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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152280/mycoplasma-pneumoniae-associated-encephalitis-complicated-by-cerebral-salt-wasting-syndrome
#1
Ya-Lan Lin, Kun-Long Hung, Chiao-Wei Lo
Cerebral salt wasting syndrome can occur in children with encephalitis. Clinicians should be aware of hyponatremia in patients who develop polyuria with the signs of dehydration and deteriorated consciousness. Furthermore, patients who present with status epilepticus or who are suspected to have high intracranial pressure may have an increased risk of cerebral salt wasting syndrome.
November 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148123/donohue-syndrome-a-review-of-literature-case-series-and-anesthetic-considerations
#2
REVIEW
Alana Kirkwood, Grant Stuart, Louise Harding
BACKGROUND: Donohue syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of insulin resistance, causing a functional defect in insulin receptor function, and affecting the ability of the insulin to bind the receptor. Features include severe hyperinsulinism and fasting hypoglycemia, along with severe failure to thrive despite feeding. An accelerated fasting state results in muscle wasting, decreased subcutaneous fat, and an excess of thick skin. A reduced thoracic diameter is accentuated by increased abdominal distension, which impacts on respiratory reserve...
November 17, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146678/cross-organ-sensitisation-between-the-colon-and-bladder-to-pee-or-not-to-pee
#3
Luke Grundy, Stuart M Brierley
Chronic abdominal and pelvic pain are common, debilitating clinical conditions experienced by millions of patients around the globe. The origin of such pain commonly arises from the intestine and bladder, which share common primary roles; the collection, storage and expulsion of waste. These visceral organs are located in close proximity to one another, and also share common innervation from spinal afferent pathways. Chronic abdominal pain, constipation or diarrhoea are primary symptoms for patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) or Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)...
November 16, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138647/nodding-syndrome-ns-and-onchocerca-volvulus-ov-in-northern-uganda
#4
David Kitara Lagoro, Denis Anywar Arony
Nodding Syndrome (NS) is a childhood neurological disorder characterized by atonic seizures, cognitive decline, school dropout, muscle weakness, thermal dysfunction, wasting and stunted growth. There are recent published information suggesting associations between Nodding Syndrome (NS) with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) VGKC antibodies and serum leiomidin-1 antibody cross reacting with Onchocerca Volvulus (OV). These findings suggest a neuro-inflammatory cause of NS and they are important findings in the search for the cause of Nodding Syndrome...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130711/combined-assessment-of-nutritional-status-in-patients-with-peritoneal-dialysis-using-bioelectrical-impedance-vectors-and-malnutrition-inflammation-score
#5
Elia Muñoz-Pérez, María De Los Ángeles Espinosa-Cuevas, Paola Vanessa Miranda-Alatriste, Ricardo Correa-Rotter, Ximena Atilano-Carsi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Protein energy wasting (PEW) is a common syndrome in patients with chronic kidney disease, related to changes in hydration status, decreased food intake and inflammation. There are several tools for the assessment and diagnosis of such alterations. Bioimpedance vector analysis (BIVA) assess the state of nutrition and hydration, but not the inflammatory component, while the malnutrition inflammation score (MIS) comprises the inflammatory and nutritional factors, but not the state of hydration...
October 24, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127765/high-aldosterone-and-cortisol-levels-in-salt-wasting-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-a-clinical-conundrum
#6
Sirisha Kusuma Boddu, Sheeja Madhavan
BACKGROUND: Salt wasting syndrome (hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, dehydration, metabolic acidosis) in early infancy could be caused by either mineralocorticoid deficiency as in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and adrenal insufficiency or mineralocorticoid resistance as in pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA). In salt wasting CAH, serum aldosterone and cortisol levels are expected to be low. Cross reactivity between high levels of adrenal steroid precursors and aldosterone has recently been reported resulting in elevated aldosterone levels in CAH, leading to difficulty in differentiating between CAH and PHA...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096613/molecular-detection-of-porcine-circovirus-type-2-in-swine-herds-of-eastern-cape-province-south-africa
#7
Kayode Olayinka Afolabi, Benson Chuks Iweriebor, Larry Chikwelu Obi, Anthony Ifeanyi Okoh
BACKGROUND: Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) remains the main causative viral pathogen of porcine circovirus-associated diseases (PCVAD) of great economic importance in pig industry globally. This present study aims at determining the occurrence of the viral pathogen in swine herds of the Province. RESULTS: The data obtained revealed that 15.93% of the screened samples (54/339) from the swine herds of the studied areas were positive for PCV2; while the severity of occurrence of the viral pathogen as observed at farm level ranges from approximately 5...
November 2, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092859/urinary-bladder-hypertrophy-is-susceptible-in-male-but-protected-in-female-romk-bartter-s-mouse
#8
Jun-Mo Kim, Shuhua Xu, Xiaoyun Guo, Haiyan Hu, Ke Dong, Tong Wang
The renal outer medullary potassium channel (ROMK; Kir1.1) plays an important role in Na(+) and K(+) homeostasis. ROMK knockout mice (KO) show a similar phenotype to Bartter's syndrome of salt wasting and dehydration due to reduced Na-2Cl-K-cotransporter activity but not in ROMK1 KO. ROMK KO mice also show hydronephrosis; however, the mechanism of this phenotype has not been understood. We have previously demonstrated a gender-sex difference in hydronephrosis and PGE2 production in ROMK KO mouse. In this study we compared the gender-sex difference in bladder hypertrophy and hydronephrosis in ROMK KO mice...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079448/vimentin-modulates-infectious-porcine-circovirus-type-2-in-pk-15-cells
#9
Zhi-Jian Wang, Chang-Meng Xu, Zhong-Bao Song, Mi Wang, Qian-Yu Liu, Ping Jiang, Yu-Feng Li, Juan Bai, Xian-Wei Wang
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the pathogen that causes postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, which leads to significant economic losses for swine farms worldwide. However, the infection mechanism of PCV2 is not completely understood yet. Vimentin is a part of the cytoskeleton network and plays an important role in several virus infections. It is not clear whether vimentin has a role in PCV2 infection nor how it affects PCV2 infection. In this study, the function of vimentin in PK-15 cells infected with PCV2 has been elucidated...
October 25, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078838/cerebral-salt-wasting-syndrome-diagnosis-by-urine-sodium-excretion
#10
Allen I Arieff, Ramin Gabbai, Ira D Goldfine
BACKGROUND: Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS) was initially described over 60 years ago in hyponatremic patients with a cerebral lesion. However, the diagnostic criteria for CSWS have not been fully established. Thus, when hyponatremia is observed in patients with CSWS, they may be misdiagnosed as having the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Thus, it is critical to differentiate between these 2 conditions because their treatments are diametrically opposed...
October 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075534/nt-probnp-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-and-nutritional-status-in-hemodialysis-patients
#11
Jacques Ducros, Laurent Larifla, Henri Merault, Lydia Foucan
BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the association between NT-proBNP and malnutrition in HD patients while taking into account the four established categories of parameters for diagnosis of protein energy wasting (PEW). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in Afro-Caribbean dialysis patients. One component in each of the 4 categories for the wasting syndrome was retained: serum albumin ≤ 38 g/L, BMI ≤ 23 Kg/m(2), serum creatinine ≤ 818 µmol/L, and normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR) ≤ 0...
2017: International Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072386/-genetic-disorders-of-renal-phosphate-handling
#12
REVIEW
Daniella Magen
Hereditary disorders of renal phosphate handling comprise a diverse group of genetic diseases, usually characterized by excessive urinary phosphate wasting and a negative phosphate balance. In the minority of cases, perturbations of renal phosphate handling are associated with excessive urinary phosphate reabsorption, leading to pathological hyperphosphatemia. Inorganic phosphate is an essential mineral in the human body, playing a crucial role in cellular metabolism and skeletal mineralization. Whole body phosphate balance is maintained by a highly controlled equilibrium between intestinal uptake, skeletal deposition and renal excretion...
October 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051033/description-of-analytical-method-and-clinical-utility-of-measuring-serum-7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one-7ac4-by-mass-spectrometry
#13
Leslie J Donato, Alan Lueke, Stacy M Kenyon, Jeffrey W Meeusen, Michael Camilleri
BACKGROUND: Imbalance of bile acids (BA) homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract can lead to chronic diarrhea or constipation when BA in the colon are in excess or low, respectively. Since both disturbances of bowel function can result from other etiologies, identifying BA imbalance is important to tailor treatment strategies. Serum concentrations of 7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (7aC4), a precursor in bile acid synthesis, reflect BA homeostasis. Here we describe a method to accurately measure serum 7aC4 and evaluate the clinical utility in patients with diarrhea or constipation phenotypes...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043208/phosphaturic-mesenchymal-tumor-pmt-exceptionally-rare-disease-yet-crucial-not-to-miss
#14
Amir Ghorbani-Aghbolaghi, Morgan Angus Darrow, Tao Wang
Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors (PMTs) are very rare tumors which are frequently associated with Tumor Induced Osteomalacia (TIO), a paraneoplastic syndrome that manifests as renal phosphate wasting. The tumor cells produce a peptide hormone-like substance known as fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a physiologic regulator of phosphate levels. FGF23 decreases proximal tubule reabsorption of phosphates and inhibits 1-α-hydroxylase, which reduces levels of 1-α, 25-dihydroxyvitamine D3. Thus, overexpression of FGF23 by the tumor cells leads to increased excretion of phosphate in the urine, mobilization of calcium and phosphate from bones, and the reduction of osteoblastic activity, ultimately resulting in widespread osteomalacia...
July 2017: Autopsy & case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021995/tumor-induced-osteomalacia
#15
Pablo Florenzano, Rachel I Gafni, Michael T Collins
Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome clinically characterized by bone pain, fractures and muscle weakness. It is caused by tumoral overproduction of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) that acts primarily at the proximal renal tubule, decreasing phosphate reabsorption and 1α-hydroxylation of 25 hydroxyvitamin D, thus producing hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia. Lesions are typically small, benign mesenchymal tumors that may be found in bone or soft tissue, anywhere in the body...
December 2017: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988799/dysfunction-of-autophagy-and-endosomal-lysosomal-pathways-roles-in-pathogenesis-of-down-syndrome-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
REVIEW
Daniel J Colacurcio, Anna Pensalfini, Ying Jiang, Ralph A Nixon
Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have an increased risk of early-onset Alzheimer's Disease (AD), largely owing to a triplication of the APP gene, located on chromosome 21. In DS and AD, defects in endocytosis and lysosomal function appear at the earliest stages of disease development and progress to widespread failure of intraneuronal waste clearance, neuritic dystrophy and neuronal cell death. The same genetic factors that cause or increase AD risk are also direct causes of endosomal-lysosomal dysfunction, underscoring the essential partnership between this dysfunction and APP metabolites in AD pathogenesis...
October 6, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979816/post-translationally-modified-muscle-specific-ubiquitin-ligases-as-circulating-biomarkers-in-experimental-cancer-cachexia
#17
Roberto Mota, Jessica E Rodríguez, Andrea Bonetto, Thomas M O'Connell, Scott A Asher, Traci L Parry, Pamela Lockyer, Christopher R McCudden, Marion E Couch, Monte S Willis
Cancer cachexia is a severe wasting syndrome characterized by the progressive loss of lean body mass and systemic inflammation. Up to 80% of cancer patients experience cachexia, with 20-30% of cancer-related deaths directly linked to cachexia. Despite efforts to identify early cachexia and cancer relapse, clinically useful markers are lacking. Recently, we identified the role of muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases Atrogin-1 (MAFbx, FBXO32) and Muscle Ring Finger-1 in the pathogenesis of cardiac atrophy and hypertrophy...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979772/late-onset-bartter-syndrome-type-ii
#18
Benjamin Gollasch, Yoland-Marie Anistan, Sima Canaan-Kühl, Maik Gollasch
Mutations in the ROMK1 potassium channel gene (KCNJ1) cause antenatal/neonatal Bartter syndrome type II (aBS II), a renal disorder that begins in utero, accounting for the polyhydramnios and premature delivery that is typical in affected infants, who develop massive renal salt wasting, hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis, secondary hyperreninaemic hyperaldosteronism, hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. This BS type is believed to represent a disorder of the infancy, but not in adulthood. We herein describe a female patient with a remarkably late-onset and mild clinical manifestation of BS II with compound heterozygous KCNJ1 missense mutations, consisting of a novel c...
October 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978346/genetic-analysis-of-porcine-circovirus-type-2-from-pigs-affected-with-pmws-in-chile-reveals-intergenotypic-recombination
#19
Victor Neira, Natalia Ramos, Rodrigo Tapia, Juan Arbiza, Andrónico Neira-Carrillo, Manuel Quezada, Álvaro Ruiz, Sergio A Bucarey
BACKGROUND: Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a very small, non-enveloped and icosahedral virus, with circular single stranded DNA genome. This virus is the most ubiquitous and persistent pathogen currently affecting the swine industry worldwide. PCV2 has been implicated as the major causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), a disease which is characterized by severe immunosuppressive effects in the porcine host. Worldwide PCV2 isolates have been classified into four different genotypes, PCV2a, PCV2b, PCV2c and PCVd...
October 4, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963755/retrospective-study-of-porcine-circovirus-type-2-infection-reveals-a-novel-genotype-pcv2f
#20
F Bao, S Mi, Q Luo, H Guo, C Tu, G Zhu, W Gong
Porcine postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) caused by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a disease causing severe economic losses annually worldwide to the pig industry. PCV2 infection was first reported in China in 2000, and currently has three major genotypes, PCV2a, b and d, circulating in this country. To further elucidate the origin and prevalence of PCV2 in China, 123 clinical pig tissue samples collected in 25 provinces between 1990 and 1999 were analysed by PCV2-specific PCR, resulting in identification of 23 PCV2 strains collected between 1996 and 1999...
September 30, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
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