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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933066/multiple-sclerosis-implications-of-obesity-in-neuroinflammation
#1
Ana Margarida Novo, Sónia Batista
Since the discovery of the remarkable properties of adipose tissue as a metabolically active organ, several evidences on the possible link between obesity and the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) have been gathered. Obesity in early life, mainly during adolescence, has been proposed as a relevant risk factor for late MS development. Moreover, once MS is initiated, obesity can contribute to increase disease severity by negatively influencing disease progress. Despite the fact that clinical data are not yet conclusive, many biochemical links have been recently disclosed...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933064/the-influence-of-adipose-tissue-on-brain-development-cognition-and-risk-of-neurodegenerative-disorders
#2
Liliana Letra, Isabel Santana
The brain is a highly metabolic organ and thus especially vulnerable to changes in peripheral metabolism, including those induced by obesity-associated adipose tissue dysfunction. In this context, it is likely that the development and maturation of neurocognitive circuits may also be affected and modulated by metabolic environmental factors, beginning in utero. It is currently recognized that maternal obesity, either pre-gestational or gestational, negatively influences fetal brain development and elevates the risk of cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric disorders in the offspring...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931448/further-stabilization-and-even-decrease-in-the-prevalence-rates-of-overweight-and-obesity-in-german-children-and-adolescents-from-2005-to-2015-a-cross-sectional-and-trend-analysis
#3
Annette Keß, Ulrike Spielau, Christoph Beger, Ruth Gausche, Mandy Vogel, Tobias Lipek, Antje Körner, Roland Pfäffle, Wieland Kiess
OBJECTIVE: Recently several industrialized countries reported a stabilization or even a decrease in childhood overweight and obesity prevalence rates. In Germany, this trend started in 2004. The present study therefore aimed to evaluate whether this trend has continued or even leads in a clear direction. Design/Setting/Subjects BMI (>90th percentile (overweight), >97th percentile (obesity)) from the CrescNet database was analysed in 326 834 children and adolescents according to three age groups (4-7·99, 8-11·99 and 12-16 years), gender and between time points (2005-2015)...
September 21, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930627/fitness-body-composition-and-vascular-health-in-adolescent-and-young-adult-survivors-of-paediatric-brain-cancer-and-cranial-radiotherapy
#4
Treya M Long, Shoshana R Rath, Tessa D Maroni, Karen E Wallman, Helen C Atkinson, Nicholas G Gottardo, Catherine H Cole, Catherine S Choong, Louise H Naylor
Background Survivors of paediatric brain cancer and/or cranial radiotherapy (CRT) are at an increased risk of developing serious comorbidities. Established risk factors for chronic disease include central obesity, endothelial abnormalities and diminished fitness. Objectives Here we characterised anthropometry, body composition, bone mineral density (BMD), heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), endothelial function, muscular strength and endurance and aerobic fitness in adolescent and young adult (AYA) survivors...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929119/liver-biomarkers-and-lipid-profiles-in-mexican-and-mexican-american-10-to-14-year-old-adolescents-at-risk-for-type-2-diabetes
#5
Ana Cecilia Fernández-Gaxiola, Roxana Valdés-Ramos, Kimberly G Fulda, Ana Laura Guadarrama López, Beatriz E Martínez-Carrillo, Susan F Franks, Shane Fernando
Liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) are markers for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); alkaline phosphatase is a marker of liver disease. Mexican-American adolescents are disproportionately affected by T2DM, while in Mexico its prevalence is emerging. We assessed liver biomarkers and lipid profiles among Mexican and Mexican-American adolescents 10-14 years old with high/low risk of T2DM through a cross-sectional, descriptive study (Texas n = 144; Mexico n = 149). We included family medical histories, anthropometry, and blood pressure...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928037/childhood-maltreatment-and-bmi-trajectory-the-mediating-role-of-depression
#6
Rebecca M Sacks, Erin Takemoto, Sarah Andrea, Nathan F Dieckmann, Katherine W Bauer, Janne Boone-Heinonen
INTRODUCTION: Childhood maltreatment is associated with later obesity, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the extent to which depression mediates the associations between childhood maltreatment and BMI in adolescence through adulthood. METHODS: Data on a cohort of 13,362 adolescents in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Wave I [1994-1995] to Wave IV [2008-2009]) were analyzed in 2015-2016...
September 16, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927406/the-arg282ser-missense-mutation-in-apoa5-gene-determines-a-reduction-of-triglyceride-and-ldl-cholesterol-in-children-together-with-low-serum-levels-of-apolipoprotein-a-v
#7
Laura Bertoccini, Federica Sentinelli, Michela Incani, Diego Bailetti, Flavia Agata Cimini, Ilaria Barchetta, Maria Gisella Cavallo, Efisio Cossu, Andrea Lenzi, Sandro Loche, Marco Giorgio Baroni
BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein A-V (ApoA-V) is a recognized regulator of plasma triglycerides (TGs), and previous studies have shown associations between variants in APOA5 (apolipoprotein-A5) gene and high TG levels. Recently, a new association between the Arg282Ser missense mutation (rs778114184 G > T) in APOA5 gene and decreased triglyceride levels has been shown in an adult population from Sardinia. In this study we add further insight into the role of APOA5 by exploring whether this association begins early in life in children, or becomes manifest only in adulthood...
September 19, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926364/prevalence-of-severe-obesity-and-its-association-with-elevated-blood-pressure-among-children-and-adolescents-in-shandong-china
#8
Ying-Xiu Zhang, Shu-Rong Wang, Su-Yun Li
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity has increased markedly during the past decades; however, data on the prevalence of severe obesity in children and adolescents are limited. The present study examined the prevalence of severe obesity and its association with elevated blood pressure (BP) among children and adolescents in Shandong, China. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 44 630 (22 404 boys and 22 226 girls) students aged 7-18 years participated in the study. BMI cut-off points recommended by the International Obesity Task Force were used to define class I-III obesity...
September 18, 2017: Blood Pressure Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925411/birthweight-and-cardiometabolic-risk-patterns-in-multiracial-children
#9
D Sun, T Wang, Y Heianza, T Huang, X Shang, J Lv, S Li, E Harville, W Chen, V Fonseca, L Qi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Prenatal growth, which is widely marked by birthweight, may have a pivotal role in affecting the lifelong risk of cardiometabolic disorders; however, comprehensive evaluation of its relations with childhood cardiometabolic risk patterns and the ethnic and gender disparities in national representative populations is still lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between birthweight and comprehensive patterns of cardiometabolic risk in a nationally representative sample of children and adolescents...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925345/differences-in-the-prevalence-of-overweight-and-obesity-in-5-to-14-year-old-children-in-krak%C3%A3-w-poland-using-three-national-bmi-cut-offs
#10
Renata Woźniacka, Aneta Bac, Małgorzata Kowal, Stanisław Matusik
The problem of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents has been noted in many different countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in the percentage occurrence of overweight and obesity in Polish children depending on the criteria used, and to evaluate the usefulness of the Polish national database. The study sample comprised 3405 children aged 5-14 years (1674 girls and 1731 boys) from the city of Kraków, Poland, in 2009-2010. The BMI of each child was calculated and classified as overweight or obese according to three different reference BMI cut-offs: the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Polish 2010 standard...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925105/childhood-obesity-and-school-absenteeism-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
R An, H Yan, X Shi, Y Yang
Regular school attendance is a key determinant of student's academic achievement and psychosocial development. Obesity may affect children's school attendance through its detrimental impact on their physical and mental health. A literature search was conducted in the PubMed, Web of Science and Cochrane Library for articles published until April 2017 that examined the relationship between unhealthy body weight and school absenteeism among children and adolescents. Thirteen studies total (10 cross-sectional and three longitudinal) conducted in seven countries were identified...
September 18, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925065/barriers-to-and-enablers-of-healthy-lifestyle-behaviours-in-adolescents-with-obesity-a-scoping-review-and-stakeholder-consultation
#12
REVIEW
M Kebbe, S Damanhoury, N Browne, M P Dyson, T-L F McHugh, G D C Ball
Healthy lifestyle behaviours are key to successful weight management, but have proven to be challenging to attain for adolescents with obesity. The purpose of our scoping review was to (i) describe barriers and enablers that adolescents with obesity encounter for healthy nutrition, physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep habits and (ii) identify gaps in the literature. We adhered to established methodology for scoping reviews. Six databases were searched (1980-June 2016) for original articles published in English or French that focused on lifestyle behaviours of 13- to 17-year-olds in paediatric weight management...
September 18, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924264/neurocognitive-and-behavioral-functioning-in-adolescents-with-sleep-disordered-breathing-a-population-based-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-study
#13
S S Frye, J Fernandez-Mendoza, S L Calhoun, J Gaines, M D Sawyer, F He, D Liao, A N Vgontzas, E O Bixler
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) has been associated with neurocognitive and behavioral problems in young children; however, this association is less studied in adolescents. Evidence suggests that obesity plays a key role in the development of SDB, although its relative association with neurobehavioral functioning remains unclear. We examined whether SDB and obesity are associated with neurocognitive and behavior problems in adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHODS: 421 adolescents (17...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922262/sugar-in-infants-children-and-adolescents-a-position-paper-of-the-european-society-for-paediatric-gastroenterology-hepatology-and-nutrition-committee-on-nutrition
#14
Nataša Fidler Mis, Christian Braegger, Jiri Bronsky, Cristina Campoy, Magnus Domellöf, Nicholas D Embleton, Iva Hojsak, Jessie Hulst, Flavia Indrio, Alexandre Lapillonne, Walter Mihatsch, Christian Molgaard, Rakesh Vora, Mary Fewtrell
The consumption of sugars, particularly sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs; beverages or drinks that contain added caloric sweeteners (i.e. sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, fruit-juice concentrates), in European children and adolescents exceeds current recommendations. This is of concern because there is no nutritional requirement for free sugars, and infants have an innate preference for sweet taste, which may be modified and reinforced by pre- and postnatal exposures. Sugar containing beverages/free sugars increase the risk for overweight/obesity and dental caries, can result in poor nutrient supply and reduced dietary diversity and may be associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular risk, and other health effects...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921882/recommendations-for-obesity-prevention-among-adolescents-from-disadvantaged-backgrounds-a-concept-mapping-study-among-scientific-and-professional-experts
#15
D A Kornet-van der Aa, C H van Randeraad-van der Zee, J Mayer, J M Borys, M J M Chinapaw
The present study aimed to enrich the scientific evidence on obesity prevention programmes for adolescents from socio-economically disadvantaged backgrounds with practice-based experiences from both scientific and professional experts in the field of youth obesity prevention. We used the participatory method of concept mapping. Two concept mapping sessions were conducted: one with programme coordinators of national/regional obesity prevention programmes across Europe (n = 8) and one with scientists participating in European obesity prevention projects (n = 5)...
September 18, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921869/simplified-and-age-appropriate-recommendations-for-added-sugars-in-children
#16
M I Goran, S L Riemer, T L Alderete
Excess sugar intake increases risk for obesity and related comorbidities among children. The World Health Organization (WHO), American Heart Association (AHA) and the 2015 USDA dietary recommendations have proposed guidelines for added sugar intake to reduce risk for disease. WHO and USDA recommendations are presented as a percentage of daily calories from added sugar. This approach is not easily understood or translated to children, where energy needs increase with age. The AHA recommendation is based on a fixed value of 25 g of added sugar for all children 2-19 years of age...
September 18, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919202/parenting-practices-and-overweight-status-of-junior-high-school-students-in-china-a-nationally-representative-study-of-19-487-students-from-112-schools
#17
Zhengqi Tan, Jungwon Min, Hong Xue, Weidong Wang, Youfa Wang
The study aimed to examine the level of parental responsiveness and demandingness for junior high students in China and its association with child weight status; assess if it differs by student socio-demographic characteristics; and to test the association between parenting and child physical activity. Nationally representative survey data collected from 19,487 students in 112 middle schools across China in 2013-2014 academic year were analyzed in 2016. Children's anthropometrics and perceptions of parenting practices were accessed by self-administered questionnaire...
September 14, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919160/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-in-adolescents
#18
REVIEW
Stephanie S Rothenberg, Rachel Beverley, Emily Barnard, Massoud Baradaran-Shoraka, Joseph S Sanfilippo
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) typically manifests with a combination of menstrual dysfunction and evidence of hyperandrogenism in the adolescent population. No single cause has been identified; however, evidence suggests a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Polycystic ovary syndrome presents a particular diagnostic challenge in adolescents as normal pubertal changes can present with a similar phenotype. Management of PCOS in the adolescent population should focus on a multi-modal approach with lifestyle modification and pharmacologic treatment to address bothersome symptoms...
September 1, 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916917/update-on-chinese-american-childhood-obesity-prevalence-in-new-york-city
#19
Loretta Au, Jennifer D Lau, Eda Chao, Raymond Tse, Laminasti Elbaar
Prevalence of overweight and obesity was measured in 12,275 Chinese American children and adolescents, ages 2-19, who were patients at a large federally qualified health center in 2015. Demographic characteristics sex, age, and birthplace were further stratified to explore disaggregated prevalence. Comparison of this 2015 cohort to an ethnically similar study cohort from the same health center in 2004 showed that the overall prevalence in overweight and obesity dropped to 21% from previously recorded 24%. US Born school-aged males continue to have the highest prevalence of overweight and obesity at 36%...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915864/physical-fitness-and-anthropometric-characteristics-among-adolescents-living-in-urban-or-rural-areas-of-kosovo
#20
Faton Tishukaj, Ismet Shalaj, Masar Gjaka, Besim Ademi, Rrustem Ahmetxhekaj, Norbert Bachl, Harald Tschan, Barbara Wessner
BACKGROUND: High physical fitness levels in childhood and adolescence are associated with positive health-related outcomes later in life. Albeit many researchers investigated rural-urban differences in physical fitness, the outcomes of these studies are inconsistent and data on Kosovo are widely missing. Thus, this study aims to examine anthropometric and physical fitness parameters in 14 to 15 year old Kosovan adolescents living in rural and urban areas. METHODS: Two schools from Pristina (mostly urban population) and two schools in the surrounding villages of the district of Deçan (mostly rural population) were selected...
September 16, 2017: BMC Public Health
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