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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433468/suicide-and-deliberate-self-harm-in-pakistan-a-scoping-review
#1
Sualeha S Shekhani, Shagufta Perveen, Dur-E-Sameen Hashmi, Khawaja Akbar, Sara Bachani, Murad M Khan
BACKGROUND: Suicide is a major global public health problem with more than 800,000 incidents worldwide annually. Seventy-five percent of the global suicides occur in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Pakistan is a LMIC where information on suicidal behavior is limited. The aim of the review is to map available literature on determinants, risk factors and other variables of suicidal behavior in Pakistan. METHOD: This study was based on Arksey and O'Malley's methodological framework of scoping review, combining peer reviewed publications with grey literature...
February 12, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432570/insomnia-perchance-a-dream-results-from-a-nrem-rem-sleep-awakening-study-in-good-sleepers-and-patients-with-insomnia
#2
Bernd Feige, Svetoslava Nanovska, Chiara Baglioni, Benedict Bier, Laura Cabrera, Sarah Diemers, Maximilian Quellmalz, Markus Siegel, Ireni Xeni, Andras Szentkiralyi, John-Peter Doerr, Dieter Riemann
Study Objectives: Insomnia disorder (ID) is a frequent sleep disorder coupled with increased risks for somatic and mental illness. While subjective complaints are severe, polysomnography (PSG) parameters show only modest differences between groups. REM sleep as the most aroused sleep state may be especially vulnerable to be perceived as wake. To directly assess possible differences, we determined auditory waking thresholds and sleep perception in ID patients and healthy control subjects (GSC) in N2 and REM sleep...
February 8, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428123/innovations-reviews-and-proposals-on-the-dsm-5-the-case-of-sexual-dysfunctions-gender-dysphoria-and-paraphilic-disorders
#3
Adalberto Campo-Arias, Edwin Herazo
Human behaviours have different meanings according to the historical moment and context. In this article sexual behaviours are taken as a category in order to analyse how psychiatric nosology is structured, as manifested in texts such as the DSM-5. The development of these diagnostic manuals are tools that are far from being free of subjectivities and interference of elements of power, expressed in the way health, illness, mental health, and mental disorders, are assumed; in short, the normal and pathological...
January 2018: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374662/evaluating-sickness-absence-duration-by-musculoskeletal-and-mental-health-issues-a-retrospective-cohort-study-of-scottish-healthcare-workers
#4
Evangelia Demou, Shanley Smith, Abita Bhaskar, Daniel F Mackay, Judith Brown, Kate Hunt, Sergio Vargas-Prada, Ewan B Macdonald
OBJECTIVES: Sickness absence (SA) among healthcare workers is associated with occupational and non-occupational risk factors and impacts employee health, healthcare delivery and patient health. At the same time, healthcare is one of the employment sectors with the highest rates of work-related ill health in the UK. Musculoskeletal (MSK) and mental health (MH) issues are leading causes of SA, but there is a lack of research on how certain MSK/MH conditions impact on SA duration. The study aim is to determine differences in SA duration by MH and MSK disorders in healthcare employees...
January 26, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332234/attitudes-of-u-s-psychiatry-residents-and-fellows-towards-mental-illness-and-its-causes-a-comparison-study-with-medical-students
#5
Catherine Chiles, Elina Stefanovics, Robert Rosenheck
Stigma towards people with mental illness remains a burden for patients and healthcare providers. This study at a large US university examined the attitudes of psychiatry residents and fellows towards mental illness and its causes, and whether their attitudes differed from the medical student attitudes previously studied utilizing the same survey method. An electronic questionnaire examining attitudes toward people with mental illness, causes of mental Illness, and treatment efficacy was used to survey the attitudes of psychiatry residents and fellows...
January 13, 2018: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321703/executive-functions-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-panic-disorder-patients-in-comparison-to-healty-controls
#6
Emel Kurt, Erol Yildirim, Volkan Topçuoğlu
Introduction: Patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have impaired cognitive functions, including attention, verbal and visual memory, and visual-spatial abilities as well as executive function But some studies did not show any disturbance in executive function of patients with OCD. To date, only few studies have been conducted on neuropsychological functioning of patients with panic disorder (PD). There are limited studies to reach a definite conclusion on executive functions of patients with OCD and those with PD...
December 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304845/testing-decision-making-competency-of-schizophrenia-participants-in-clinical-trials-a-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression
#7
Sorin Hostiuc, Mugurel Constantin Rusu, Ionut Negoi, Eduard Drima
BACKGROUND: The process of assessing the decision-making capacity of potential subjects before their inclusion in clinical trials is a legal requirement and a moral obligation, as it is essential for respecting their autonomy. This issue is especially important in psychiatry patients (such as those diagnosed with schizophrenia). The primary purpose of this article was to evaluate the degree of impairment in each dimension of decision-making capacity in schizophrenia patients compared to non-mentally-ill controls, as quantified by the (MacCAT-CR) instrument...
January 5, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300819/labour-market-segregation-and-gender-differences-in-sickness-absence-trends-in-2005-2013-in-finland
#8
Taina Leinonen, Eira Viikari-Juntura, Kirsti Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Lauri J Virta, Mikko Laaksonen, Ilona Autti-Rämö, Svetlana Solovieva
Objectives: Women have higher sickness absence rate than men, but less is known of changes in this difference over time. We examined gender differences in sickness absence trends focusing on gender segregation in the labour market. Methods: We used large nationwide register data on Finnish wage earners aged 25-59 and generalized estimation equations based on repeated logistic regression to estimate the annual risk of sickness absence lasting at least 2 weeks. Results: Between 2005 and 2013, the age-adjusted proportion (%) of employees with all-cause sickness absence decreased from the initial levels of 10...
December 29, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276353/a-cross-sectional-study-on-the-characteristics-of-tardive-dyskinesia-in-patients-with-chronic-schizophrenia
#9
Yanan Huang, Lizhen Pan, Fei Teng, Geying Wang, Chenhu Li, Lingjing Jin
Background: Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is an abnormal involuntary movement disorder caused by patients' long-term use of antipsychotic medication. It diminishes the social functioning of patients with mental disorders, thereby affecting their compliance with antipsychotic medication. The cause and nosogenesis of TD remains unclear; furthermore, because the presentation differs greatly among individuals it often goes undiagnosed or can be easily misdiagnosed. The present study aims to evaluate the abnormal movement patterns in patients with TD, and analyze the differences among different TD patterns, in order to seek effective methods of preventing, diagnosing and treating TD...
October 25, 2017: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274364/variation-in-reward-and-error-related-neural-measures-attributable-to-age-gender-race-and-ethnicity
#10
Kaylin E Hill, Belel Ait Oumeziane, Keisha D Novak, David Rollock, Dan Foti
Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been widely applied to the study of individual differences in reward and error processing, including recent proposals of several ERPs as possible biomarkers of mental illness. A criterion for all biomarkers, however, is that they be generalizable across the relevant populations, something which has yet to be demonstrated for many commonly studied reward- and error-related ERPs. The aim of this study was to examine variation in reward and error-related ERPs across core demographic variables: age, gender, race, and ethnicity...
December 20, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258407/epidemiological-patterns-of-mental-disorders-and-stigma-in-a-community-household-survey-in-urban-slum-and-rural-settings-in-kenya
#11
Victoria N Mutiso, Christine W Musyimi, Andrew Tomita, Lianne Loeffen, Jonathan K Burns, David M Ndetei
PURPOSE: This study investigated the epidemiological patterns of mental illness and stigma in community households in Kenya using a cross-sectional community household survey among 846 participants. METHODS: A cross-sectional community household survey was conducted around urban slum (Kangemi) and rural (Kibwezi) selected health facilities in Kenya. All households within the two sites served by the selected health facilities were included in the study. To select the main respondent in the household, the oldest adult who could speak English, Kiswahili or both (the official languages in Kenya) was selected to participate in the interview...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237471/correlates-of-occupational-leisure-and-total-sitting-time-in-working-adults-results-from-the-singapore-multi-ethnic-cohort
#12
Léonie Uijtdewilligen, Jason Dean-Chen Yin, Hidde P van der Ploeg, Falk Müller-Riemenschneider
BACKGROUND: Evidence on the health risks of sitting is accumulating. However, research identifying factors influencing sitting time in adults is limited, especially in Asian populations. This study aimed to identify socio-demographic and lifestyle correlates of occupational, leisure and total sitting time in a sample of Singapore working adults. METHODS: Data were collected between 2004 and 2010 from participants of the Singapore Multi Ethnic Cohort (MEC). Medical exclusion criteria for cohort participation were cancer, heart disease, stroke, renal failure and serious mental illness...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235240/gender-differences-in-first-self-perceived-signs-and-symptoms-in-patients-with-an-at-risk-mental-state-and-first-episode-psychosis
#13
Ulrike Heitz, Erich Studerus, Stephanie Menghini-Müller, Martina Papmeyer, Laura Egloff, Sarah Ittig, Astrid Navarra, Christina Andreou, Anita Riecher-Rössler
AIM: Gender differences in the current symptomatology of patients with psychotic disorders have previously been described in the literature. However, it has not yet been investigated whether gender differences exist in the very first self-perceived signs or symptoms of illness onset. The aim of this study was to investigate this aspect in at-risk mental state (ARMS) and first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients. METHODS: ARMS and FEP were recruited via the early detection of psychosis (FePsy) clinic Basel, Switzerland...
December 13, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217352/relationship-between-individual-categories-of-adverse-childhood-experience-and-diabetes-in-adulthood-in-a-sample-of-us-adults-does-it-differ-by-gender
#14
Jennifer A Campbell, Gail C Farmer, Selena Nguyen-Rodriguez, Rebekah Walker, Leonard Egede
AIMS: ACEs are known to increase risk for diabetes in adulthood. However, little is known about the differential impact of individual ACE categories on diabetes risk, and whether this relationship is gender specific. METHODS: Data from the 2011 BRFSS was used in this study. Participants included 48,526 adults who completed the ACE module across 5 states. Using logistic regression, we examined the odds of diabetes in adulthood related to eight individual categories of ACEs: sexual abuse, physical abuse, verbal abuse, mental illness, substance abuse, incarceration, separation/divorce, and violence...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200802/voluntary-and-involuntary-singlehood-and-young-adults-mental-health-an-investigation-of-mediating-role-of-romantic-loneliness
#15
Katarzyna Adamczyk
The present study tested the hypothesis that single young adults who perceive their singlehood as voluntary would report a higher level of positive mental health (i.e., emotional, psychological and social well-being), lower levels of mental health illness (i.e., somatic symptoms, anxiety, social dysfunction, severe depression) and romantic loneliness in comparison to young adults who perceive their singlehood as involuntary. This paper also investigated whether romantic loneliness mediates the relationship between voluntary and involuntary singlehood, positive mental health, and mental health illness...
2017: Current Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196773/effects-of-contact-based-mental-illness-stigma-reduction-programs-age-gender-and-asian-latino-and-white-american-differences
#16
Eunice C Wong, Rebecca L Collins, Jennifer L Cerully, Jennifer W Yu, Rachana Seelam
PURPOSE: Mental illness stigma disproportionately affects help seeking among youth, men, and ethnic minorities. As part of a comprehensive statewide initiative to reduce mental illness stigma and discrimination in California, a broad set of contact-based educational programs were widely disseminated. This study examined whether the effects of contact-based educational programs varied depending on the age, gender, and race-ethnicity of participants. METHODS: Participants (N = 4122) attended a contact-based educational program that was delivered as part of the statewide initiative to reduce mental illness stigma and discrimination...
December 2, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135124/are-male-cancer-patients-more-affected-by-losing-their-jobs-than-female-patients-gender-as-a-moderator-of-the-relationship-between-losing-the-job-and-well-being-in-a-sample-of-romanian-cancer-patients
#17
Eva Kallay, Csaba L Degi, Sebastian Pintea
PURPOSE: Research indicates the heightened need of cancer patients to return to work, which would be beneficial for their emotional/mental health and well-being. The major aim of this study was to identify the overall effect of losing the job upon different dimensions of well-being, and possible gender differences related to this influence. METHODS: A sample of 800 Romanian cancer patients was screened in 2014 (461 female and 338 male). RESULTS: Our results indicate that losing one's job after being diagnosed with cancer affects male more than female patients on the physical, emotional, and functional dimensions of well-being...
September 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104802/a-rasch-analysis-between-schizophrenic-patients-and-the-general-population
#18
Frederic Denis, Pablo Bizien, Stéphanie Tubert-Jeannin, Mohamad Hamad, Benoit Trojak, Nathalie Rude, Jean-Benoit Hardouin
Background: The aim of this study was to test the General Oral Health Assessment Index Questionnaire (GOHAI) items for differential item functioning (DIF) according to demographic characteristics (gender, age) and mental health status (schizophrenic disorders versus general population) using Rasch analysis. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study using aggregated baseline data from a validation study of the GOHAI in the French general population (GP) and similar validation study in persons with schizophrenia (PWS)...
2017: Translational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102835/the-differential-association-between-history-of-childhood-sexual-abuse-and-body-mass-index-in-early-and-late-stages-of-bipolar-disorder
#19
Emilie Leclerc, Rodrigo B Mansur, Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira, Quirino Cordeiro, Flavio Kapczinski, Roger S McIntyre, Elisa Brietzke
BACKGROUND: History of distal stressors such as childhood trauma is a well-established, non-specific vulnerability factor for multiple mental illnesses. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible association between history of childhood trauma and body mass index (BMI) in individuals in early and late stages of bipolar disorder (BD) and to verify is there was any difference in the association of sexual abuse history and obesity in early versus late stages of BD. METHODS: Seventy-one euthymic BD-type I patients and eighty-one healthy controls were evaluated using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and body mass index (BMI)...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092669/the-clinical-impact-of-a-positive-family-history-of-psychosis-or-mental-illness-in-psychotic-and-non-psychotic-mentally-ill-adolescents
#20
Saeeda Paruk, Khatija Jhazbhay, Keshika Singh, Benn Sartorius, Jonathan K Burns
BACKGROUND: A family history of psychosis is associated with negative clinical characteristics of psychosis. AIM: We aimed to determine the relationship between a family history (in first-degree relatives) of psychosis (FHP) or of any mental illness (FHM), and the clinical features (including cannabis use) of first episode early onset psychosis (EOP). METHOD: Forty-five adolescents with first episode EOP presenting to psychiatric services were assessed by clinical interview with the following tools: socio-demographic questionnaire, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Symptom Onset in Schizophrenia (SOS) inventory, and the World Health Organisation's (WHO) Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) for cannabis misuse...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
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