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Adipocyte macrophage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035280/adipocyte-cannabinoid-receptor-cb1-regulates-energy-homeostasis-and-alternatively-activated-macrophages
#1
Inigo Ruiz de Azua, Giacomo Mancini, Raj Kamal Srivastava, Alejandro Aparisi Rey, Pierre Cardinal, Laura Tedesco, Cristina Maria Zingaretti, Antonia Sassmann, Carmelo Quarta, Claudia Schwitter, Andrea Conrad, Nina Wettschureck, V Kiran Vemuri, Alexandros Makriyannis, Jens Hartwig, Maria Mendez-Lago, Laura Bindila, Krisztina Monory, Antonio Giordano, Saverio Cinti, Giovanni Marsicano, Stefan Offermanns, Enzo Nisoli, Uberto Pagotto, Daniela Cota, Beat Lutz
Dysregulated adipocyte physiology leads to imbalanced energy storage, obesity, and associated diseases, imposing a costly burden on current health care. Cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1) plays a crucial role in controlling energy metabolism through central and peripheral mechanisms. In this work, adipocyte-specific inducible deletion of the CB1 gene (Ati-CB1-KO) was sufficient to protect adult mice from diet-induced obesity and associated metabolic alterations and to reverse the phenotype in already obese mice...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035279/cannabis-in-fat-high-hopes-to-treat-obesity
#2
Melody N Hawkins, Tamas L Horvath
Cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1s) is known to have a substantial impact on the regulation of energy metabolism via central and peripheral mechanisms. In this issue of the JCI, Ruiz de Azua and colleagues provide important insights into the regulation of adipocyte physiology by CB1. Mice with adipocyte-specific deletion of the CB1-encoding gene had an overall improved metabolic profile in addition to reduced body weight and total adiposity. These changes were associated with an increase in sympathetic tone of the adipose tissue and expansion of activated macrophages, both of which occurred prior to changes in body weight, lending support to a causal relationship between loss of CB1 in adipocytes and systemic metabolic changes...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034362/lipid-droplets-potential-biomarker-and-metabolic-target-in-glioblastoma
#3
Feng Geng, Deliang Guo
Lipid droplets (LDs) are subcellular organelles that store large amounts of the neutral lipids, triglycerides (TG) and/or cholesteryl esters (CE). LDs are commonly formed in adipocytes, liver cells and macrophages, and their formation has been shown to be associated with the progression of metabolic diseases, i.e., obesity, fatty liver and atherosclerosis. Interestingly, LDs are also found in some tumor tissues. We recently showed that LDs are prevalent in glioblastoma (GBM), the most deadly brain tumor, but are not detectable in low-grade gliomas and normal brain tissues, suggesting that LDs may serve as a novel diagnostic biomarker for GBM...
May 2017: Internal Medicine Review (Washington, D.C.: Online)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032027/peripheral-neuropathy-and-hindlimb-paralysis-in-a-mouse-model-of-adipocyte-specific-knockout-of-lkb1
#4
Yan Xiong, Jessica C Page, Naagarajan Narayanan, Chao Wang, Zhihao Jia, Feng Yue, Xine Shi, Wen Jin, Keping Hu, Meng Deng, Riyi Shi, Tizhong Shan, Gongshe Yang, Shihuan Kuang
Brown adipose tissues (BAT) burn lipids to generate heat through uncoupled respiration, thus representing a powerful target to counteract lipid accumulation and obesity. The tumor suppressor liver kinase b1 (Lkb1) is a key regulator of cellular energy metabolism; and adipocyte-specific knockout of Lkb1 (Ad-Lkb1 KO) leads to the expansion of BAT, improvements in systemic metabolism and resistance to obesity in young mice. Here we report the unexpected finding that the Ad-Lkb1 KO mice develop hindlimb paralysis at mid-age...
September 21, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031722/activated-macrophages-control-human-adipocyte-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-via-secreted-factors
#5
Michaela Keuper, Stephan Sachs, Ellen Walheim, Lucia Berti, Bernhard Raedle, Daniel Tews, Pamela Fischer-Posovszky, Martin Wabitsch, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Gabi Kastenmüller, Matthias H Tschöp, Martin Jastroch, Harald Staiger, Susanna M Hofmann
OBJECTIVE: Obesity-associated WAT inflammation is characterized by the accumulation and local activation of macrophages (MΦs), and recent data from mouse studies suggest that macrophages are modifiers of adipocyte energy metabolism and mitochondrial function. As mitochondrial dysfunction has been associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome in humans, herein we aimed to delineate how human macrophages may affect energy metabolism of white adipocytes. METHODS: Human adipose tissue gene expression analysis for markers of macrophage activation and tissue inflammation (CD11c, CD40, CD163, CD206, CD80, MCP1, TNFα) in relationship to mitochondrial complex I (NDUFB8) and complex III (UQCRC2) was performed on subcutaneous WAT of 24 women (BMI 20-61 kg/m(2))...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029093/electronegative-low-density-lipoprotein-l5-induces-adipose-tissue-inflammation-associated-with-metabolic-syndrome
#6
Liang-Yin Ke, Hua-Chen Chan, Hsiu-Chuan Chan, Franklin Chikodi Udo Kalu, Hsiang-Chun Lee, I-Ling Lin, Shih-Jie Jhuo, Wen-Ter Lai, Chen-Rong Tsao, Tatsuya Sawamura, Richard A Dixon, Chu-Huang Chen, Chih-Sheng Chu, Shyi-Jang Shin
Context: Electronegative low-density lipoprotein (LDL) L5 is a naturally occurring, atherogenic entity found at elevated levels in the plasma of patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the absence of elevated plasma LDL levels. Objective: To investigate the role of L5 in the mechanism of adipose tissue inflammation associated with MetS. Patients/Setting: Plasma LDL isolated from MetS patients (n=29) and controls (n=29) with similar plasma LDL levels was separated into 5 subfractions, L1-L5, with increasing electronegativity...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022912/tenomodulin-is-essential-for-prevention-of-adipocyte-accumulation-and-fibrovascular-scar-formation-during-early-tendon-healing
#7
Dasheng Lin, Paolo Alberton, Manuel Delgado Caceres, Elias Volkmer, Matthias Schieker, Denitsa Docheva
Tenomodulin (Tnmd) is the best-known mature marker for tendon and ligament lineage cells. It is important for tendon maturation, running performance and has key implications for the resident tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs). However, its exact functions during the tendon repair process still remain elusive. Here, we established an Achilles tendon injury model in a Tnmd knockout (Tnmd(-/-)) mouse line. Detailed analyses showed not only a very different scar organization with a clearly reduced cell proliferation and expression of certain tendon-related genes, but also increased cell apoptosis, adipocyte and blood vessel accumulation in the early phase of tendon healing compared with their wild-type (WT) littermates...
October 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022261/the-non-cardiomyocyte-cells-of-the-heart-their-possible-roles-in-exercise-induced-cardiac-regeneration-and-remodeling
#8
Ivan Varga, Jan Kyselovič, Paulina Galfiova, Lubos Danisovic
The non-cardiomyocyte cellular microenvironment of the heart includes diverse types of cells of mesenchymal origin. During development, the majority of these cells derive from the epicardium, while a subset derives from the endothelium/endocardium and neural crest derived mesenchyme. This subset includes cardiac fibroblasts and telocytes, the latter of which are a controversial type of "connecting cell" that support resident cardiac progenitors in the postnatal heart. Smooth muscle cells, pericytes, and endothelial cells are also present, in addition to adipocytes, which accumulate as epicardial adipose connective tissue...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021781/cross-talk-between-adipose-tissue-and-placenta-in-obese-and-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-pregnancies-via-exosomes
#9
REVIEW
Nanthini Jayabalan, Soumyalekshmi Nair, Zarin Nuzhat, Gregory E Rice, Felipe A Zuñiga, Luis Sobrevia, Andrea Leiva, Carlos Sanhueza, Jaime Agustín Gutiérrez, Martha Lappas, Dilys Jane Freeman, Carlos Salomon
Obesity is an important public health issue worldwide, where it is commonly associated with the development of metabolic disorders, especially insulin resistance (IR). Maternal obesity is associated with an increased risk of pregnancy complications, especially gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Metabolism is a vital process for energy production and the maintenance of essential cellular functions. Excess energy storage is predominantly regulated by the adipose tissue. Primarily made up of adipocytes, adipose tissue acts as the body's major energy reservoir...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018354/n-acetylcysteine-counteracts-adipose-tissue-macrophage-infiltration-and-insulin-resistance-elicited-by-advanced-glycated-albumin-in-healthy-rats
#10
Karolline S da Silva, Paula R Pinto, Nelly T Fabre, Diego J Gomes, Karina Thieme, Ligia S Okuda, Rodrigo T Iborra, Vanessa G Freitas, Maria H M Shimizu, Walcy R Teodoro, Suely K N Marie, Tom Woods, Margaret A Brimble, Russell Pickford, Kerry-Anne Rye, Maristela Okamoto, Sergio Catanozi, Maria L Correa-Giannela, Ubiratan F Machado, Marisa Passarelli
Background: Advanced glycation endproducts elicit inflammation. However, their role in adipocyte macrophage infiltration and in the development of insulin resistance, especially in the absence of the deleterious biochemical pathways that coexist in diabetes mellitus, remains unknown. We investigated the effect of chronic administration of advanced glycated albumin (AGE-albumin) in healthy rats, associated or not with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment, on insulin sensitivity, adipose tissue transcriptome and macrophage infiltration and polarization...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017449/circulating-adipocyte-fatty-acid-binding-protein-is-a-predictor-of-cardiovascular-events-in-patients-with-stable-angina-undergoing-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#11
Wataru Takagi, Toru Miyoshi, Masayuki Doi, Keisuke Okawa, Kazumasa Nosaka, Tomoyuki Nishibe, Naoaki Matsuo, Satoshi Hirohata, Hiroshi Ito
BACKGROUND: Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) is expressed in both adipocytes and macrophages. Recent studies have shown that A-FABP is secreted by adipocytes and that the A-FABP concentration is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis. We have reported that the coronary atherosclerotic burden is associated with the serum A-FABP concentration. In the present study, we investigated whether the serum A-FABP concentration is associated with prognosis in patients with stable angina pectoris who have undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)...
October 10, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989976/hematopoietic-stem-cell-derived-adipocytes-promote-tumor-growth-and-cancer-cell-migration
#12
Y Xiong, D L Russell, L T McDonald, L A Cowart, A C LaRue
Adipocytes, apart from their critical role as the energy storage depots, contribute to the composition of the tumor microenvironment. Our previous studies based on a single hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation model, have revealed a novel source of adipocytes from HSCs via monocyte/macrophage progenitors. Herein, we extend these studies to examine the role of HSC-derived adipocytes (HSC-Ad) in tumor progression. When cultured under adipogenic conditions, bone marrow-derived monocytic progenitors differentiated into adipocytes that accumulated oil droplets containing triglyceride...
2017: International Journal of Cancer Research and Molecular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985040/comparison-of-methods-for-analyzing-human-adipose-tissue-macrophage-content
#13
Maria Morgan-Bathke, Debra Harteneck, Philippa Jaeger, Esben Sondergaard, Ron Karwoski, Ana Espinosa De Ycaza, B Gisella Carranza-Leon, William A Faubion, Andre M Oliveira, Michael D Jensen
OBJECTIVE: The relationship between inflammation, obesity, and adverse metabolic conditions is associated with adipose tissue macrophages (ATM). This study compared the measurements of human ATM using flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of ATM markers. METHODS: A new software program (AMCounter) was evaluated to help measure ATM using IHC, and this was compared to flow cytometry and RT-PCR. RESULTS: IHC had good intraindividual reproducibility for total (CD68), proinflammatory (CD14), and anti-inflammatory (CD206) ATM...
October 6, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970834/adipocytes-and-macrophages-interplay-in-the-orchestration-of-tumor-microenvironment-new-implications-in-cancer-progression
#14
REVIEW
Luís Henrique Corrêa, Rafael Corrêa, Cecília Menezes Farinasso, Lívia Pimentel de Sant'Ana Dourado, Kelly Grace Magalhães
Inflammation has been known as one of the main keys to the establishment and progression of cancers. Chronic low-grade inflammation is also a strategic condition that underlies the causes and development of metabolic syndrome and obesity. Moreover, obesity has been largely related to poor prognosis of tumors by modulating tumor microenvironment with secretion of several inflammatory mediators by tumor-associated adipocytes (TAAs), which can modulate and recruit tumor-associated macrophages. Thus, the understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlay and link inflammation, obesity, and cancer is crucial to identify potential targets that interfere with this important route...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956065/the-peritoneal-soil-for-a-cancerous-seed-a-comprehensive-review-of-the-pathogenesis-of-intraperitoneal-cancer-metastases
#15
REVIEW
Justyna Mikuła-Pietrasik, Paweł Uruski, Andrzej Tykarski, Krzysztof Książek
Various types of tumors, particularly those originating from the ovary and gastrointestinal tract, display a strong predilection for the peritoneal cavity as the site of metastasis. The intraperitoneal spread of a malignancy is orchestrated by a reciprocal interplay between invading cancer cells and resident normal peritoneal cells. In this review, we address the current state-of-art regarding colonization of the peritoneal cavity by ovarian, colorectal, pancreatic, and gastric tumors. Particular attention is paid to the pro-tumoral role of various kinds of peritoneal cells, including mesothelial cells, fibroblasts, adipocytes, macrophages, the vascular endothelium, and hospicells...
September 27, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956020/macrophage-ubiquitin-specific-protease-2-modifies-insulin-sensitivity-in-obese-mice
#16
Natsuko Saito, Shunsuke Kimura, Tomomi Miyamoto, Sanae Fukushima, Misato Amagasa, Yoshinori Shimamoto, Chieko Nishioka, Shiki Okamoto, Chitoku Toda, Kohei Washio, Atsushi Asano, Ichiro Miyoshi, Eiki Takahashi, Hiroshi Kitamura
We previously reported that ubiquitin-specific protease (USP) 2 in macrophages down-regulates genes associated with metabolic diseases, suggesting a putative anti-diabetic role for USP2 in macrophages. In this study, we evaluate this role at both cellular and individual levels. Isolated macrophages forcibly expressing Usp2a, a longer splicing variant of USP2, failed to modulate the insulin sensitivity of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Similarly, macrophage-selective overexpression of Usp2a in mice (Usp2a transgenic mice) had a negligible effect on insulin sensitivity relative to wild type littermates following a three-month high-fat diet...
March 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954980/adipocyte-death-and-chronic-inflammation-in-obesity
#17
Masashi Kuroda, Hiroshi Sakaue
Cell death is closely linked to many diseases including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, autoimmune diseases, and metabolic disorders. Increased adipocyte death has been reported during the development of obesity. Adipocyte death may be caused by excessive stress during obesity-related adipose tissue remodeling. Adipose tissue macrophages are key players in obesity-related inflammation and systemic insulin resistance. Accumulating evidence suggests that adipocyte death is involved in immune cell function and initiates inflammation through an interaction with macrophages; however, the precise mechanisms remain largely unknown...
2017: Journal of Medical Investigation: JMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954231/metabolically-activated-adipose-tissue-macrophages-perform-detrimental-and-beneficial-functions-during-diet-induced-obesity
#18
Brittney R Coats, Kelly Q Schoenfelt, Valéria C Barbosa-Lorenzi, Eduard Peris, Chang Cui, Alexandria Hoffman, Guolin Zhou, Sully Fernandez, Lijie Zhai, Ben A Hall, Abigail S Haka, Ajay M Shah, Catherine A Reardon, Matthew J Brady, Christopher J Rhodes, Frederick R Maxfield, Lev Becker
During obesity, adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) adopt a metabolically activated (MMe) phenotype. However, the functions of MMe macrophages are poorly understood. Here, we combine proteomic and functional methods to demonstrate that, in addition to potentiating inflammation, MMe macrophages promote dead adipocyte clearance through lysosomal exocytosis. We identify NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) as a driver of the inflammatory and adipocyte-clearing properties of MMe macrophages and show that, compared to wild-type, Nox2(-/-) mice exhibit a time-dependent metabolic phenotype during diet-induced obesity...
September 26, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953873/inflammasome-driven-catecholamine-catabolism-in-macrophages-blunts-lipolysis-during-ageing
#19
Christina D Camell, Jil Sander, Olga Spadaro, Aileen Lee, Kim Y Nguyen, Allison Wing, Emily L Goldberg, Yun-Hee Youm, Chester W Brown, John Elsworth, Matthew S Rodeheffer, Joachim L Schultze, Vishwa Deep Dixit
Catecholamine-induced lipolysis, the first step in the generation of energy substrates by the hydrolysis of triglycerides, declines with age. The defect in the mobilization of free fatty acids in the elderly is accompanied by increased visceral adiposity, lower exercise capacity, failure to maintain core body temperature during cold stress, and reduced ability to survive starvation. Although catecholamine signalling in adipocytes is normal in the elderly, how lipolysis is impaired in ageing remains unknown...
October 5, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945110/effects-of-obesity-on-the-regulation-of-macrophage-population-in-the-prostate-tumor-microenvironment
#20
G C Galván, C B Johnson, R S Price, M A Liss, C A Jolly, L A deGraffenried
Obesity is associated with a greater risk of prostate cancer mortality. However, the mechanisms connecting obesity to the progression of prostate cancer remain unknown. This study determined the impact of obesity on macrophage recruitment and tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) polarization in the prostate tumor microenvironment, since a high concentration of TAMs in tumors has been linked to progression in prostate cancer. We utilized an in vitro model in which pre-adipocytes, prostate cancer cells, and macrophages were exposed to sera from obese or nonobese men, or conditioned media generated under obese or nonobese conditions...
September 25, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
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