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Candida albicans biofilm

Gabriela C Alonso, Ana C Pavarina, Tábata V Sousa, Marlise I Klein
Biofilm production contributes to several human diseases, including oral candidiasis. Among the Candida species, Candida albicans is the most prevalent. The expression of virulence genes is implicated in the pathogenic potential of Candida biofilms. However, the evaluation of microbial gene expression from in vivo biofilm samples is not trivial, specifically, assessment via quantitative PCR (qPCR) can be a challenge because of several species present in clinical samples. Hence, the necessity of primers specificity...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Sanne Schrevens, Griet Van Zeebroeck, Michael Riedelberger, Hélène Tournu, Karl Kuchler, Patrick Van Dijck
Candida albicans is a major human fungal pathogen, causing superficial, as well as life-threatening invasive infections. Therefore, it has to adequately sense and respond to the host defense by expressing appropriate virulence attributes. The most important virulence factor of C. albicans is the yeast-to-hyphae morphogenetic switch, which can be induced by numerous environmental cues, including the amino acid methionine. Here, we show an essential role for methionine permease Mup1 in methionine-induced morphogenesis, biofilm formation, survival inside macrophages and virulence...
February 17, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Julie Lamure, Marlène Chevalier, Pascal Rathelot, Françoise Mignolet, Isabelle Precheur
Frail older adults often experience swallowing disorders, prompting nursing staff to crush tablets, open capsules, and mix drugs into their meals or gelled water. However, crushing drugs can lead to pharmacological and gustatory problems. As crushed drugs can stay in prolonged contact with oral microbial biofilm, the current study aimed to investigate their antimicrobial properties. Crushed drugs were diluted in 1 mL of isotonic water and assayed in vitro for: (a) growth inhibition of five bacterial strains and Candida albicans by the diffusion method; (b) inhibition of Streptococcus salivarius and C...
February 13, 2018: Research in Gerontological Nursing
Mohammad Jalal, Mohammad Azam Ansari, Syed Ghazanfar Ali, Haris M Khan, Suriya Rehman
The pathogenicity of Candida species in human is dependent on a variety of virulence factor such as adhesion factors, germ tube and hyphal formation, secretion of hydrolytic phospholipases and proteinases and drug resistance biofilm. ZnO NPs have been synthesized by using leaf extract of Crinum latifolium and were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, FTIR, SEM, EDX and TEM. In this study for the first time, potent inhibitory effects of ZnO NPs on principal virulence factors of Candida albicans and non-albicans such as germ tube formation, secretion of hydrolytic phospholipases and proteinases and biofilm formation has been investigated...
February 15, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Archana Anandrao Wakharde, Shivkrupa Devrao Halbandge, Datta Baburao Phule, Sankunny Mohan Karuppayil
The human pathogen Candida albicans can grow as a biofilm on host tissues and on the surfaces of different prosthetic devices in a patient's body. Various studies have reported that biofilms formed by C. albicans are resistant to most of the currently used antibiotics including the widely prescribed drug, fluconazole. As such, novel strategies for the treatment of drug-resistant biofilms are required. Drug repositioning or the use of drugs outside their unique indication has the potential to radically change drug development...
February 15, 2018: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
Guilherme Roncari Rocha, Elkin Jahir Florez Salamanca, Ana Letícia de Barros, Carmélia Isabel Vitorino Lobo, Marlise Inêz Klein
BACKGROUND: Dental caries is considered a multifactorial disease, in which microorganisms play an important role. The diet is decisive in the biofilm formation because it provides the necessary resources for cellular growth and exopolysaccharides synthesis. Exopolysaccharides are the main components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM provides a 3D structure, support for the microorganisms and form diffusion-limited environments (acidic niches) that cause demineralization of the dental enamel...
February 14, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
S Dižová, H Bujdáková
Farnesol is a quorum sensing (QS) molecule synthesized by Candida albicans acting as a negative regulator of morphogenesis; it blocks the yeast-to-hyphae transformation. This molecule is currently studied in particular from the viewpoint of possible use as a substance with anticancer properties and with an antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm effect in yeasts resistant or tolerant to conventional therapeutic agents, for example fluconazole. Besides the aforementioned effect on morphological transformation through cyclic AMP (cAMP)/protein kinase A (cAMP-PKA) pathway, it also affects other biochemical pathways of yeasts, for example those ones for sterol biosynthesis or triggering of apoptosis via accumulation of ROS (reactive oxygen species) that damage essential cellular compartments...
June 1, 2017: Die Pharmazie
José As Souza, Debora B Barbosa, Andresa A Berretta, Jackeline G do Amaral, Luiz F Gorup, Francisco N de Souza Neto, Renan A Fernandes, Gabriela L Fernandes, Emerson R Camargo, Alessandra M Agostinho, Alberto Cb Delbem
AIM: To synthesize, characterize and evaluate the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of novel nanocomposites containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) associated or not to β-calcium glycerophosphate. MATERIALS & METHODS: These nanocomposites were produced through a 'green' route using extracts of different parts of pomegranate. Antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties against Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans were determined by the minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration and biofilm density after treatments...
February 14, 2018: Future Microbiology
Satish Kumar Rajasekharan, Jin-Hyung Lee, Yueju Zhao, Jintae Lee
Yeast-mold mycobiota inhabit several natural ecosystems, in which symbiotic relationships drive strategic pathoadaptation. Mycotoxins are metabolites produced by diverse mycotoxigenic fungi as a defense against yeasts, though at times yeasts secrete enzymes that degrade, detoxify, or bio-transform mycotoxins. The present study is focused on the in vitro inhibitory effects of zearalenone (ZEN), a F2 mycotoxin produced by several Fusarium and Gibberella species, on different microbial strains. ZEN exhibited no effect on the planktonic growth or biofilms of several Gram positive and negative bacteria at the tested concentrations...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Magdalena Wypij, Magdalena Świecimska, Joanna Czarnecka, Hanna Dahm, Mahendra Rai, Patrycja Golinska
AIMS: Presently, the effective antimicrobial agents have been limited by emergence of microbial strains with multi-drug resistance and biofilm formation potential. In the present study, we report remarkable antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized from Streptomyces calidiresistens IF11 and IF17 strains, including inhibition of biofilm formation and synergistic effect of AgNPs and antibiotics against selected bacteria and yeasts. Cytotoxic effect of AgNPs on mammalian cell lines was also evaluated...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Michelle L Olson, Arul Jayaraman, Katy C Kao
Candida is a member of the normal human microbiota and often resides on mucosal surfaces such as the oral cavity or the gastrointestinal tract. In addition to their commensality, Candida species can opportunistically become pathogenic if the host microbiota is disrupted or if the host immune system becomes compromised. An important factor for Candida pathogenesis is its ability to form biofilm communities. The two most medically important species - Candida albicans and Candida glabrata - are often co-isolated from infection sites, suggesting the importance of Candida co-culture biofilms...
February 2, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Archana Thakre, Gajanan Zore, Santosh Kodgire, Rubina Kazi, Shradha Mulange, Rajendra Patil, Amruta Shelar, Bayitigeri Santhakumari, Mahesh Kulkarni, Kiran Kharat, Sankunny Mohan Karuppayil
Anti-Candida potential of limonene was evaluated against planktonic growth, biofilm (adhesion, development and maturation) and morphogenesis of Candida albicans in this study. Limonene is a major constituent of citrus oil and most frequently used terpene in food and beverage industry due to its pleasant fragrance, nontoxic, and is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) flavoring agent as well as treatment option in many gastrointestinal diseases.Limonene exhibited excellent anti-Candida activity and was equally effective against planktonic growth of C...
October 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Katherine Lagree, Jigar V Desai, Jonathan S Finkel, Frederick Lanni
Fungal biofilms are heterogeneous, surface-associated colonies comprised of filamentous hyphae (chains of elongated cells), pseudohyphal cells, yeast-form cells, and various forms of extracellular matrix. When grown on a substratum under liquid culture medium, the microbial fungus Candida albicans forms dense biofilms that range in thickness from 100 to 600μm. Apical hyphae in the medium and invasive hyphae in the substratum may add greatly to the thickness and complexity of the biofilm. Because of the heterogeneity of the structure, and the large refractive index differences between cell walls, cytoplasm, and medium, fungal biofilms appear optically opaque...
January 31, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
E Paluch, A Piecuch, E Obłąk, Ł Lamch, K A Wilk
The studies were aimed to contribute to the elucidation of the relationships between structure of the double-headed cationic surfactants - N,N-bis[3,3'-(dimethylamine)propyl]alkylamide dihydrochlorides and N,N-bis[3,3'-(trimethylammonio)propyl]alkylamide dibromides (alkyl: n-C9H19, n-C11H23, n-C13H27, n-C15H31), which are of particular interest, as they contain a labile amide group in the molecule and their antifungal activity. Therefore, the minimal inhibitory and fungicidal concentrations (MIC and MFC) of dicephalic surfactants against various fungi were tested using standardized methods...
January 31, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
C Gökmenoglu, N B Kara, M Beldüz, A Kamburoğlu, I Tosun, E Sadik, C Kara
AIMS: Candida albicans adhesion to any oral substrata is the first and essential stage in forming a pathogenic fungal biofilm. In general, yeast cells have remarkable potential to adhere to host surfaces, such as teeth or mucosa, and to artificial, non-biological surfaces, such as dental materials. C. albicans adhesion to denture materials is widely recognized as the main reason for the development of stomatitis. This study compared the susceptibility of different parts of the implant system with C...
January 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Hasanain Alalwan, Christopher J Nile, Ranjith Rajendran, Robert McKerlie, Paul Reynolds, Nikolaj Gadegaard, Gordon Ramage
Management of fungal biofilms represents a significant challenge to healthcare. As a preventive approach, minimising adhesion between indwelling medical devices and microorganisms would be an important step forward. This study investigated the anti-fouling capacity of engineered nanoscale topographies to the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Highly ordered arrays of nano-pit topographies were shown to significantly reduce the physical adherence capacity of C. albicans. This study shows a potential of nanoscale patterns to inhibit and prevent pathogenic biofilm formation on biomedical substrates...
February 1, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Ana Caroline Fumes, Paloma Dias da Silva Telles, Silmara Aparecida Milori Corona, Maria Cristina Borsatto
To evaluate the effect of aPDT on S. mutans and C. albicans present in the dental biofilm, using methylene blue as a photosensitizer in different pre-irradiation times. The searches were made on Pubmed, Web of Science, Bireme, Scopus and Cochrane Library, and were complemented by screening the references of selected articles in the attempt to find any article that did not appear in the database search. The searches were performed by two researchers and limited to studies involving human subjects published in the English language...
February 2, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Gayan Heruka De Zoysa, Hugh Douglas Glossop, Vijayalekshmi Sarojini
Novel antifungal agents are required against pathogenic fungi such as Candida albicans. We report the anticandidal activity of battacin lipopeptide antibiotics with previously unexplored antifungal activity. From amongst sixteen battacin lipopeptides tested against C. alibicans (SC5314) the 4-methyl hexanoyl conjugated trimeric lipopeptide 13 emerged as the lead candidate with a MIC of 6.25 μM and negligible haemolysis of mouse red blood cells. The potency of this lipopeptide was maintained under acidic conditions...
January 9, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Mu-Ching Huang, Mandy Shen, Yi-Jhen Huang, Hsiao-Chi Lin, Chin-Tin Chen
Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) has been shown to be a potential treatment modality against Candida infection. However, limited light penetration might leave some cells alive and undergoing regrowth. In this study, we explored the possibility of combining PDI and antifungal agents to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of Candida albicans and drug-resistant clinical isolates. We found that planktonic cells that had survived toluidine blue O (TBO)-mediated PDI were significantly susceptible to fluconazole within the first 2 h post PDI...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Rodnei Dennis Rossoni, Patrícia Pimentel de Barros, Janaina Araújo de Alvarenga, Felipe de Camargo Ribeiro, Marisol Dos Santos Velloso, Beth Burgwyn Fuchs, Eleftherios Mylonakis, Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge, Juliana Campos Junqueira
This study isolated Lactobacillus strains from caries-free subjects and evaluated the inhibitory effects directly on three strains of C. albicans, two clinical strains and one reference strain. Thirty Lactobacillus strains were isolated and evaluated for antimicrobial activity against in vitro C. albicans biofilms. L. paracasei 28.4, L. rhamnosus 5.2 and L. fermentum 20.4 isolates exhibited the most significant inhibitory activity against C. albicans. Co-incubation between these microorganisms resulted in deterrence of biofilm development and retardation of hyphal formation...
January 30, 2018: Biofouling
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