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Adipocyte macrophage

Arshad Khan, Robert L Hunter, Chinnaswamy Jagannath
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are non-hematopoietic cells that occur in almost all human tissues and can be cultured and expanded to large numbers in vitro. They secrete growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines and express Toll-like receptors on their surface, although multiple cell biological mechanisms remain unclear. MSCs are multi-potent and can differentiate into many cell types including adipocytes, neuronal cells and osteoclasts. Despite gaps in cell biology, because of their immunomodulatory and regenerative capacity, several hundred clinical trials have used MSCs for therapy of cancer, autoimmune diseases and control of inflammation during organ transplantation...
September 28, 2016: Tuberculosis
Yueshui Zhao, Xue Gu, Ningyan Zhang, Mikhail G Kolonin, Zhiqiang An, Kai Sun
Endotrophin is a cleavage product of collagen 6 (Col6) in adipose tissue (AT). Previously, we demonstrated that endotrophin serves as a costimulator to trigger fibrosis and inflammation within the unhealthy AT milieu. However, how endotrophin affects lipid storage and breakdown in AT and how different cell types in AT respond to endotrophin stimulation remain unknown. In the current study, by using a doxycycline (Dox)-inducible mouse model, we observed significant upregulation of adipogenic genes in the WAT of endotrophin Tg mice...
October 11, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
G Andres Contreras, Kyan Thelen, Sarah E Schmidt, Clarissa Strieder-Barboza, Courtney L Preseault, William Raphael, Matti Kiupel, John Caron, Adam L Lock
Excessive rates of demand lipolysis in the adipose tissue (AT) during periods of negative energy balance (NEB) are associated with increased susceptibility to disease and limited lactation performance. Lipolysis induces a remodeling process within AT that is characterized by an inflammatory response, cellular proliferation, and changes in the extracellular matrix (ECMT). The adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) is a key component of the inflammatory response. Infiltration of ATM-forming cellular aggregates was demonstrated in transition cows, suggesting that ATM trafficking and phenotype changes may be associated with disease...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Riki Toita, Takahito Kawano, Masaharu Murata, Jeong-Hun Kang
Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation and is known as a major risk factor for several diseases including chronic kidney disease, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Macrophages play a critical role in the development of obesity-induced inflammation. Efficient delivery of therapeutic anti-inflammatory molecules, such as interleukin (IL)-10, to macrophages can dramatically improve therapeutic efficacy of obesity treatments. We used liposomes containing the 'eat-me' signal phosphatidylserine (PS) (PS-containing liposomes; PSL), which have macrophage targeting ability and anti-inflammatory functions, as a biomaterial carrier for the delivery of IL-10 to macrophages...
December 2016: Biomaterials
Hiroaki Kimura, Tadayoshi Karasawa, Fumitake Usui, Akira Kawashima, Yuka Endo, Motoi Kobayashi, Ai Sadatomo, Jun Nakamura, Yusaku Iwasaki, Toshihiko Yada, Hiroko Tsutsui, Tadashi Kasahara, Masafumi Takahashi
Caspase-1 is a cysteine protease responsible for the processing of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β and activated by the formation of inflammasome complexes. Although several investigations have found a link between diet-induced obesity and caspase-1, the relationship of remains controversial. Here, we found that mice deficient in caspase-1 were susceptible to high-fat diet-induced obesity with increased adiposity as well as normal lipid and glucose metabolism. Caspase-1 deficiency clearly promoted the infiltration of inflammatory macrophages and increased the production of C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) in the adipose tissue...
October 4, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Alexander Kalinkovich, Gregory Livshits
Sarcopenia, an age-associated decline in skeletal muscle mass coupled with functional deterioration, may be exacerbated by obesity leading to higher disability, frailty, morbidity and mortality rates. In the combination of sarcopenia and obesity, the state called sarcopenic obesity (SOB), some key age- and obesity-mediated factors and pathways may aggravate sarcopenia. This review will analyze the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of SOB. In obese adipose tissue (AT), adipocytes undergo hypertrophy, hyperplasia and activation resulted in accumulation of pro-inflammatory macrophages and other immune cells as well as dysregulated production of various adipokines that together with senescent cells and the immune cell-released cytokines and chemokines create a local pro-inflammatory status...
October 1, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
Lifang Ye, Shu Liang, Chao Guo, Xizhong Yu, Juan Zhao, Hao Zhang, Wenbin Shang
AIMS: Insulin resistance is associated with a chronic inflammation in adipose tissue which is propagated by a phenotypic switch in adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) polarization. This study aimed to investigate whether berberine, the major alkaloid of rhizoma coptidis, can improve insulin resistance through inhibiting ATM activation and inflammatory response in adipose tissue. MAIN METHODS: High-fat-diet induced obese mice were administered oral with berberine (50mg/kg/day) for 14days...
October 1, 2016: Life Sciences
Antonia Sassmann-Schweda, Pratibha Singh, Cong Tang, Astrid Wietelmann, Nina Wettschureck, Stefan Offermanns
Obesity is an increasing health problem worldwide, and nonsurgical strategies to treat obesity have remained rather inefficient. We here show that acute loss of TGF-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) in adipocytes results in an increased rate of apoptotic adipocyte death and increased numbers of M2 macrophages in white adipose tissue. Mice with adipocyte-specific TAK1 deficiency have reduced adipocyte numbers and are resistant to obesity induced by a high-fat diet or leptin deficiency. In addition, adipocyte-specific TAK1-deficient mice under a high-fat diet showed increased energy expenditure, which was accompanied by enhanced expression of the uncoupling protein UCP1...
May 19, 2016: JCI Insight
A Michaud, J Tordjman, M Pelletier, Y Liu, S Laforest, S Noël, G Le Naour, C Bouchard, K Clément, A Tchernof
BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue fibrosis is a relatively new notion and its relationship with visceral obesity and cardiometabolic alterations remains unclear, particularly in moderate obesity. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine if total and pericellular collagen accumulation are relevant for the pathophysiology of visceral obesity and related cardiometabolic risk. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Surgical omental (OM) and subcutaneous (SC) fat samples were obtained in 56 women (age: 47...
October 4, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Qiao-Qing Zhong, Xiang Wang, Yun-Feng Li, Li-Jun Peng, Zhi-Sheng Jiang
Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), a serine protease inhibitor, which was most commonly examined in mucosal fluids such as saliva, is a versatile molecule and plays non-redundant roles. In addition to its anti-protease activity, SLPI has been shown to express anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-fungal, and anti-inflammatory properties as well as participating in innate and adaptive immune responses, most of which has been well documented. Recently, it is reported that SLPI is expressed in adipocytes and adipose tissue where it could play an important feedback role in the resolution of inflammation...
October 3, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Shotaro Nakajima, Vivien Koh, Ley-Fang Kua, Jimmy So, Lomanto Davide, Kee Siang Lim, Sven Hans Petersen, Wei-Peng Yong, Asim Shabbir, Koji Kono
Adipose tissue (AT) macrophages (ATMs) are key players for regulation of AT homeostasis and obesity-related metabolic disorders. However, the phenotypes of human ATMs and regulatory mechanisms of their polarization have not been clearly described. In this study, we investigated human ATMs in both abdominal visceral AT and s.c. AT and proposed an 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1)-glucocorticoid receptor regulatory axis that might dictate M1/M2 polarization in ATMs. The accumulation of CD11c(+)CD163(+) ATMs in both visceral AT and s...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Anna Osiecka-Iwan, Stanislaw Moskalewski, Anna Hyc
INTRODUCTION: We have previously observed that rat synovial membranes incubated in medium containing cartilage interstitial fluid (CIF) responded by changes in the expression of hyaluronan synthases (HAS1 and HAS2), collagen type I, versican, aggrecan, lubricin, matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 3 (MMP2 and MMP3), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP1, 2 and 3), transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL) 1β and IL-6. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of particular cytokines found in CIF on the gene expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in synovial membrane cells...
2016: Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica
Yaqin Zhang, Hongliang Mei, Xiaoai Chang, Fang Chen, Yunxia Zhu, Xiao Han
The proinflammatory profile of M1 macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue is a central event leading to the metabolic complications of obesity. However, the mechanisms by which M1 macrophages are enriched in adipose tissue during weight gain remain incompletely understood. Here, we investigated the effects of adipocyte-derived microvesicles (ADM) on modulating macrophage phenotype in mice and explored the involved molecular signaling pathways. We found that, compared with ADM from lean mice (SD ADM), ADM from obese mice (HFD ADM) significantly enhanced M1 marker expression...
September 25, 2016: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
C L Su, M Chen, P N Zhang, W Xu, J F Lin
Objective: To investigate the effects of testosterone (T) on inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, MCP-1) production, insulin sensitivity of adipocyte and changes of macrophage phenotypes in indirect co-culture of RAW264.7 macrophages and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Methods: 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced to mature in Transwell lower chamber, and then co-cultured with RAW264.7 macrophages in the upper chambers for 72 hours. Testosterone 10 μmol/L was added into indirect co-culture for 24 h. ELISA was used to testing IL-6, MCP-1 concentrations in supernatant...
September 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Winston W-Y Kao, Vivien J Coulson-Thomas
Mesenchymal stem cells isolated from connective tissues are pluripotent and differentiate into phenotypes of connective tissue cell lineages (osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes) in vitro and in vivo. They have been used to treat mouse models of connective tissue disease such as lumican-null (Lum) and mucopolysaccharidosis (Gusb) mice. Mesenchymal stem cells have unique immunosuppressive properties allowing evasion of host rejection; thus, they are valuable tools for cell therapy of congenital and acquired diseases involving immune dysfunction of multiple tissues including ocular surface tissues (cornea)...
November 2016: Cornea
Akiko Takikawa, Arshad Mahmood, Allah Nawaz, Tomonobu Kado, Keisuke Okabe, Seiji Yamamoto, Aminuddin Arif, Satoko Senda, Koichi Tsuneyama, Masashi Ikutani, Yasuharu Watanabe, Yoshiko Igarashi, Yoshinori Nagai, Kiyoshi Takatsu, Keiichi Koizumi, Johji Imura, Nobuhito Goda, Masakiyo Sasahara, Michihiro Matsumoto, Kumiko Saeki, Takashi Nakagawa, Shiho Fujisaka, Isao Usui, Kazuyuki Tobe
Adipose tissue hypoxia is an important feature of pathological adipose tissue expansion. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in adipocytes reportedly induces oxidative stress and fibrosis, rather than neoangiogenesis via VEGF-A. We previously reported that macrophages in crown-like structures (CLSs) are both hypoxic and inflammatory. In the present study, we examined how macrophage HIF-1α is involved in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced inflammation, neovascularization, hypoxia, and insulin resistance using mice with myeloid cell-specific HIF-1α deletion fed an HFD...
September 13, 2016: Diabetes
Saverio Cinti
In all mammals, adipocytes are cells with abundant cytoplasmic lipids forming the parenchyma of the adipose organ. White adipocytes store highly energetic molecules to release them, in the form of free fatty acids to survive between meals. Brown adipocytes trough their unique mitochondrial UCP1 protein burn glucose and lipids to perform thermogenesis in order to survive in cold environments. A third type of adipocytes appears in the subcutaneous depot of the adipose organ of female mice during pregnancy and lactation: the pink adipocytes...
September 10, 2016: Biochimie
Ying Lv, Song-Yang Zhang, Xianyi Liang, Heng Zhang, Zhi Xu, Bo Liu, Ming-Jiang Xu, Changtao Jiang, Jin Shang, Xian Wang
Adrenomedullin 2 (ADM2) is an endogenous bioactive peptide belonging to the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) family. Our previous studies showed overexpression of ADM2 in mice reduced obesity and insulin resistance by increasing thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue. However, the effects of ADM2 in another thermogenic adipocyte, beige adipocyte, remain to be understood. The plasma ADM2 levels were inversely correlated with obesity in humans and the adipo-ADM2-tg mice displayed resistance to HFD-induced obesity with increased energy expenditure...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Yongjia Li, Tsuyoshi Goto, Ryuma Ikutani, Shan Lin, Nobuyuki Takahashi, Haruya Takahashi, Huei-Fen Jheng, Rina Yu, Masahiko Taniguchi, Kimiye Baba, Shigeru Murakami, Teruo Kawada
OBJECTIVE: Obesity-induced inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Xanthoangelol (XA) and 4-hydroxyderrcin (4-HD), phytochemicals extracted from Angelica keiskei, have been reported to possess various biological properties. Whether XA and 4-HD alleviate obesity-induced inflammation and inflammation-induced adipocyte dysfunction was investigated. METHODS: For the in vitro study, a co-culture system composed of macrophages and adipocytes and macrophages stimulated with conditioned medium derived from fully differentiated adipocytes was conducted...
September 13, 2016: Obesity
Mary H Grace, Debora Esposito, Michael A Timmers, Jia Xiong, Gad Yousef, Slavko Komarnytsky, Mary Ann Lila
A comprehensive phytochemical analysis was conducted on pistachios to identify the differential contributions of skin and kernel phytochemicals to in vitro bioactivity. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of skin and kernel non-polar extracts (SNP and KNP, respectively) indicated that the major components are fatty acids (696.36 and 879.70 mg g(-1)), phytosterols (16.08 and 4.28 mg g(-1)), and γ-tocopherol (304.17 and 397.10 μg g(-1)). Analysis of the skin and kernel polar extracts (SP and KP, respectively) showed that skin accumulated higher levels of phenolic compounds, especially flavan-3-ols, compared to the kernel...
October 12, 2016: Food & Function
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