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Débora Finger, Fábio Juner Lanferdini, Juliano Boufleur Farinha, Clarissa Müller Brusco, Lucas Helal, Francesco Pinto Boeno, Eduardo Lusa Cadore, Ronei Silveira Pinto
INTRODUCTION: Protein (PRO) combined with a carbohydrate (CHO) beverage may have an ergogenic effect on endurance performance. However, evidence regarding its efficacy on similar conditions to athletes' race day is still lacking. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of three different nutritional supplementation strategies on performance and muscle recovery in a duathlon protocol. METHODS: , 13 male athletes (29.7 ± 7.7 years) participated in three simulated Olympic-distance duathlons under three different, randomly assigned, supplementation regimens: carbohydrate drink (CHO, 75 g); isocaloric CHO plus protein drink (CHO+PRO, 60...
March 15, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Carmen Scheibenbogen, Madlen Loebel, Helma Freitag, Anne Krueger, Sandra Bauer, Michaela Antelmann, Wolfram Doehner, Nadja Scherbakov, Harald Heidecke, Petra Reinke, Hans-Dieter Volk, Patricia Grabowski
INTRODUCTION: Infection-triggered disease onset, chronic immune activation and autonomic dysregulation in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) point to an autoimmune disease directed against neurotransmitter receptors. We had observed elevated autoantibodies against ß2 adrenergic receptors, and muscarinic 3 and 4 acetylcholine receptors in a subset of patients. Immunoadsorption (IA) was shown to be effective in removing autoantibodies and improve outcome in various autoimmune diseases...
2018: PloS One
Joshua D Sackett, Desiree C Huerta, Brittany R Kruger, Scott D Hamilton-Brehm, Duane P Moser
Devils Hole is the sole natural habitat of the critically endangered Devils Hole pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis). To establish a backup population, the Ash Meadows Fish Conservation Facility (AMFCF), a full-scale replica of the uppermost 6.7 m of Devils Hole, was constructed by management agencies in the mid-2010s. Despite rigorous efforts to mimic the bathymetric and physical details of the Devils Hole environment, the biogeochemistry and microbiology of the AMFCF refuge tank remain largely unaddressed. We evaluated water physicochemistry and employed Illumina DNA sequencing of 16S rRNA gene libraries to evaluate planktonic and benthic bacterial and archaeal community composition within their respective physicochemical contexts in Devils Hole and AMFCF on the same day...
2018: PloS One
Lieselot Decroix, Cajsa Tonoli, Elodie Lespagnol, Constantino Balestra, Amandine Descat, Marie Jose Drittij-Reijnders, Jamie R Blackwell, Wilhelm Stahl, Andrew M Jones, Antje R Weseler, Aalt Bast, Romain Meeusen, Elsa Heyman
INTRODUCTION: During exercise in hypoxia, O2 delivery to brain and muscle is compromised and oxidative stress is elicited. Cocoa flavanols (CF) have antioxidant capacities and can increase blood flow by stimulating endothelial function. We aimed to examine the effects of 7-day CF intake on oxidative stress, nitric oxide production and tissue oxygenation in response to exercise in hypoxia (14.3% O2 ). METHODS: In a randomized, double blind, cross-over study, 14 well-trained male cyclists completed 4 trials: exercise in normoxia or hypoxia, after 7-day CF or placebo intake...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Baoku Shi, Junmei Zhang, Chengliang Wang, Jianying Ma, Wei Sun
The effects of manipulating nitrogen (N) deposition, with the use of a single form of N, on soil enzyme activities have been extensively studied. However, the impacts varying the N type (organic vs. inorganic) on soil hydrolytic enzyme activities have been less studied. We performed a 60 day incubation experiment using saline-alkaline soil. The objectives were to explore how the microbial biomass and enzyme activities respond to a mixed N addition at different inorganic to organic N ratios. The experimental design was full factorial, with two rates of N addition (10 g N m-2 and 20 g N m-2 ) and four ratios of N addition (inorganic N:organic N = 10:0, 7:3, 3:7, 1:9)...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Vanessa Trieu, Harlan Pinto, Jonathan W Riess, Ruth Lira, Richard Luciano, Jessie Coty, Derek Boothroyd, A Dimitrios Colevas
LESSONS LEARNED: Chemotherapy for recurrent, metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck need not be known for extreme toxicity.The weekly regimen studied here has been demonstrated to be tolerable and effective. BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to establish the response rate, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), and safety profile of weekly docetaxel, platinum, and cetuximab (TPC) in patients with relapsed or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN)...
March 14, 2018: Oncologist
Juliana Monte Real, Ludmila Rodrigues Pinto Ferreira, Gustavo Henrique Esteves, Fernanda Christtanini Koyama, Marcos Vinícius Salles Dias, João Evangelista Bezerra-Neto, Edécio Cunha-Neto, Flavia Ribeiro Machado, Reinaldo Salomão, Luciano Cesar Pontes Azevedo
BACKGROUND: Exosomes isolated from plasma of patients with sepsis may induce vascular apoptosis and myocardial dysfunction by mechanisms related to inflammation and oxidative stress. Despite previous studies demonstrating that these vesicles contain genetic material related to cellular communication, their molecular cargo during sepsis is relatively unknown. In this study, we evaluated the presence of microRNAs (miRNAs) and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) related to inflammatory response and redox metabolism in exosomes of patients with septic shock...
March 15, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Alberto J Leon, Viktoriya Borisevich, Nahal Boroumand, Robert Seymour, Rebecca Nusbaum, Olivier Escaffre, Luoling Xu, David J Kelvin, Barry Rockx
Henipavirus infection causes severe respiratory and neurological disease in humans that can be fatal. To characterize the pathogenic mechanisms of henipavirus infection in vivo, we performed experimental infections in ferrets followed by genome-wide gene expression analysis of lung and brain tissues. The Hendra, Nipah-Bangladesh, and Nipah-Malaysia strains caused severe respiratory and neurological disease with animals succumbing around 7 days post infection. Despite the presence of abundant viral shedding, animal-to-animal transmission did not occur...
March 14, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Peiling Cai, Liuning Li, Hongxi Hong, Liwen Zhang, Chunxia He, Xiaoshu Chai, Bai Liu, Zhijian Chen
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of Chinese medicine warm compress (CMWC) on back meridians in relieving cancer pain, reducing adjuvant analgesic doses and adverse reactions, and improving the quality of life (QOL). METHODS: A total of 62 patients (age range 39-82 years) diagnosed with a malignant tumor and suffering from cancer-related pain were randomly divided into a treatment group (group A) and a control group (group B) (n = 31 for each)...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Todd D Rozen
OBJECTIVE: To present results from the United States Cluster Headache Survey comparing the clinical presentation of tobacco nonexposed and tobacco-exposed cluster headache patients. BACKGROUND: Cluster headache is uniquely tied to a personal history of tobacco usage/cigarette smoking and, if the individual cluster headache sufferer did not smoke, it has been shown that their parent(s) typically did and that individual had significant secondary smoke exposure as a child...
March 14, 2018: Headache
Ammaly Phengvilaysouk, Jan Erik Lindberg, Viengsamai Sisongkham, Phonpaseuth Phengsavanh, Anna Jansson
This study investigated the effect of providing extra water and nesting material to Moo Lath sows on piglet survival and growth. Three treatments were evaluated in a randomized block design with six sows/treatment. In the Control treatment, sows were not provided with nesting material or extra water apart from that included in the feed (conventional smallholder practice). In treatment NM, nesting material was provided 1-2 days before expected farrowing. In treatment NMW, nesting material as in NM and extra water were provided ad libitum throughout the study...
March 13, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Jenna Anderson, Thorunn A Olafsdottir, Sven Kratochvil, Paul F McKay, Malin Östensson, Josefine Persson, Robin J Shattock, Ali M Harandi
Systems biology approaches have recently provided new insights into the mechanisms of action of human vaccines and adjuvants. Here, we investigated early transcriptional signatures induced in whole blood of healthy subjects following vaccination with a recombinant HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein subunit CN54gp140 adjuvanted with the TLR4 agonist glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant-aqueous formulation (GLA-AF) and correlated signatures to CN54gp140-specific serum antibody responses. Fourteen healthy volunteers aged 18-45 years were immunized intramuscularly three times at 1-month intervals and whole blood samples were collected at baseline, 6 h, and 1, 3, and 7 days post first immunization...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Lydia K Caldwell, William H DuPont, Matthew K Beeler, Emily M Post, Emily C Barnhart, Vincent H Hardesty, John P Anders, Emily C Borden, Jeff S Volek, William J Kraemer
The purpose of this double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation was to examine the effects of a Korean Ginseng (GINST15) on measures of perception and physical performance following an acute bout of resistance exercise. Ten women (age: 38.7 ± 7.8 years; height: 1.64 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 76.0 ± 11.6 kg) and nine men (age: 41.2. ± 9.7 years; height: 1.77 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 88.5 ± 5.0 kg) completed the investigation. Participants were randomized to a three-cycle testing scheme consisting of high dose ginseng (HIGH: 960 mg/day), low dose ginseng (LOW: 160 mg/day) and placebo (PBO: 0 mg/day)...
March 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Khawar Abbas, Muhammed Mubarak, Mirza Naqi Zafar, Wajiha Musharraf, Mehjabeen Imam, Tahir Aziz, Adibul Hassan Rizvi
OBJECTIVES: Plasma cell-rich acute rejection is an aggressive form of acute rejection that occurs late after transplant and is usually resistant to standard antirejection therapy. This study reports the safety, efficacy, and outcomes of plasma cell-rich acute rejection after treatment with bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, in 10 patients after a first living-related renal transplant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plasma cell-rich acute rejection was diagnosed using the 2007 Banff classification...
March 9, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
L Dai, Y X Liu, L Xie, W Di
Objective: To study the effect and mechanism of S1PR2 inhibition on epithelial ovarian cancer SKOV3 cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Methods: (1) A pair of S1PR2 gene small interference RNA (siRNA) , namely si-S1PR2, and a pair of negative control siRNA were designed. Western blot methods were used to detect the silence efficiency of the S1PR2 in the si-S1PR2 group, blank control group and negative control group. (2) Study in vitro: the experiment included three groups, namely si-S1PR2 group, blank control group and negative control group...
February 25, 2018: Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke za Zhi
Raghavendra Rao, Motaz Nashawaty, Saher Fatima, Kathleen Ennis, Ivan Tkac
Hyperglycemia (blood glucose concentration >150 mg/dL) is common in extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGANs; birth at <28 week gestation). Hyperglycemia increases the risk of brain injury in the neonatal period. The long-term effects are not well understood. In adult rats, hyperglycemia alters hippocampal energy metabolism. The effects of hyperglycemia on the developing hippocampus were studied in rat pups. In Experiment 1, recurrent hyperglycemia of graded severity (moderate hyperglycemia (moderate-HG), mean blood glucose 214...
March 13, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
Jacob E Hill, Travis L DeVault, James C Beasley, Olin E Rhodes, Jerrold L Belant
Vultures provide an essential ecosystem service through removal of carrion, but globally, many populations are collapsing and several species are threatened with extinction. Widespread declines in vulture populations could increase the availability of carrion to other organisms, but the ways facultative scavengers might respond to this increase have not been thoroughly explored. We aimed to determine whether facultative scavengers increase carrion consumption in the absence of vulture competition and whether they are capable of functionally replacing vultures in the removal of carrion biomass from the landscape...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Toni K Choueiri, James Larkin, Mototsugu Oya, Fiona Thistlethwaite, Marcella Martignoni, Paul Nathan, Thomas Powles, David McDermott, Paul B Robbins, David D Chism, Daniel Cho, Michael B Atkins, Michael S Gordon, Sumati Gupta, Hirotsugu Uemura, Yoshihiko Tomita, Anna Compagnoni, Camilla Fowst, Alessandra di Pietro, Brian I Rini
BACKGROUND: The combination of an immune checkpoint inhibitor and a VEGF pathway inhibitor to treat patients with advanced renal-cell carcinoma might increase the clinical benefit of these drugs compared with their use alone. Here, we report preliminary results for the combination of avelumab, an IgG1 monoclonal antibody against the programmed cell death protein ligand PD-L1, and axitinib, a VEGF receptor inhibitor approved for second-line treatment of advanced renal-cell carcinoma, in treatment-naive patients with advanced renal-cell carcinoma...
March 9, 2018: Lancet Oncology
Dong-Wan Kim, Hoon-Gu Kim, Joo-Hang Kim, Keunchil Park, Hoon-Kyo Kim, Joung Soon Jang, Bong-Seog Kim, Jin-Hyoung Kang, Kyung Hee Lee, Sang-We Kim, Hun Mo Ryoo, Jin-Soo Kim, Ki Hyeong Lee, Jung Hye Kwon, Jin-Hyuk Choi, Sang Won Shin, Seokyung Hahn, Dae Seog Heo
Purpose: This randomized phase III study was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of irinotecan plus cisplatin (IP) over etoposide plus cisplatin (EP) in Korean patients with extensive-disease small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Materials and Methods: Patients were randomly assigned to receive IP, composed of irinotecan 65 mg/m2 intravenously on days 1 and 8 + cisplatin 70 mg/m2 intravenously on day1 every 3 weeks, or EP, composed of etoposide 100 mg/m2 intravenously on days 1, 2, 3+cisplatin 70 mg/m2 intravenously on day 1, every 3 weeks for a maximum of six cycles, until disease progression, or until unacceptable toxicity occurred...
March 12, 2018: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
Nigel Harris, Andrew Kilding, Shivani Sethi, Fabrice Merien, Jinger Gottschall
OBJECTIVES: Given apparent consumer interest in calorie counting and arguably inadequate understanding of the differential effects of exercise modality despite equivalent caloric expenditure, we sought to quantify and compare the acute physiological responses within and between a BODYPUMP™ (BP) group-fitness class and steady-state cycling (CARDIO), matched for caloric cost (iso-caloric) and time (iso-time). DESIGN: Acute cross-over study design. METHODS: Twelve healthy recreationally active females (30...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
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