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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228268/er-stress-protein-chop-mediates-insulin-resistance-by-modulating-adipose-tissue-macrophage-polarity
#1
Toru Suzuki, Junhong Gao, Yasushi Ishigaki, Keiichi Kondo, Shojiro Sawada, Tomohito Izumi, Kenji Uno, Keizo Kaneko, Sohei Tsukita, Kei Takahashi, Atsuko Asao, Naoto Ishii, Junta Imai, Tetsuya Yamada, Seiichi Oyadomari, Hideki Katagiri
Obesity represents chronic inflammatory states promoted by pro-inflammatory M1-macrophage infiltration into white adipose tissue (WAT), thereby inducing insulin resistance. Herein, we demonstrate the importance of an ER stress protein, CHOP, in determining adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) polarity and systemic insulin sensitivity. A high-fat diet (HFD) enhances ER stress with CHOP upregulation in adipocytes. CHOP deficiency prevents HFD-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance with ATM M2 predomination and Th2 cytokine upregulation in WAT...
February 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194019/il-25-stimulates-m2-macrophage-polarization-and-thereby-promotes-mitochondrial-respiratory-capacity-and-lipolysis-in-adipose-tissues-against-obesity
#2
Juan Feng, Lingyi Li, Zhiying Ou, Qiao Li, Baoyong Gong, Zhenxian Zhao, Weiwei Qi, Ti Zhou, Jun Zhong, Weibin Cai, Xia Yang, Aiping Zhao, Guoquan Gao, Zhonghan Yang
Obesity and associated metabolic diseases are characterized by a chronic low-grade inflammatory state with the infiltration of many inflammatory cells, especially macrophages. Immune molecules, including some cytokines, have a close relationship with metabolism. Interleukin (IL)-25 is a member of the IL-17 cytokine family that can regulate macrophages and alleviate some metabolic dysfunction; however, its role and mechanisms in lipid metabolism remain to be extensively clarified. Human serum and liver biopsy specimens, high-fat diet-induced obesity mice and DB/DB (Lepr-/-) animal models were used to examine IL-25 expression in obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD)...
February 13, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193830/il-6-regulates-m2-polarization-and-local-proliferation-of-adipose-tissue-macrophages-in-obesity
#3
Julia Braune, Ulrike Weyer, Constance Hobusch, Jan Mauer, Jens C Brüning, Ingo Bechmann, Martin Gericke
Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation of adipose tissue (AT) and an increase of AT macrophages (ATMs) that is linked to the onset of type 2 diabetes. We have recently shown that focal sites of inflammation around dying adipocytes, so-called crown-like structures, exhibit a unique microenvironment for macrophage proliferation. Interestingly, locally proliferating macrophages were not classically activated (M1), but they exhibited a rather alternatively activated (M2) immune phenotype. In this study, we established organotypic cell cultures of AT explants to study the impact of cytokine treatment on local ATM proliferation, without the bias of early monocyte recruitment...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192887/linking-resistin-inflammation-and-cardiometabolic-diseases
#4
Hyeong Kyu Park, Mi Kyung Kwak, Hye Jeong Kim, Rexford S Ahima
Adipose tissue secretes a variety of bioactive substances that are associated with chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. While resistin was first known as an adipocyte-secreted hormone (adipokine) linked to obesity and insulin resistance in rodents, it is predominantly expressed and secreted by macrophages in humans. Epidemiological and genetic studies indicate that increased resistin levels are associated with the development of insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease...
February 16, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182687/lunasin-attenuates-obesity-related-inflammation-in-raw264-7-cells-and-3t3-l1-adipocytes-by-inhibiting-inflammatory-cytokine-production
#5
Chia-Chien Hsieh, Mei-Jia Chou, Chih-Hsuan Wang
Obesity has become a major threat to public health and is accompanied by chronic low-grade inflammation, which leads to various pathological developments. Lunasin, a natural seed peptide, exhibits several biological activities, such as anti-carcinogenesis, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities. However, the mechanism of action of lunasin in obesity-related inflammation has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to explore whether lunasin could reduce the inflammation induced by obesity-related mediators in RAW264...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181253/adipocytes-properties-and-crosstalk-with-immune-system-in-obesity-related-inflammation
#6
REVIEW
Giulia Maurizi, Lucio Della Guardia, Angela Maurizi, Antonella Poloni
Obesity is a condition likely associated with several dysmetabolic conditions or worsening of cardiovascular and other chronic disturbances. A key role in this mechanism seem to be played by the onset of low-grade systemic inflammation, highlighting the importance of the interplay between adipocytes and immune system cells. Adipocytes express a complex and highly adaptive biological profile being capable to selectively activate different metabolic pathways in order to respond to environmental stimuli. It has been demonstrated how adipocytes, under appropriate stimulation, can easily differentiate and de-differentiate thereby converting themselves into different phenotypes according to metabolic necessities...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162236/sr-bi-as-target-in-atherosclerosis-and-cardiovascular-disease-a-comprehensive-appraisal-of-the-cellular-functions-of-sr-bi-in-physiology-and-disease
#7
REVIEW
Menno Hoekstra
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is considered an anti-atherogenic lipoprotein species due to its role in reverse cholesterol transport. HDL delivers cholesterol esters to the liver through selective uptake by scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). In line with the protective role for HDL in the context of cardiovascular disease, studies in mice and recently also in humans have shown that a disruption of normal SR-BI function predisposes subjects to the development of atherosclerotic lesions and cardiovascular disease...
January 31, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157617/all-trans-retinoic-acid-represses-chemokine-expression-in-adipocytes-and-adipose-tissue-by-inhibiting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#8
Esma Karkeni, Lauriane Bonnet, Julien Astier, Charlène Couturier, Julie Dalifard, Franck Tourniaire, Jean-François Landrier
An effect of the Vitamin A metabolite all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) on body weight regulation and adiposity has been described, but little is known about its impact on obesity-associated inflammation. Our objective was to evaluate the overall impact of this metabolite on inflammatory response in human and mouse adipocytes, using high-throughput methods, and to confirm its effects in a mouse model. ATRA (2 μM for 24 h) down-regulated the mRNA expression of 17 chemokines in human adipocytes, and limited macrophage migration in a TNFα-conditioned 3 T3-L1 adipocyte medium (73...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151993/adipose-tissue-macrophages-impair-preadipocyte-differentiation-in-humans
#9
Li Fen Liu, Colleen M Craig, Lorna L Tolentino, Okmi Choi, John Morton, Homero Rivas, Samuel W Cushman, Edgar G Engleman, Tracey McLaughlin
AIM: The physiologic mechanisms underlying the relationship between obesity and insulin resistance are not fully understood. Impaired adipocyte differentiation and localized inflammation characterize adipose tissue from obese, insulin-resistant humans. The directionality of this relationship is not known, however. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether adipose tissue inflammation is causally-related to impaired adipocyte differentiation. METHODS: Abdominal subcutaneous(SAT) and visceral(VAT) adipose tissue was obtained from 20 human participants undergoing bariatric surgery...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150048/lymphocytes-and-macrophages-in-adipose-tissue-in-obesity-markers-or-makers-of-subclinical-inflammation
#10
REVIEW
Anna Cinkajzlová, Miloš Mráz, Martin Haluzík
Obesity is accompanied by the development of chronic low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue. The presence of chronic inflammatory response along with metabolically harmful factors released by adipose tissue into the circulation is associated with several metabolic complications of obesity such as type 2 diabetes mellitus or accelerated atherosclerosis. The present review is focused on macrophages and lymphocytes and their possible role in low-grade inflammation in fat. Both macrophages and lymphocytes respond to obesity-induced adipocyte hypertrophy by their migration into adipose tissue...
February 1, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141918/pro-fibrotic-infrapatellar-fat-pad-remodeling-without-m1-macrophage-polarization-precedes-knee-osteoarthritis-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#11
Erika Barboza, Joanna Hudson, Wan-Pin Chang, Susan Kovats, Rheal A Towner, Robert Silasi-Mansat, Florea Lupu, Collin Kent, Timothy M Griffin
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity increases pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, macrophage infiltration and M1 polarization in the infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) prior to knee cartilage degeneration. METHODS: We characterized the effect of HF feeding on knee OA pathology, body adiposity, and glucose intolerance in male C57BL/6J mice and identified a diet duration that induces metabolic dysfunction prior to cartilage degeneration...
January 31, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141871/effects-of-prenatal-low-protein-and-postnatal-high-fat-diets-on-visceral-adipose-tissue-macrophage-phenotypes-and-il-6-expression-in-sprague-dawley-rat-offspring
#12
Linglin Xie, Ke Zhang, Dane Rasmussen, Junpeng Wang, Dayong Wu, James N Roemmich, Amy Bundy, W Thomas Johnson, Kate Claycombe
Adipose tissue macrophages (ATM) are implicated in adipose tissue inflammation and obesity-related insulin resistance. Maternal low protein models result in fetal programming of obesity. The study aims to answer whether maternal undernutrition by protein restriction affects the ATM M1 or M2 phenotype under postnatal high fat diet in F1 offspring. Using a rat model of prenatal low protein (LP, 8% protein) diet followed by a postnatal high fat energy diet (HE, 45% fat) or low fat normal energy diet (NE, 10% fat) for 12 weeks, we investigated the effects of these diets on adiposity, programming of the offspring ATM phenotype, and the associated inflammatory response in adipose tissue...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139216/integrated-stress-response-activation-by-sleep-fragmentation-during-late-gestation-in-mice-leads-to-emergence-of-adverse-metabolic-phenotype-in-offspring
#13
Wojciech Trzepizur, Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Zhuanhong Qiao, Brian Popko, David Gozal
BACKGROUND: Late gestational sleep fragmentation (SF) is highly prevalent particularly in obese women, and induces metabolic dysfunction in adult offspring mice. SF induces activation of the integrated stress response (ISR), which might be involved in metabolic disorders. We hypothesized that adult offspring of double mutant mice (DM) involving the critical ISR genes CHOP and GADD34 would be protected from developing obesity and insulin resistance following SF. METHODS: Time-pregnant CHOP/GADD34 DM and wild type (WT) mice were randomly assigned to sleep control (SC) or SF conditions during the last 5days of gestation...
January 21, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137586/high-density-lipoprotein-and-apolipoprotein-a-i-inhibit-palmitate-induced-translocation-of-toll-like-receptor-4-into-lipid-rafts-and-inflammatory-cytokines-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#14
Hodaka Yamada, Tomio Umemoto, Mikihiko Kawano, Masanobu Kawakami, Masafumi Kakei, Shin-Ichi Momomura, San-E Ishikawa, Kazuo Hara
Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) activate toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal transduction in macrophages and are involved in the chronic inflammation accompanying obesity. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) produce anti-inflammatory effects via reverse cholesterol transport. However, the underlying mechanisms by which HDL and apoA-I inhibit inflammatory responses in adipocytes remain to be determined. Here we examined whether palmitate increases the translocation of TLR4 into lipid rafts and whether HDL and apoA-I inhibit inflammation in adipocytes...
January 27, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133606/hypothyroidism-reduces-the-size-of-ovarian-follicles-and-promotes-hypertrophy-of-periovarian-fat-with-infiltration-of-macrophages-in-adult-rabbits
#15
J Rodríguez-Castelán, M Méndez-Tepepa, Y Carrillo-Portillo, A Anaya-Hernández, J Rodríguez-Antolín, E Zambrano, F Castelán, E Cuevas-Romero
Ovarian failure is related to dyslipidemias and inflammation, as well as to hypertrophy and dysfunction of the visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Although hypothyroidism has been associated with obesity, dyslipidemias, and inflammation in humans and animals, its influence on the characteristics of ovarian follicles in adulthood is scarcely known. Control and hypothyroid rabbits were used to analyze the ovarian follicles, expression of aromatase in the ovary, serum concentration of lipids, leptin, and uric acid, size of adipocytes, and infiltration of macrophages in the periovarian VAT...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131672/fatty-acid-binding-protein-regulate-antimicrobial-function-via-toll-signaling-in-chinese-mitten-crab
#16
Shichuang Wang, Youting Zhu, Xuejie Li, Qun Wang, Jiayao Li, Weiwei Li
Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are members of the lipid binding protein superfamily and play crucial role in fatty acid transport and lipid metabolism. In macrophages, Adipocyte-type FABP is an important mediator of inflammation. However, the immune functions of FABPs in invertebrates are not well understood; here, we obtained the gene structure of Eriocheir sinensis FABP 3 and FABP 9 (EsFABP 3 and EsFABP 9), and compared with EsFABP 10. The mRNA expression profiles show that all three FABPs were significantly up-regulated in hemocytes after being challenged with bacteria...
January 25, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122789/pdgfr%C3%AE-regulates-adipose-tissue-expansion-and-glucose-metabolism-via-vascular-remodeling-in-diet-induced-obesity
#17
Yasuhiro Onogi, Tsutomu Wada, Chie Kamiya, Kento Inata, Takatoshi Matsuzawa, Yuka Inaba, Kumi Kimura, Hiroshi Inoue, Seiji Yamamoto, Yoko Ishii, Daisuke Koya, Hiroshi Tsuneki, Masakiyo Sasahara, Toshiyasu Sasaoka
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a key factor of angiogenesis; however, its role in adult obesity remains unclear. In order to clarify its pathophysiological role, we investigated the significance of a PDGF receptor β on adipose tissue expansion and glucose metabolism. Mature vessels in the epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) were tightly wrapped with pericytes in normal mice. Pericytes desorption from vessels and the subsequent proliferations of endothelial cells were markedly increased in the eWAT of diet-induced obese mice...
January 25, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121866/daily-suction-provided-by-external-volume-expansion-inducing-regeneration-of-grafted-fat-in-a-murine-model
#18
Yuan Ye, Yunjun Liao, Feng Lu, Jianhua Gao
BACKGROUND: Fat grafting has variable and sometimes poor outcomes, and therefore new methods are needed. Multiple studies have demonstrated the excellent performance of external volume expansion and focused only on preexpansion with emphasis on the recipient. METHODS: Two mouse models (a suction model and a fat-exchange transplantation model) were established to investigate changes in the origins and biological behaviors of regeneration-related cells in grafted fat under daily suction provided by external volume expansion...
February 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116724/isolation-of-mature-adipocytes-from-white-adipose-tissue-and-gene-expression-studies-by-real-time-quantitative-rt-pcr
#19
Aurelie Nguyen Dinh Cat, Ana M Briones
The study of adipose tissue and more specifically of adipocytes is considered pivotal for dissecting molecular mechanisms responsible for alterations in several organs and systems, including adipose tissue, not only in obesity but also in other diseases (hypertension, heart failure). Adipose tissue is a complex tissue composed of adipocytes and the stromal vascular fraction which includes a heterogeneous population of preadipocytes, blood cells, endothelial cells, and macrophages. In the present chapter, methods are detailed to generate purified mature adipocytes from white adipose tissue by using enzymatic digestion...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115795/the-role-of-tissue-macrophage-mediated-inflammation-on-nafld-pathogenesis-and-its-clinical-implications
#20
REVIEW
Anna Alisi, Guido Carpino, Felipe L Oliveira, Nadia Panera, Valerio Nobili, Eugenio Gaudio
The obese phenotype is characterized by a state of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation that contributes to the development of comorbidities, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In fact, NAFLD is often associated with adipocyte enlargement and consequent macrophage recruitment and inflammation. Macrophage polarization is often associated with the proinflammatory state in adipose tissue. In particular, an increase of M1 macrophages number or of M1/M2 ratio triggers the production and secretion of various proinflammatory signals (i...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
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