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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453444/positive-regulation-of-raphe-serotonin-neurons-by-serotonin-2b-receptors
#1
Arnauld Belmer, Emily Quentin, Silvina L Diaz, Bruno P Guiard, Sebastian P Fernandez, Stéphane Doly, Sophie M Banas, Pothitos M Pitychoutis, Imane Moutkine, Aude Muzerelle, Anna Tchenio, Anne Roumier, Manuel Mameli, Luc Maroteaux
Serotonin is a neurotransmitter involved in many psychiatric diseases. In humans, a lack of 5-HT 2B receptors is associated with serotonin-dependent phenotypes, including impulsivity and suicidality. A lack of 5-HT 2B receptors in mice eliminates the effects of molecules that directly target serotonergic neurons including amphetamine derivative serotonin releasers, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that 5-HT 2B receptors directly and positively regulate raphe serotonin neuron activity...
February 5, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451985/a-comparison-of-barriers-to-accessing-services-for-mental-and-physical-health-conditions-in-a-sample-of-rural-australian-adults
#2
Kate Fennell, Melissa Hull, Martin Jones, James Dollman
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of chronic disease, mortality and suicide rates is higher in rural Australia than in urban centres. Understanding rural Australians' barriers to accessing health services requires urgent attention. The purpose of this study was to compare barriers to help-seeking for physical and mental health issues among rural South Australian adults. METHODS: A total of 409 people from three rural and remote regions in South Australia completed a computer-assisted telephone interview...
February 2018: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431475/increased-anxiety-and-anhedonia-in-female-rats-following-exposure-to-altitude
#3
Chandni Sheth, Hendrik Ombach, Paul Olson, Perry F Renshaw, Shami Kanekar
Sheth, Chandni, Hendrik Ombach, Paul Olson, Perry F. Renshaw, and Shami Kanekar. Increased anxiety and anhedonia in female rats following exposure to altitude. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2018.-Anxiety disorders are chronic, highly prevalent conditions, often comorbid with depression. Both anxiety and depression form major risk factors for suicide. Living at altitude is associated with higher rates of depression and suicide, leading us to address whether anxiety disorders may also be amplified at altitude...
February 12, 2018: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421244/involvement-of-no-nmda-r-pathway-in-the-behavioral-despair-induced-by-amphetamine-withdrawal
#4
Arvin Haj-Mirzaian, Shayan Amiri, Hossein Amini-Khoei, Arya Haj-Mirzaian, Arsalan Hashemiaghdam, Kiana Ramezanzadeh, Maria Ghesmati, Khashayar Afshari, Ahmad Reza Dehpour
Abrupt discontinuation of chronic amphetamine consumption leads to withdrawal symptoms including depression, anhedonia, dysphoria, fatigue, and anxiety. These irritating symptoms may result in continuing to take the drug or can lead to suicidal behavior. Past studies have shown the involvement of various biologic systems in depression induced following amphetamine withdrawal (AW). However, there is no evidence about the relation between nitric oxide (NO) with NMDA receptors on depression following AW. In this study, we examined the involvement of the NO/NMDA pathways on depressive-like behaviors after 24 h withdrawal following 5 continuous days of amphetamine administration in male NMRI mice...
February 5, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414272/trial-of-prazosin-for-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-in-military-veterans
#5
Murray A Raskind, Elaine R Peskind, Bruce Chow, Crystal Harris, Anne Davis-Karim, Hollie A Holmes, Kimberly L Hart, Miles McFall, Thomas A Mellman, Christopher Reist, Jennifer Romesser, Robert Rosenheck, Mei-Chiung Shih, Murray B Stein, Robert Swift, Theresa Gleason, Ying Lu, Grant D Huang
BACKGROUND: In randomized trials, prazosin, an α1-adrenoreceptor antagonist, has been effective in alleviating nightmares associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in military veterans. METHODS: We recruited veterans from 13 Department of Veterans Affairs medical centers who had chronic PTSD and reported frequent nightmares. Participants were randomly assigned to receive prazosin or placebo for 26 weeks; the drug or placebo was administered in escalating divided doses over the course of 5 weeks to a daily maximum of 20 mg in men and 12 mg in women...
February 8, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407572/borderline-personality-disorder-and-sexual-abuse-a-systematic-review
#6
Lucas Fortaleza de Aquino Ferreira, Fábio Henrique Queiroz Pereira, Ana Maria Luna Neri Benevides, Matias Carvalho Aguiar Melo
Although sexual abuse (SA) is known to be frequent among borderline personality disorder (BPD) patients, few reviews evaluating that relationship have been published. This systematic review aimed to investigate SA (including adulthood) as a predictor of BPD diagnosis, clinical presentation and prognosis. Studies written in English or Portuguese from January 1997 until January 2017 were identified by searching the following keywords in three international databases: "borderline personality disorder" OR "borderline disorder" AND "sexual abuse" OR "sexual violence" OR "sexual victimization" OR "sexual assault" OR "rape"...
February 1, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397671/the-association-between-suicide-attempts-and-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#7
Jeongjae Bak, Se-Hoon Shim, Young-Joon Kwon, Hwa-Young Lee, Ji Sun Kim, Heejung Yoon, Yeon Jung Lee
Objective: Chronic 'latent' infection by Toxoplasma gondii is common and most of the hosts have minimal symptoms or they are even asymptomatic. However, there are possible mechanisms by which T. gondii may affect human behavior and it may also cause humans to attempt suicide. This article aimed to investigate the potential pathophysiological relationship between suicide attempts and T. gondii infection in Korea. Methods: One hundred fifty-five psychiatric patients with a history of suicide attempt and 135 healthy control individuals were examined with enzyme-linked immunoassays and fluorescent antibody technique for T...
February 28, 2018: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394193/suicide-behavior-and-chronic-pain-an-exploration-of-pain-related-catastrophic-thinking-disability-and-descriptions-of-the-pain-experience
#8
Margaret Legarreta, Elliott Bueler, Jennifer DiMuzio, Erin McGlade, Deborah Yurgelun-Todd
This study examined differences in suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempts (SAs) among veterans with chronic pain. Pain-specific variables, including catastrophic thinking, disability, and sensory, affective, and evaluative pain descriptors, were a focus. Structured diagnostic and clinical interviews were conducted to examine SI/SA and mental health. Veterans completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale to assess Axis I symptoms and suicidal behavior(s)...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387876/mortality-rates-after-the-first-diagnosis-of-psychotic-disorder-in-adolescents-and-young-adults
#9
Gregory E Simon, Christine Stewart, Bobbi Jo Yarborough, Frances Lynch, Karen J Coleman, Arne Beck, Belinda H Operskalski, Robert B Penfold, Enid M Hunkeler
Importance: Individuals with psychotic disorders have increased mortality, and recent research suggests a marked increase shortly after diagnosis. Objective: To use population-based data to examine overall and cause-specific mortality after first diagnosis of a psychotic disorder. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used records from 5 integrated health systems that serve more than 8 million members in 5 states. Members aged 16 through 30 years who received a first lifetime diagnosis of a psychotic disorder from September 30, 2009, through September 30, 2015, and 2 comparison groups matched for age, sex, health system, and year of diagnosis were selected from all members making an outpatient visit (general outpatient group) and from all receiving a first diagnosis of unipolar depression (unipolar depression group)...
January 31, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383449/no-difference-in-the-prevalence-of-alzheimer-type-neurodegenerative-changes-in-the-brains-of-suicides-when-compared-with-controls-an-explorative-neuropathologic-study
#10
Jakob Matschke, Susanne Sehner, Jürgen Gallinat, Julia Siegers, Melanie Murroni, Klaus Püschel, Markus Glatzel
Suicide ranks among the leading causes of death for individuals of all ages with highest rates in the elderly. The cause of suicide is considered a multifactorial phenomenon. A variety of neurodegenerative diseases, notably Alzheimer's disease, or, more recently, tauopathies as frontotemporal lobar degeneration or chronic traumatic encephalopathy, has been suggested as risk factor for suicide. Accordingly, we hypothesized that neurodegenerative changes typical of these diseases should be more prevalent in the brains of suicides when compared with controls...
January 30, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357805/protein-c-reactive-as-biomarker-predictor-of-schizophrenia-phases-of-illness-a-systematic-review
#11
Laura Orsolini, Fabiola Sarchione, Federica Vellante, Michele Fornaro, Ilaria Matarazzo, Giovanni Martinotti, Alessandro Valchera, Marco Di Nicola, Alessandro Carano, Massimo Di Giannantonio, Giampaolo Perna, Luigi Olivieri, Domenico De Berardis
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a complex illness in which genetic, environmental, and epigenetic components have been implicated. However, recently, psychiatric disorders appear to be related to a chronic inflammatory state, at the level of specific cerebral areas which have been found as well impaired and responsible of the schizophrenia symptomatology. Hence, a role of inflammatory mediators and cytokines has been as well supposed. Accordingly, it has been recently investigated the role of an acute inflammatory phase protein, the C-reactive protein (CRP)...
January 19, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353878/psychosocial-characteristics-as-potential-predictors-of-suicide-in-adults-an-overview-of-the-evidence-with-new-results-from-prospective-cohort-studies
#12
REVIEW
G David Batty, Mika Kivimäki, Steven Bell, Catharine R Gale, Martin Shipley, Elise Whitley, David Gunnell
In this narrative overview of the evidence linking psychosocial factors with future suicide risk, we collected results from published reports of prospective studies with verified suicide events (mortality or, less commonly, hospitalisation) alongside analyses of new data. There is abundant evidence indicating that low socioeconomic position, irrespective of the economic status of the country in question, is associated with an increased risk of suicide, including the suggestion that the recent global economic recession has been responsible for an increase in suicide deaths and, by proxy, attempts...
January 22, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339262/the-long-term-physical-and-psychological-health-impacts-of-flooding-a-systematic-mapping
#13
REVIEW
Shuang Zhong, Lianping Yang, Sam Toloo, Zhe Wang, Shilu Tong, Xiaojie Sun, David Crompton, Gerard FitzGerald, Cunrui Huang
BACKGROUND: Flooding has caused significant and wide ranging long-term health impacts for affected populations. However, until now, the long-term health outcomes, epidemiological trends and specific impact factors of flooding had not been identified. In this study, the relevant literature was systematically mapped to create the first synthesis of the evidence of the long-term health impacts of flooding. METHODS: The systematic mapping method was used to collect and categorize all the relevant literature...
January 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335689/psoriasis-a-review-of-systemic-comorbidities-and-dental-management-considerations
#14
John K Brooks
OBJECTIVE: There is a growing body of evidence to substantiate that cutaneous psoriasis is associated with an increased risk for a multitude of systemic disorders. Although there is an extensive array of medical publications regarding psoriasis, the dental literature has almost exclusively been focused on erythema migrans and occasionally, with oral psoriatic mucositis, chronic periodontitis, and psoriatic arthritis of the temporomandibular joint. This report will review the diversity of systemic comorbidities, namely cardiovascular, neurologic, renal, liver, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, endocrine, ocular, arthritic (including temporomandibular joint), nail, cutaneous, and psychologic (including suicide) disorders; neoplasia; infection; dyslipidemia; vitamin D deficiency; substance abuse; higher mortality; and oral mucosal involvement...
2018: Quintessence International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335261/childhood-trajectories-of-peer-victimization-and-prediction-of-mental-health-outcomes-in-midadolescence-a-longitudinal-population-based-study
#15
Marie-Claude Geoffroy, Michel Boivin, Louise Arseneault, Johanne Renaud, Léa C Perret, Gustavo Turecki, Gregory Michel, Julie Salla, Frank Vitaro, Mara Brendgen, Richard E Tremblay, Sylvana M Côté
BACKGROUND: Exposure to peer victimization is relatively common. However, little is known about its developmental course and its effect on impairment associated with mental illnesses. We aimed to identify groups of children following differential trajectories of peer victimization from ages 6 to 13 years and to examine predictive associations of these trajectories with mental health in adolescence. METHODS: Participants were members of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, a prospective cohort of 2120 children born in 1997/98 who were followed until age 15 years...
January 15, 2018: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334197/increased-non-aids-mortality-among-persons-with-aids-defining-events-after-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation
#16
April C Pettit, Mark J Giganti, Suzanne M Ingle, Margaret T May, Bryan E Shepherd, Michael J Gill, Gerd Fätkenheuer, Sophie Abgrall, Michael S Saag, Julia Del Amo, Amy C Justice, Jose M Miro, Matthias Cavasinni, François Dabis, Antonella D Monforte, Peter Reiss, Jodie Guest, David Moore, Leah Shepherd, Niels Obel, Heidi M Crane, Colette Smith, Ramon Teira, Robert Zangerle, Jonathan Ac Sterne, Timothy R Sterling
INTRODUCTION: HIV-1 infection leads to chronic inflammation and to an increased risk of non-AIDS mortality. Our objective was to determine whether AIDS-defining events (ADEs) were associated with increased overall and cause-specific non-AIDS related mortality after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. METHODS: We included HIV treatment-naïve adults from the Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC) who initiated ART from 1996 to 2014. Causes of death were assigned using the Coding Causes of Death in HIV (CoDe) protocol...
January 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329957/safety-and-tolerability-of-a-novel-polyclonal-human-anti-mers-coronavirus-antibody-produced-from-transchromosomic-cattle-a-phase-1-randomised-double-blind-single-dose-escalation-study
#17
John H Beigel, Jocelyn Voell, Parag Kumar, Kanakatte Raviprakash, Hua Wu, Jin-An Jiao, Eddie Sullivan, Thomas Luke, Richard T Davey
BACKGROUND: Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a severe respiratory illness with an overall mortality of 35%. There is no licensed or proven treatment. Passive immunotherapy approaches are being developed to prevent and treat several human medical conditions where alternative therapeutic options are absent. We report the safety of a fully human polyclonal IgG antibody (SAB-301) produced from the hyperimmune plasma of transchromosomic cattle immunised with a MERS coronavirus vaccine...
January 9, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323522/demoralization-and-embitterment
#18
Maria Giulia Nanni, Rosangela Caruso, Silvana Sabato, Luigi Grassi
OBJECTIVE: Individuals may experience a wide range of psychological reactions in response to negative life events. Even if events that threaten life have been always played a central role in research, recent studies have outlined that experiences, considered exceptional but part of the human existence (e.g., divorce, unemployment, or chronic illness) may also lead individuals to experience enduring emotional states of suffering. Demoralization has been substantially described as an important condition occurring in response to stressful events, while a recent interest is growing on embitterment as a common reaction...
January 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306936/remote-healing-of-bipolar-disorder-eating-disorder-not-otherwise-specified-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-fibromyalgia-and-irritable-bowel-syndrome-through-lifestyle-change
#19
Kelly Brogan
This case report illustrates the relationship between gut, hormonal, and brain function in that dietary change, mindfulness interventions, and detoxification led to resolution of disabling psychiatric symptoms. In this case, a single Caucasian female resolved her symptoms of bipolar disorder (BD) including psychotic features and suicidality, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms from childhood torture, disordered eating, fibromyalgia, and irritable bowel syndrome through lifestyle interventions. This patient survived a severe trauma history only to develop alcohol dependence, disordered eating, and depressive symptoms, which were treated with a polypharmaceutical psychiatric approach...
October 2017: Advances in Mind-body Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304922/the-appropriate-use-of-opioids-in-the-treatment-of-refractory-restless-legs-syndrome
#20
Michael H Silber, Philip M Becker, Mark J Buchfuhrer, Christopher J Earley, William G Ondo, Arthur S Walters, John W Winkelman
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a distinct disorder, differing from chronic pain in many ways. Refractory RLS is characterized by unresponsiveness to dopamine agonists or alpha-2-delta ligands due to inadequate efficacy, augmentation, or adverse effects. This may result in severely impaired quality of life, profound insomnia, and suicidal depression. Opioid therapy is a mainstay in the management of these patients. This article summarizes the basic science and clinical evidence in support of their use, including the positive result of a large controlled multicenter study of 306 subjects, and outlines an approach to their use in clinical practice...
January 2018: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
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