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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623240/adipose-tissue-between-the-extremes
#1
REVIEW
Alexandros Vegiopoulos, Maria Rohm, Stephan Herzig
Adipose tissue represents a critical component in healthy energy homeostasis. It fulfills important roles in whole-body lipid handling, serves as the body's major energy storage compartment and insulation barrier, and secretes numerous endocrine mediators such as adipokines or lipokines. As a consequence, dysfunction of these processes in adipose tissue compartments is tightly linked to severe metabolic disorders, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, lipodystrophy, and cachexia. While numerous studies have addressed causes and consequences of obesity-related adipose tissue hypertrophy and hyperplasia for health, critical pathways and mechanisms in (involuntary) adipose tissue loss as well as its systemic metabolic consequences are far less understood...
June 16, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609371/orthotopic-patient-derived-pancreatic-cancer-xenografts-engraft-into-the-pancreatic-parenchyma-metastasize-and-induce-muscle-wasting-to-recapitulate-the-human-disease
#2
Kristina L Go, Daniel Delitto, Sarah M Judge, Michael H Gerber, Thomas J George, Kevin E Behrns, Steven J Hughes, Andrew R Judge, Jose G Trevino
OBJECTIVE: Limitations associated with current animal models serve as a major obstacle to reliable preclinical evaluation of therapies in pancreatic cancer (PC). In an effort to develop more reliable preclinical models, we have recently established a subcutaneous patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model. However, critical aspects of PC responsible for its highly lethal nature, such as the development of distant metastasis and cancer cachexia, remain underrepresented in the flank PDX model...
July 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607110/the-bile-acid-receptor-gpbar1-regulates-the-m1-m2-phenotype-of-intestinal-macrophages-and-activation-of-gpbar1-rescues-mice-from-murine-colitis
#3
Michele Biagioli, Adriana Carino, Sabrina Cipriani, Daniela Francisci, Silvia Marchianò, Paolo Scarpelli, Daniele Sorcini, Angela Zampella, Stefano Fiorucci
GPBAR1 (TGR5 or M-BAR) is a G protein-coupled receptor for secondary bile acids that is highly expressed in monocytes/macrophages. In this study, we aimed to determine the role of GPBAR1 in mediating leukocyte trafficking in chemically induced models of colitis and investigate the therapeutic potential of BAR501, a small molecule agonist for GPBAR1. These studies demonstrated that GPBAR1 gene ablation enhanced the recruitment of classically activated macrophages in the colonic lamina propria and worsened the severity of inflammation...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578523/genetic-analysis-of-porcine-circovirus-type-2-in-china
#4
Cheng-Gang Jiang, Gang Wang, Ya-Bin Tu, Yong-Gang Liu, Shu-Jie Wang, Xue-Hui Cai, Tong-Qing An
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the cause of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), which encompasses several distinct symptoms in pigs. PCV2 infection and clinical incidence of PMWS have increased in recent years, possibly due to shifts in viral populations and mutations. In this study, we identified PVC2 strains currently afflicting pig populations in mainland China, because this is a prerequisite for developing a specific vaccine to control the spread of PMWS. We collected 235 tissue samples from 16 provinces between 2014 and 2016...
June 3, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577739/mitochondrial-cytopathies-and-the-kidney
#5
REVIEW
Francesco Emma, Leonardo Salviati
Mitochondrial cytopathies include a heterogeneous group of diseases that are characterized by impaired oxidative phosphorylation. Current evidence suggests that renal involvement is probably more frequent than originally suspected but remains subclinical in a significant number of patients or is underestimated due to the severity of other clinical manifestations. Until recently, these diseases were thought to develop primarily in pediatric patients but patients that become symptomatic only in adulthood are now well recognized...
April 2017: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575811/perforation-of-the-cecum-resulting-from-a-closed-loop-obstruction-in-a-patient-with-an-adenocarcinoma-of-the-sigmoid-colon-a-case-report
#6
Jefferson Sing Toledo, Marley Moreira Correia, Rafael Rodrigues Coutinho, Eduardo Fukamachi Kifer, Diego de Faria Magalhães Torres
INTRODUCTION: Bowel obstruction is one of the principal non-traumatic causes of general surgery emergencies, both in Brazil and worldwide. This condition can be classified according to the degree (complete or incomplete), clinical course (acute or chronic) or nature (mechanical, vascular or functional) of the obstruction. CASE REPORT: ESS, a 62-year old Brazilian woman from Rio de Janeiro, was admitted to the emergency department complaining of constipation of two weeks' duration...
2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573057/cisplatin-induced-renal-salt-wasting-requiring-over-12-liters-of-3-saline-replacement
#7
Phuong-Chi Pham, Pavani Reddy, Shaker Qaqish, Ashvin Kamath, Johana Rodriguez, David Bolos, Martina Zalom, Phuong-Thu Pham
Cisplatin is known to induce Fanconi syndrome and renal salt wasting (RSW). RSW typically only requires transient normal saline (NS) support. We report a severe RSW case that required 12 liters of 3% saline. A 57-year-old woman with limited stage small cell cancer was admitted for cisplatin (80 mg/m(2)) and etoposide (100 mg/m(2)) therapy. Patient's serum sodium (SNa) decreased from 138 to 133 and 125 mEq/L within 24 and 48 hours of cisplatin therapy, respectively. A diagnosis of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) was initially made...
2017: Case Reports in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557682/an-infant-presenting-with-failure-to-thrive-and-hyperkalaemia-owing-to-transient-pseudohypoaldosteronism-case-report
#8
Marieke De Clerck, Johan Vande Walle, Evelyn Dhont, Joke Dehoorne, Werner Keenswijk
A 3-month-old boy presented with failure to thrive and a history of a prenatally detected unilateral hydroureteronephrosis which was confirmed after birth. His growth and developmental milestones had been normal during the first 2 months but in the third month his appetite was poor with reduced intake but no vomiting. At presentation, his temperature was normal, there was mild dehydration and there was weight loss (his weight had decreased by 270 g in the past month). Haemoglobin was 11.9 g/dL, total white cell count 20...
May 30, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555110/reduced-membrane-insertion-of-clc-k-by-v33l-barttin-results-in-loss-of-hearing-but-leaves-kidney-function-intact
#9
Hua Tan, Stefanie Bungert-Plümke, Christoph Fahlke, Gabriel Stölting
In the mammalian ear, transduction of sound stimuli is initiated by K(+) entry through mechano-sensitive channels into inner hair cells. K(+) entry is driven by a positive endocochlear potential that is maintained by the marginal cell layer of the stria vascularis. This process requires basolateral K(+) import by NKCC1 Na(+)-2Cl(-)-K(+) co-transporters as well as Cl(-) efflux through ClC-Ka/barttin or ClC-Kb/barttin channels. Multiple mutations in the gene encoding the obligatory CLC-K subunit barttin, BSND, have been identified in patients with Bartter syndrome type IV...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554316/beta-hydroxy-beta-methyl-butyrate-hmb-from-experimental-data-to-clinical-evidence-in-sarcopenia
#10
Alfonso J Cruz-Jentoft
β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a metabolite derived from leucine and its ketoacid alpha-ketoisocaproate. Leucine has a role in regulating protein synthesis in muscle cells, and HMB seems to be a key active metabolite in such regulation. HMB has been shown to modulate muscle protein degradation by inhibiting the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway, to up-regulate protein synthesis via the mTOR pathway, and to stabilize cell membranes via the rate limiting enzyme to cholesterol synthesis HMG- coenzyme A reductase...
May 28, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553382/klippel-feil-syndrome-associated-with-sacral-agenesis-low-lying-cord-lipomyelomeningocele-and-split-cord-malformation-presenting-with-tethered-cord-syndrome-pentads-neural-tube-defects-spread-along-whole-spinal-axis
#11
Guru Dutta Satyarthee, Amandeep Kumar
Neural tube defects are congenital development anomaly of the central nervous system and usually have relatively more predilection to affect at anterior and posterior neuropore embryological development sites, so usually one or two defects are commonly encountered. However, occurrence of simultaneous multiple neural tube defects is very rare, presence of constellation of five neural defects is extremely rare, and all defects add up together to produce gross neurological deficit. We present an interesting case of a 23-year-old male who presented with history of lower backache and noticed wasting and weakness of lower limbs associated with difficulty in walking for the last 2 years but had no associated sphincter disturbances...
January 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541155/characterization-of-aminoaciduria-and-hypoaminoacidemia-in-dogs-with-hepatocutaneous-syndrome
#12
John P Loftus, Sharon A Center, John M Lucy, Julie A Stanton, Sean P McDonough, Jeanine Peters-Kennedy, Kenneth A Arceneaux, Molly A Bechtold, Courtney L Bennett, Christina A Bradbury, Martha G Cline, Deborah L Hall-Fonte, Julie F Hammer-Landrum, Janice L Huntingford, Jennifer Marshall, Kristopher S Sharpe, Jessica L Redin, Samuel T Selva, Tomasina A Lucia
OBJECTIVE To characterize aminoaciduria and plasma amino acid concentrations in dogs with hepatocutaneous syndrome (HCS). ANIMALS 20 client-owned dogs of various breeds and ages. PROCEDURES HCS was definitively diagnosed on the basis of liver biopsy specimens (n = 12), gross and histologic appearance of skin lesions (4), and examination of skin and liver biopsy specimens (2) and presumptively diagnosed on the basis of cutaneous lesions with compatible clinicopathologic and hepatic ultrasonographic (honeycomb or Swiss cheese pattern) findings (2)...
June 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536482/nad-loss-a-new-player-in-ahr-biology-prevention-of-thymus-atrophy-and-hepatosteatosis-by-nad-repletion
#13
Silvia Diani-Moore, Jenny Shoots, Rubi Singh, Joshua B Zuk, Arleen B Rifkind
Dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, TCDD) is a carcinogenic and highly toxic industrial byproduct that persists in the environment and produces a pleiotropic toxicity syndrome across vertebrate species that includes wasting, hepatosteatosis, and thymus atrophy. Dioxin toxicities require binding and activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand activated transcription factor. However, after nearly 50 years of study, it remains unknown how AhR activation by dioxin produces toxic effects...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536426/toll-like-receptor-4-mediates-lewis-lung-carcinoma-induced-muscle-wasting-via-coordinate-activation-of-protein-degradation-pathways
#14
Guohua Zhang, Zhelong Liu, Hui Ding, Hongyu Miao, Jose M Garcia, Yi-Ping Li
Cancer-induced cachexia, characterized by muscle wasting, is a lethal metabolic syndrome with undefined etiology. Current consensus is that multiple factors contribute to cancer-induced muscle wasting, and therefore therapy requires combinational strategies. Here, we show that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mediates cancer-induced muscle wasting by directly activating muscle catabolism as well as stimulating an innate immune response in mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC), and targeting TLR4 alone effectively abrogate muscle wasting...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532989/effect-of-vaccination-against-sub-clinical-porcine-circovirus-type-2-infection-in-a-high-health-finishing-pig-herd-a-randomised-clinical-field-trial
#15
Gitte Blach Nielsen, Jens Peter Nielsen, John Haugegaard, Matthew J Denwood, Hans Houe
During the last decade, the clinical manifestation of Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infections has mostly changed from postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome and high mortality to sub-clinical infections manifested only through impaired production parameters. However, co-infection with other respiratory pathogens often results in a larger effect on production, sometimes with clinical signs. Little is known about the impact of a moderate level PCV2 infection without co-infections, particularly in terms of feed conversion ratio and antimicrobial consumption...
June 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529141/z-505-hydrochloride-an-orally-active-ghrelin-agonist-attenuates-the-progression-of-cancer-cachexia-via-anabolic-hormones-in-colon-26-tumor-bearing-mice
#16
Makoto Yoshimura, Yoshihiro Shiomi, Yuta Ohira, Mineo Takei, Takao Tanaka
Cancer cachexia is a progressive wasting syndrome characterized by anorexia and weight loss, specifically muscle wasting and fat depletion. There is no therapeutic agent for treatment of this syndrome. We investigated the anti-cachexia effects of Z-505 hydrochloride (Z-505), a new oral growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR1a) agonist, using a mouse model of cancer cachexia. We performed a calcium flux assay in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells stably expressing human GHSR1a to quantify the agonistic activity of Z-505...
May 18, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508131/muscle-wasting-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#17
Eduardo A Oliveira, Wai W Cheung, Kalodiah G Toma, Robert H Mak
Loss of lean body mass is a relevant component of the cachexia, or protein energy wasting (PEW), syndrome. Reduced muscle mass seems to be the most solid criterion for the presence of cachexia/PEW in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and those with greater muscle mass loss have a higher risk of death. Children with CKD have many risk factors for lean mass and muscle wasting, including poor appetite, inflammation, growth hormone resistance, and metabolic acidosis. Mortality risks in patients with CKD increases as body mass index (BMI) and weight decreases...
May 15, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503347/wasting-of-extensor-digitorum-brevis-as-a-decisive-preoperative-clinical-indicator-of-lumbar-canal-stenosis-a-single-center-prospective-cohort-study
#18
S Munakomi, B M Kumar
BACKGROUND: The dilemma in managing patients with low back ache lies in differentiating radiculopathy from lumbar canal stenosis. This has a huge bearing in patients being planned for surgical intervention as underperforming leads to failed back syndrome whereas over-doing leads to instability. There still remains a loophole in clinically diagnosing lumbar canal stenosis. AIM: We opt to utilize a simple bedside clinical examination in routinely assessing patients presenting with low back ache in ruling out underlying canal stenosis...
September 2016: Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488622/family-with-ehlers-danlos-syndrome-combined-classic-and-vascular-type-with-rare-presentation-of-progressive-myopathy-and-unusual-association-of-severe-facial-and-trigeminal-motor-weakness
#19
A Nalini, N Devaraddi, N Gayathri, Chandrajit Prasad, V Preethish-Kumar, K Polavarapu, S Shantanu
We report the clinical, radiological, biochemical, muscle histology, and electron microscopic features of two members of a family with combined Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) [classic and vascular type] and progressive myopathy as the primary manifestation. A 35-year old lady presented with severe gluteal and thigh muscle pain and easy fatigability for 5 years. She developed weakness and wasting of pelvic and pectoral girdles and thighs for 3 years and severe neck flexor and truncal weakness for 6 months. She had a history of recurrent jaw dislocation, easy bruising with hyperpigmentation, hyperextensibility of joints, translucent skin, and papyraceous scars...
May 2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487558/full-genetic-characterization-and-epidemiology-of-a-novel-amdoparvovirus-in-striped-skunk-mephitis-mephitis
#20
Marta Canuti, Hillary E Doyle, Ann P Britton, Andrew S Lang
Amdoparvovirus is a newly defined parvoviral genus that contains four species (Carnivore amdoparvovirus 1-4), including the well-known Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV). Amdoparvoviruses cause an immune-associated and often lethal wasting syndrome in Mustelidae and Caninae hosts. In this study, we molecularly investigated amdoparvoviruses detected in 44 striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) found dead in and around Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Some of the animals exhibited pathological changes compatible with amdoparvovirus-associated disease...
May 10, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
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