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gender differences in mental illness

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881965/fundamental-role-of-methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase-677-c%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-t-genotype-and-flavin-compounds-in-biochemical-phenotypes-for-schizophrenia-and-schizoaffective-psychosis
#1
Stephanie Fryar-Williams
The Mental Health Biomarker Project (2010-2016) explored variables for psychosis in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Blood samples from 67, highly characterized symptomatic cases and 67 gender and age matched control participants were analyzed for methyl tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C → T gene variants and for vitamin B6, B12 and D, folate, unbound copper, zinc cofactors for enzymes in the methylation cycle, and related catecholamine pathways. Urine samples were analyzed for indole-catecholamines, their metabolites, and oxidative-stress marker, hydroxylpyrolline-2-one (HPL)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864252/predictors-of-care-home-and-hospital-admissions-and-their-costs-for-older-people-with-alzheimer-s-disease-findings-from-a-large-london-case-register
#2
Martin Knapp, Kia-Chong Chua, Matthew Broadbent, Chin-Kuo Chang, Jose-Luis Fernandez, Dominique Milea, Renee Romeo, Simon Lovestone, Michael Spencer, Gwilym Thompson, Robert Stewart, Richard D Hayes
OBJECTIVES: To examine links between clinical and other characteristics of people with Alzheimer's disease living in the community, likelihood of care home or hospital admission, and associated costs. DESIGN: Observational data extracted from clinical records using natural language processing and Hospital Episode Statistics. Statistical analyses examined effects of cognition, physical health, mental health, sociodemographic factors and living circumstances on risk of admission to care home or hospital over 6 months and associated costs, adjusting for repeated observations...
November 18, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863524/positive-mental-health-in-outpatients-comparison-within-diagnostic-groups
#3
Rajeswari Sambasivam, Janhavi Ajit Vaingankar, Siow Ann Chong, Edimansyah Abdin, Anitha Jeyagurunathan, Lee Seng Esmond Seow, Shirlene Pang, Mythily Subramaniam
BACKGROUND: Positive mental health (PMH) supplements the definition of mental health which is not just the mere absence of mental illness. It encompasses an individual's social, emotional and psychological well-being. This cross-sectional study examines the PMH levels in a multi-ethnic outpatient population and the socio-demographic correlates of PMH across the various diagnostic groups. In addition comparisons with the general population were conducted. METHODS: Outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum, depressive or anxiety disorders seeking treatment at a tertiary psychiatric care hospital were included in the study sample...
November 18, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852335/suicide-in-older-adults-a-comparison-with-middle-aged-adults-using-the-queensland-suicide-register
#4
Yu Wen Koo, Kairi Kõlves, Diego De Leo
BACKGROUND: Globally, suicide rates increase with age, being highest in older adults. This study analyzed differences in suicides in older adults (65 years and over) compared to middle-aged adults (35-64 years) in Queensland, Australia, during the years 2000-2012. METHODS: The Queensland Suicide Register was utilized for the analysis. Annual suicide rates were calculated by gender and age group, and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were examined. RESULTS: In Queensland, the average annual rate of suicides for older adults was 15...
November 17, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794251/obesity-and-obstetric-complications-are-associated-with-rapid-cycling-in-italian-patients-with-bipolar-disorder
#5
Massimiliano Buoli, Bernardo Dell'Osso, Alice Caldiroli, Greta Silvia Carnevali, Marta Serati, Trisha Suppes, Terence A Ketter, A Carlo Altamura
BACKGROUND: Rapid cycling (RC) worsens the course of bipolar disorder (BD) being associated with poor response to pharmacotherapy. Previous studies identified clinical variables potentially associated with RCBD: however, in many cases, results were discordant or unreplicated. The present study was aimed to compare clinical variables between RC and non RC bipolar patients and to identify related risk factors. METHODS: A sample of 238 bipolar patients was enrolled from 3 different community mental health centers...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780491/association-of-adverse-childhood-experiences-with-lifetime-mental-and-substance-use-disorders-among-men-and-women-aged-50-years
#6
Namkee G Choi, Diana M DiNitto, C Nathan Marti, Bryan Y Choi
BACKGROUND: Given growing numbers of older adults with mental and substance use disorders (MSUDs), this study examined the association between ten types of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and lifetime MSUDs among those aged 50+. METHODS: Data (N = 14,738 for the 50+ age group) came from the 2012 to 2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Using multivariable binary logistic regression analyses, we examined relationships between ten ACEs and six lifetime MSUDs (major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety, post-traumatic stress, alcohol use, drug use, and nicotine use disorders)...
October 26, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776389/arterial-stiffness-in-patients-taking-second-generation-antipsychotics
#7
Ebru Fındıklı, Mustafa Gökçe, Vedat Nacitarhan, Mehmet Akif Camkurt, Hüseyin Avni Fındıklı, Selçuk Kardaş, Merve Coşgun Şahin, Mehmet Fatih Karaaslan
Objective: That treatment with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) causes metabolic side effects and atherosclerosis in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD) is well-known. Increased arterial stiffness is an important marker of arteriosclerosis and has been identified as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We measured pulse wave velocity (PWV) as a marker of arteriosclerosis in patients with schizophrenia and BD who use SGAs. Methods: Patients and controls were collected from our psychiatry outpatient clinics or family medicine...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771201/validation-of-the-tablet-administered-brief-assessment-of-cognition-bac-app
#8
Alexandra S Atkins, Tina Tseng, Adam Vaughan, Elizabeth W Twamley, Philip Harvey, Thomas Patterson, Meera Narasimhan, Richard S E Keefe
Computerized tests benefit from automated scoring procedures and standardized administration instructions. These methods can reduce the potential for rater error. However, especially in patients with severe mental illnesses, the equivalency of traditional and tablet-based tests cannot be assumed. The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) is a pen-and-paper cognitive assessment tool that has been used in hundreds of research studies and clinical trials, and has normative data available for generating age- and gender-corrected standardized scores...
October 19, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763843/black-white-health-inequalities-in-canada-at-the-intersection-of-gender-and-immigration
#9
Andrew C Patterson, Gerry Veenstra
OBJECTIVES: Intersectionality theory proposes that each combination of social categories derived from gender, race and nationality, such as immigrant White man or native-born Black woman, is associated with unique social experiences. We tested the potential of intersectionality theory for explicating racial inequalities in Canada by investigating whether Black-White health inequalities are conditioned by gender and immigrant status in a synergistic way. METHODS: Our dataset comprised 10 cycles (2001-2013) of the Canadian Community Health Survey...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761652/stigmatization-of-psychiatric-symptoms-and-psychiatric-service-use-a-vignette-based-representative-population-survey
#10
Julia F Sowislo, Claudia Lange, Sebastian Euler, Henning Hachtel, Marc Walter, Stefan Borgwardt, Undine E Lang, Christian G Huber
Background There is evidence for two different types and/or sources of mental illness stigma, namely the display of psychiatric symptoms and the use of psychiatric service institutions. However, no current study has compared the two. Furthermore, gaps exist in our knowledge of both types of stigma. Little is known about the perceived stigma of specific psychiatric service treatment environments, for instance forensic settings. In addition, systematic research on stigma attached to symptoms of personality disorders in the general population is scarce, and for borderline personality disorder, nonexistent...
October 19, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755155/is-cerebrovascular-disease-a-silent-condition-in-patients-with-chronic-schizophrenia-related-disorders
#11
Nuria Berrocal-Izquierdo, Miquel Bioque, Miguel Bernardo
Patients with chronic schizophrenia-related disorders are at a heightened risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The presence and interpretation of cerebral vascular lesions in neuroimaging tests in these patients represents a common clinical challenge. Nevertheless, the literature on cerebrovascular disease in this population is scarce and contradictory. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between schizophrenia-related disorders and cerebrovascular morbidity. A case-control study compared cerebrovascular morbidity in a group of patients with schizophrenia-related disorder versus a group of patients with another severe mental illness...
October 14, 2016: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752281/child-responsible-personnel-in-adult-mental-health-services
#12
Camilla Lauritzen, Charlotte Reedtz
BACKGROUND: Children who have parents with mental health problems are a vulnerable group. Intervening early to support parents with a mental illness can contribute to improve outcomes for children. Rigging the adult mental health system in such a manner that child responsible personnel are designated in wards is a strategy to systematically address the needs of families. It has since 2010 been mandatory for Norwegian hospitals to appoint such personnel in all hospital wards. The current study aimed to investigate the appointment of child responsible personnel in the adult mental health services in a regional hospital with local clinics...
2016: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702682/perinatal-programming-of-depressive-like-behavior-by-inflammation-in-adult-offspring-mice-whose-mothers-were-fed-polluted-eels-gender-selective-effects
#13
Nidhal Soualeh, Imen Dridi, Gauthier Eppe, Christophe Némos, Rachid Soulimani, Jaouad Bouayed
Several lines of evidence indicate that early-life inflammation may predispose to mental illness, including depression, in later-life. We investigated the impact of perinatal exposure to polluted eels on neonatal, postnatal, and adult brain inflammation, and on the resignation behavior of male and female adult offspring mice. The effects of maternal standard diet (laboratory food) were compared to the same diet enriched with low, intermediate, or highly polluted eels. Brain inflammatory markers including cytokines were assessed in offspring mice on the day of birth (i...
October 1, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687534/characterizing-the-intersection-of-co-occurring-risk-factors-for-illicit-drug-abuse-and-dependence-in-a-u-s-nationally-representative-sample
#14
Allison N Kurti, Diana R Keith, Alyssa Noble, Jeff S Priest, Brian Sprague, Stephen T Higgins
Few studies have attempted to characterize how co-occurring risk factors for substance use disorders intersect. A recent study examined this question regarding cigarette smoking and demonstrated that co-occurring risk factors generally act independently. The present study examines whether that same pattern of independent intersection of risk factors extends to illicit drug abuse/dependence using a U.S. nationally representative sample (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2011-2013). Logistic regression and classification and regression tree (CART) modeling were used to examine risk of past-year drug abuse/dependence associated with a well-established set of risk factors for substance use (age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, poverty, smoking status, alcohol abuse/dependence, mental illness)...
September 26, 2016: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685801/prefrontal-cortex-temporal-cortex-and-hippocampus-volume-are-affected-in-suicidal-psychiatric-patients
#15
Savannah N Gosnell, Kenia M Velasquez, David L Molfese, Peter J Molfese, Alok Madan, James C Fowler, B Christopher Frueh, Philip R Baldwin, Ramiro Salas
Suicide is a leading cause of death in America, with over 40,000 reported suicides per year. Mental illness is a major risk factor for suicidality. This study attempts to validate findings of volumetric differences from studies on suicidality. Psychiatric inpatients classified as having mildly severe or severe depression were separated into two groups: suicide attempted in the past two months (SA; n=20), non-suicidal control group (DA; n=20); these patients were all depressed and not significantly different for age, gender, race, marital status, education level, anxiety level, and substance abuse...
October 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684305/the-epidemiology-of-ptsd-and-depression-in-refugee-minors-who-have-resettled-in-developed-countries
#16
James Reavell, Qulsom Fazil
BACKGROUND: With an increasing number of refugees migrating across continents, the crisis is very apparent. AIM: A literature review of patterns, risk factors and effects of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression in refugee minors was carried out involving those who have resettled in different developed countries. METHODS: Papers were narrowed down by reading the abstracts and methods to ascertain whether the refugee children had resettled in developed countries and to ensure that they had not just been internally displaced...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643812/psychiatric-medication-intake-in-suicide-victims-gender-disparities-and-implications-for-suicide-prevention
#17
Antonios Paraschakis, Ioannis Michopoulos, Christos Christodoulou, Filippos Koutsaftis, Athanassios Douzenis
Frequency and gender differences of psychiatric medication intake in a sample of suicide victims from the Athens Greater Area were investigated with a particular focus on the implications for suicide prevention. Data were collected from the toxicological analyses of the suicide cases of the period November 2007-October 2009. Information was available for 262 individuals, 196 men (74.8%) and 66 women (25.2%); 109 of these (41.6%) were receiving psychiatric medication(s). Women were statistically more frequently under treatment: antidepressants (32...
November 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619756/crime-victimization-and-the-implications-for-individual-health-and-wellbeing-a-sheffield-case-study
#18
Su-Yin Tan, Robert Haining
Public health and criminology have developed largely independently of one another at the research and policy levels so that the links between crime victimization and health status are not well understood. Although it is not difficult to support the idea of crime as a threat to the health of individuals and the wider community, the difficulty lies in quantifying the impact of crime on public health, while controlling other variables, including gender and ethnicity. We report the results of a study, the goals of which were to: develop an understanding conceptually of the relationships between different types of crime (violent and non-violent) and health; explore the impact of victimization on quality of life and physical and psychological wellbeing; investigate the role of social and demographic factors in shaping any relationships...
October 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605541/gender-and-age-group-differences-in-suicide-risk-associated-with-co-morbid-physical-and-psychiatric-disorders-in-older-adults
#19
Helen-Maria Vasiliadis, Catherine Lamoureux-Lamarche, Samantha Gontijo Guerra
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether health service use influences the association between psychiatric and physical co-morbidity and suicide risk in older adults. METHODS: Controls were older adults (n = 2,494) participating in a longitudinal study on the health of the elderly carried out between 2004 and 2007, in Quebec. The cases were all suicide decedents (n = 493) between 2004 and 2007, confirmed by the Quebec Coroner's office. Multivariate analyses were carried out to test the association between suicide and the presence of psychiatric and physical illnesses controlling for health service use and socio-demographic factors by gender and age group...
September 8, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590573/substance-use-in-youth-at-risk-for-psychosis
#20
R Carney, A R Yung, G P Amminger, T Bradshaw, N Glozier, D F Hermens, I B Hickie, E Killackey, P McGorry, C Pantelis, S J Wood, R Purcell
BACKGROUND: People with schizophrenia have high rates of substance use which contributes to co-morbidity and premature mortality. Some evidence suggests people at-risk for psychosis have high rates of substance use. We aimed to assess substance use in a help-seeking cohort, comparing those at-risk and not at-risk for psychosis, and to establish any relationship with clinical symptoms. METHOD: Participants were help-seeking youth presenting to mental health services in Sydney and Melbourne...
August 30, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
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