Heitmann, G Juckel, I S Haußleiter
BACKGROUND: Social stigma connected to mental illness is a societal problem for which we lack data, especially among children and teenagers. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess how adolescents stigmatize mental illness in peers and to investigate if stigmatizing attitudes differed as a function of other variables (e. g. age, gender, level of education). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A German translation of the Revised Attribution Questionnaire (r-AQ), a nine-item survey, was administered to 246 pupils between 14 and 16 years of age, who were recruited from seven German schools...
August 11, 2016: Der Nervenarzt
A Vrdoljak, V Ivkovic, S Karanovic, Z Dika, V Domislovic, K Dapic, L Gallineo, E Ivandic, J Josipovic, I Vukovic, J Kos, M Laganovic, T Zeljkovic Vrkic, V Premuzic, M Abramovic Baric, J Culig, R Stevanovic, B Jelakovic
OBJECTIVE: Overall prevalence of hypertension (HT) in Croatia is high and control of HT is poor. In this study our aim was to analyze trends in prevalence, treatment and control of HT in the same rural population during the 10 years long survey. DESIGN AND METHOD: Out of 3056 subjects enrolled in ENAH study, 2361 were eligible for further analysis. All inhabitants older than 18 years of age from this rural area were invited to participate and were examined on a door-to-door basis...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Jennifer I Manuel, Mary B Stebbins, Elwin Wu
This study examined gender differences in perceived unmet treatment needs among persons with and without co-occurring substance use disorders and serious mental health conditions. Data were drawn from the 2008-2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (unweighted N = 37,187) to test the hypothesis that the relationships between diagnosis and perceived unmet treatment needs differ as a function of gender. Compared to individuals with a substance use disorder or severe mental illness, those with co-occurring disorders were more likely to report perceived unmet needs for substance abuse and mental health treatment...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research
Jo River
There is a striking gender difference in suicide rates worldwide, with men accounting for approximately 80% of all suicide deaths. In contradictory public discussions, suicidal men are presented sometimes as victims of "poor" health services and sometimes as irremediable, "poor" help seekers. A more substantive theory of suicidal men's help seeking, which moves beyond homogenizing accounts to examine the complex interplay between help seeking and health services, is now required. Eighteen life history interviews were undertaken with men who had engaged in nonfatal suicide...
July 29, 2016: American Journal of Men's Health
D Antoniadis, A Gouti, E Kaloudi, N Τourlende, A Douzenis, C Christodoulou, L Lykouras, M Livaditis, M Samakouri
Attitudes and beliefs of the population regarding the mentally ill have been universally subject of many researches. Research of different groups' opinion for mental disorders has given remarkable findings that assist in the right design of psychiatric services. Objective of this thesis is to study the attitude of students towards mental illness. In particular, it intends to study the differences derived from the age, gender, place of birth, kind of studies, year of study, duration of stay at the place of studies and the existence of mental disorders in the student's family...
April 2016: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
Ingrid Zechmeister-Koss, Roman Winkler, Corinna Fritz, Leonhard Thun-Hohenstein, Heinz Tuechler
BACKGROUND: Although 20% of children and adolescents in Europe suffer from overt mental health problems, their illness-related service utilisation is often unknown. If at all, existing research has only addressed the health care sector while services requirements in mental health care go far beyond the health care system, including the social, the educational and the criminal justice system. AIMS OF STUDY: This paper aims at describing the service contact patterns of children and adolescents within and outside the health care sector before they are admitted to a child and adolescent mental health hospital...
June 2016: Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics
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