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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663892/complement-components-c3-and-c4-and-the-metabolic-syndrome
#1
Melanie Copenhaver, Chack-Yung Yu, Robert P Hoffman
INTRODUCTION: Increased systemic inflammation is engaged likely plays a significant role in the development of adult cardiometabolic diseases such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and hypertension. The complement system is part of the innate immune system and plays a key role in in regulation inflammation. Of particular importance is the activation of complement components C3 and C4. C3 is produced primarily by the liver but is also produced in adipocytes, macrophages and endothelial cells, all of which are present in adipose tissue...
April 17, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662645/a-novel-herbal-formula-sge-induces-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-mediated-cancer-cell-death-and-alleviates-cachexia-symptoms-induced-by-colon-26-adenocarcinoma
#2
Aeyung Kim, Minju Im, Jin Yeul Ma
Cachexia in cancer patients, characterized by marked involuntary weight loss and impaired physical function, is associated with a poor prognosis in response to conventional treatment and with an increase in cancer-related mortality. Prevention of skeletal muscle loss under cancer-induced cachexia via inhibition of pro-cachectic factors, as well as a reduction in tumor mass, has been considered reasonable pharmacological and nutritional interventions to treat cancer patients. In this study, we constructed a novel herbal formula, SGE, which contains Ginseng Radix alba, Atractylodis Rhizoma alba , and Hoelen , examined its anti-cancer and anti-cachexia efficacies...
March 27, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653118/acute-high-intensity-interval-exercise-induces-comparable-levels-of-circulating-cell-free-dna-and-interleukin-6-in-obese-and-normal-weight-individuals
#3
Peter J Ferrandi, Brandon G Fico, Michael Whitehurst, Michael C Zourdos, Fanchen Bao, Katelyn M Dodge, Alexandra A Rodriguez, Gabriel Pena, Chun-Jung Huang
AIMS: Obesity is associated with lipid aggregation in adipocytes and macrophage infiltration, leading to increased oxidative stress and inflammation. Increased cell-free DNA (cfDNA) concentrations have been observed in clinical conditions of systemic inflammation. While the beneficial effects of regular physical activity on the release of circulating cfDNA still remain unknown, acute intense exercise has been shown to increase inflammatory cytokines and cfDNA concentrations in normal-weight individuals...
April 10, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628493/effect-of-a-high-sucrose-diet-on-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-development-in-a-hypoperfusion-induced-animal-model
#4
Chie Miyamoto, Hirona Kugo, Keisuke Hashimoto, Ayaka Sawaragi, Nobuhiro Zaima, Tatsuya Moriyama
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a vascular disease that results in rupture of the abdominal aorta. The risk factors for the development of AAA include smoking, male sex, hypertension, and age. AAA has a high mortality rate, but therapy for AAA is restricted to surgery in cases of large aneurysms. Clarifying the effect of dietary food on the development of AAA would be helpful for patients with AAAs. However, the relationship between dietary habits and the development of AAA is largely unknown. In our previous study, we demonstrated that adipocytes in vascular wall can induce the rupture of AAA...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627311/lysosomotropic-cationic-amphiphilic-drugs-inhibit-adipocyte-differentiation-in-3t3-l1k-cells-via-accumulation-in-cells-and-phospholipid-membranes-and-inhibition-of-autophagy
#5
Patrik Kagebeck, Violetta Nikiforova, Lars Brunken, Arrabi Easwaranathan, Joelle Ruegg, Ian Cotgreave, Vesna Munic Kos
Some cationic amphiphilic drugs (CADs) have been individually reported to interfere with the differentiation of immune system cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells. To investigate the possible generic nature of this process, in this study we aimed to see whether these drugs are capable of interfering with the differentiation of adipocytes. Further, we investigated whether this feature might be connected to the lysosomotropic character of these drugs, and their disturbance of intracellular membrane trafficking rather than to the individual pharmacologic properties of each drug...
April 5, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627241/influence-of-adipocyte-size-and-adipose-depot-on-the-number-of-adipose-tissue-macrophages-and-the-expression-of-adipokines-in-dairy-cows-at-the-end-of-pregnancy
#6
E Depreester, J De Koster, M Van Poucke, M Hostens, W Van den Broeck, L Peelman, G A Contreras, G Opsomer
The aim of this study was to determine the number of adipose tissue macrophages (ATM) and the mRNA expression of adipokines [adiponectin (ADIPOQ), leptin (LEP), interleukin 6 (IL6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and interleukin 10 (IL10)] in different adipose depots from cows with a variable body condition score (BCS) at the end of the dry period. We hypothesized that the number of ATM and the expression of these adipokines depend on adipocyte size and the anatomical location of the adipose depot. Subcutaneous, omental, mesenteric, perirenal, and intrapelvic adipose tissue samples were taken immediately after euthanasia of 10 Holstein Friesian dairy cows (upcoming parity 2 to 5, age 3...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618580/oxidative-stress-inhibits-healthy-adipose-expansion-through-suppression-of-srebf1-mediated-lipogenic-pathway
#7
Yosuke Okuno, Atsunori Fukuhara, Erika Hashimoto, Hironori Kobayashi, Sachiko Kobayashi, Michio Otsuki, Iichiro Shimomura
Recent studies have emphasized the association of adipose oxidative stress (Fat ROS) with the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders in obesity. However, the causal roles of Fat ROS in metabolic disturbances in vivo remain unclear because no mouse model has been available in which oxidative stress is manipulated targeting adipocytes. In this research, we generated two models of Fat ROS-manipulated mice and evaluated the metabolic features in diet-induced obesity. Fat ROS-eliminated mice in which Cat and Sod1 were overexpressed in adipocytes exhibited adipose expansion with decreased ectopic lipid accumulation and improved insulin sensitivity...
April 4, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617296/macrophage-populations-in-visceral-adipose-tissue-from-pregnant-women-potential-role-of-obesity-in-maternal-inflammation
#8
Eyerahi Bravo-Flores, Ismael Mancilla-Herrera, Salvador Espino Y Sosa, Marco Ortiz-Ramirez, Verónica Flores-Rueda, Francisco Ibargüengoitia-Ochoa, Carlos A Ibañez, Elena Zambrano, Mario Solis-Paredes, Otilia Perichart-Perera, Maribel Sanchez-Martinez, Diana Medina-Bastidas, Enrique Reyes-Muñoz, Guadalupe Estrada-Gutierrez
Obesity is associated with inflammatory changes and accumulation and phenotype polarization of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs). Obese pregnant women have alterations in adipose tissue composition, but a detailed description of macrophage population is not available. In this study, we characterized macrophage populations in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from pregnant women with normal, overweight, and obese pregestational weight. Immunophenotyping of macrophages from VAT biopsies was performed by flow cytometry using CD45 and CD14 as markers of hematopoietic and monocyte linage, respectively, while HLA-DR, CD11c, CD163, and CD206 were used as pro- and anti-inflammatory markers...
April 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605673/high-fat-diet-exacerbates-early-psoriatic-skin-inflammation-independent-of-obesity-saturated-fatty-acids-as-key-players
#9
Diana Herbert, Sandra Franz, Yulia Popkova, Ulf Anderegg, Jürgen Schiller, Katharina Schwede, Axel Lorz, Jan C Simon, Anja Saalbach
In obesity, hypertrophic adipocytes secret high amounts of adipocytokines resulting in low-grade inflammation- amplified by infiltrating pro-inflammatory macrophages, oxidative stress, hypoxia and lipolysis. It is known, that these chronic pro-inflammatory conditions support the development of type II diabetes and cardio vascular diseases, while mechanisms of obesity-related exacerbation of inflammatory skin disorders like psoriasis are unclear. In this study, we uncover nutritional saturated fatty acids (SFAs) as major risk factors for the amplification of skin inflammation, independent of obesity-related parameters, like fat mass extension, adipocytokines and glucose homeostasis...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599420/brown-adipose-tissue-whitening-leads-to-brown-adipocyte-death-and-adipose-tissue-inflammation
#10
Petra Kotzbeck, Antonio Giordano, Eleonora Mondini, Incoronata Murano, Ilenia Severi, Wiebe Venema, Maria Paola Cecchini, Erin E Kershaw, Giorgio Barbatelli, Guenter Haemmerle, Rudolf Zechner, Saverio Cinti
In mammals, white adipose tissue (WAT) stores and releases lipids, whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT) oxidizes lipids to fuel thermogenesis. In obese individuals WAT undergoes profound changes; it expands, becomes dysfunctional, and develops a low-grade inflammatory state. Importantly, BAT content and activity decline in obese subjects, mainly as a result of the conversion of brown adipocytes to white-like unilocular cells. Here, we show that BAT ″whitening″ is induced by multiple factors, including high ambient temperature, leptin receptor deficiency, beta-adrenergic signaling impairment, and lipase deficiency, each of which is capable of inducing macrophage infiltration, brown adipocyte death, and crown-like structure (CLS) formation...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593567/kisspeptin-receptor-gpr54-promotes-adipocyte-differentiation-and-fat-accumulation-in-mice
#11
Tongtong Wang, Xueqin Cui, Ling Xie, Roumei Xing, Panpan You, Yongliang Zhao, Yiqing Yang, Yongqian Xu, Li Zeng, Huaqing Chen, Mingyao Liu
GPR54, Kisspeptin-1 receptor (KISS1R), a member of rhodopsin family, plays a critical role in puberty development and has been proposed to be involved in regulation of energy metabolism. This study aims to explore the function of GPR54 in adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, and obesity in addition to its effect through hormones. Results showed that when fed a high-fat diet, the weight growth of castrated or ovariectomized Gpr54 -/- mice was significantly slower than that of WT control, together with a lower triglyceride concentration...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587377/groundsel-bush-baccharis-halimifolia-extract-promotes-adipocyte-differentiation-in-vitro-and-increases-adiponectin-expression-in-mature-adipocytes
#12
Anik Boudreau, Scott Fuller, David M Ribnicky, Allison J Richard, Jacqueline M Stephens
An ethanolic extract of Baccharis halimifolia (groundsel bush, GB), which is a native Louisiana plant with documented use in Creole folk medicine, has been shown to inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in cultured macrophages. Here, we examine the effects of GB on adipocyte development and function, as these processes are attractive targets for intervention in insulin resistance. Oil Red O neutral lipid staining, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and immunoblotting were used to measure GB effects on lipid accumulation, gene expression, and protein abundance, respectively...
March 25, 2018: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582897/dietary-restriction-ameliorates-age-related-increase-in-dna-damage-senescence-and-inflammation-in-mouse-adipose-tissuey
#13
A Ishaq, J Schröder, N Edwards, T von Zglinicki, G Saretzki
Ageing is associated with redistribution of fat around the body and saturation of visceral adipose depots. Likewise, the presence of excess fat in obesity or during ageing places extra stress on visceral depots, resulting in chronic inflammation and increased senescence. This process can contribute to the establishment of the metabolic syndrome and accelerated ageing. Dietary restriction (DR) is known to alleviate physiological signs of inflammation, ageing and senescence in various tissues including adipose tissue...
2018: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581238/role-of-dysfunctional-adipocytes-in-cholesterol-induced-nonobese-metabolic-syndrome
#14
Jiung-Pang Huang, Sheng-Chieh Hsu, Yaa-Jyuhn James Meir, Po-Shiuan Hsieh, Chih-Chun Chang, Kuan-Hsing Chen, Jan-Kan Chen, Li-Man Hung
Many studies have reported the causes of obese metabolic syndrome (MS); however, the causes of nonobese MS (NMS) remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that inflamed dysfunctional adipose tissue plays a crucial role in cholesterol-induced NMS. Control (C), high cholesterol (HC), and HC with 10% fructose in drinking water (HCF) diets were fed to Sprague-Dawley rats for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, the body weights of the C- and HC-fed rats were comparable, but the weights of the HCF-fed rats were relatively low...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578525/characterization-of-immune-cells-in-human-adipose-tissue-by-using-flow-cytometry
#15
Suzan Wetzels, Mitchell Bijnen, Erwin Wijnands, Erik A L Biessen, Casper G Schalkwijk, Kristiaan Wouters
Infiltration of immune cells in the subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (AT) deposits leads to a low-grade inflammation contributing to the development of obesity-associated complications such as type 2 diabetes. To quantitatively and qualitatively investigate the immune cell subsets in human AT deposits, we have developed a flow cytometry approach. The stromal vascular fraction (SVF), containing the immune cells, is isolated from subcutaneous and visceral AT biopsies by collagenase digestion. Adipocytes are removed after centrifugation...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574638/long-chain-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-modulate-mammary-gland-composition-and-inflammation
#16
Saraswoti Khadge, Geoffrey M Thiele, John Graham Sharp, Timothy R McGuire, Lynell W Klassen, Paul N Black, Concetta C DiRusso, James E Talmadge
Studies in rodents have shown that dietary modifications as mammary glands (MG) develop, regulates susceptibility to mammary tumor initiation. However, the effects of dietary PUFA composition on MGs in adult life, remains poorly understood. This study investigated morphological alterations and inflammatory microenvironments in the MGs of adult mice fed isocaloric and isolipidic liquid diets with varying compositions of omega (ω)-6 and long-chain (Lc)-ω3FA that were pair-fed. Despite similar consumption levels of the diets, mice fed the ω-3 diet had significantly lower body-weight gains, and abdominal-fat and mammary fat pad (MFP) weights...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566149/epigenome-wide-association-in-adipose-tissue-from-the-metsim-cohort
#17
Luz D Orozco, Colin Farrell, Christopher Hale, Liudmilla Rbi, Arturo Rinaldi, Mete Civelek, Calvin Pan, Larry Lam, Dennis Montoya, Chantle Edillor, Marcus Seldin, Karen L Mohlke, Steve Jacobsen, Johanna Kuusisto, Markku Laakso, Aldons J Lusis, Matteo Pellegrini
Most epigenome-wide association studies to date have been conducted in blood. However, metabolic syndrome is mediated by a dysregulation of adiposity and therefore it is critical to study adipose tissue in order to understand the effects of this syndrome on epigenomes. To determine if natural variation in DNA methylation was associated with metabolic syndrome traits, we profiled global methylation levels in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue. We measured association between 32 clinical traits related to diabetes and obesity in 201 people from the Metabolic Syndrome In Men cohort...
March 16, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560554/effects-of-exosomes-from-lps-activated-macrophages-on-adipocyte-gene-expression-differentiation-and-insulin-dependent-glucose-uptake
#18
Nicolás De Silva, Mirian Samblas, J Alfredo Martínez, Fermín I Milagro
Obesity is usually associated with low-grade inflammation, which determines the appearance of comorbidities like atherosclerosis and insulin resistance. Infiltrated macrophages in adipose tissue are partly responsible of this inflammatory condition. Numerous studies point to the existence of close intercommunication between macrophages and adipocytes and pay particular attention to the proinflammatory cytokines released by both cell types. However, it has been recently described that in both, circulation and tissue level, there are extracellular vesicles (including microvesicles and exosomes) containing miRNAs, mRNAs, and proteins that can influence the inflammatory response...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559978/human-body-composition-and-immunity-visceral-adipose-tissue-produces-il-15-and-muscle-strength-inversely-correlates-with-nk-cell-function-in-elderly-humans
#19
Ahmad Al-Attar, Steven R Presnell, Jody L Clasey, Douglas E Long, R Grace Walton, Morgan Sexton, Marlene E Starr, Philip A Kern, Charlotte A Peterson, Charles T Lutz
Natural killer (NK) lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion control infections and cancers, but these crucial activities decline with age. NK cell development, homeostasis, and function require IL-15 and its chaperone, IL-15 receptor alpha (IL-15Rα). Macrophages and dendritic cells (DC) are major sources of these proteins. We had previously postulated that additional IL-15 and IL-15Rα is made by skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. These sources may be important in aging, when IL-15-producing immune cells decline...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552621/ferroportin-expression-in-adipocytes-does-not-contribute-to-iron-homeostasis-or-metabolic-responses-to-a-high-calorie-diet
#20
Laurence Britton, Lesley-Anne Jaskowski, Kim Bridle, Eriza Secondes, Daniel Wallace, Nishreen Santrampurwala, Janske Reiling, Gregory Miller, Salvatore Mangiafico, Sofianos Andrikopoulos, V Nathan Subramaniam, Darrell Crawford
Background & Aims: Iron has an increasingly recognized role in the regulation of adipose tissue function, including the expression of adipokines involved in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The cellular iron exporter, ferroportin, has been proposed as being a key determinant of adipocyte iron homeostasis. Methods: We studied an adipocyte-specific ferroportin ( Fpn1 ) knockout mouse model, using an Adipoq -Cre recombinase driven Fpn1 deletion and fed mice according to the fast food diet model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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