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hcc review

Kyohei Yugawa, Tomoharu Yoshizumi, Noboru Harada, Takashi Motomura, Norifumi Harimoto, Shinji Itoh, Toru Ikegami, Yuji Soejima, Yoshihiko Maehara
BACKGROUND: Hepatic sclerosing hemangioma, a very rare benign tumor, is characterized by fibrosis and hyalinization occurring in association with degeneration of a hepatic cavernous hemangioma. Such atypical hemangiomas can be diagnosed incorrectly as primary or metastatic malignancies based on imaging characteristics. We present herein a rare case of giant and multiple hepatic sclerosing hemangiomas that are difficult to differentiate from hepatic malignancies and review the relevant literature...
June 19, 2018: Surgical Case Reports
Young-A Heo, Yahiya Y Syed
Regorafenib (Stivarga® ), a small molecule inhibitor of multiple kinases, is the first drug to be approved for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients who have progressed during or after sorafenib therapy. Its approval was based on the results of the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational, phase III RESORCE trial in patients with HCC who had progressed during sorafenib therapy. In RESORCE, regorafenib significantly prolonged overall survival (OS; primary endpoint), progression-free survival (PFS) and time to progression (TTP) compared with placebo, with the OS benefit appearing to be largely due to disease stabilization...
June 18, 2018: Drugs
Anna S Griffith, Paul H Hayashi, Lauren Mb Burke, Autumn J McRee
We describe two cases of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) treated with direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy who had dramatic improvement in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumor burden with DAA therapy alone. Both patients were diagnosed with HCC on screening magnetic resonance imaging shortly after beginning DAA therapy. Both patients achieved sustained virologic response (SVR) with dramatic improvement in HCC tumor burden on follow-up imaging without HCC treatment. Patients with multifocal or advanced HCC are infrequently treated with antiviral therapy for HCV...
2018: Journal of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Han-Yu Jiang, Jie Chen, Chun-Chao Xia, Li-Kun Cao, Ting Duan, Bin Song
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer and a major public health problem worldwide. Hepatocarcinogenesis is a complex multistep process at molecular, cellular, and histologic levels with key alterations that can be revealed by noninvasive imaging modalities. Therefore, imaging techniques play pivotal roles in the detection, characterization, staging, surveillance, and prognosis evaluation of HCC. Currently, ultrasound is the first-line imaging modality for screening and surveillance purposes...
June 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Zachary J Brown, Bernd Heinrich, Tim F Greten
Mouse models are the basis of preclinical and translational research in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Multiple methods exist to induce tumour formation in mice, including genetically engineered mouse models, chemotoxic agents, intrahepatic or intrasplenic injection of tumour cells and xenograft approaches. Additionally, as HCC generally develops in the context of diseased liver, methods exist to induce liver disease in mice to mimic viral hepatitis, fatty liver disease, fibrosis, alcohol-induced liver disease and cholestasis...
June 14, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Pavan Tenneti, Mitesh J Board, Hani M Babiker
The standard of care for early hepatobiliary cancers (HBC) includes surgical resection. Liver transplantations or locoregional therapies are beneficial in early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) under certain circumstances. Systemic treatments have some benefit in advanced HBC, though long-term prognosis remains poor. We evaluated the role of oncolytic viruses in the treatment of HBCs through a systematic literature review. The recombinant vaccinia virus JX-594 improved median survival in patients with local/metastatic HCC more strongly at high dose than at low dose (14...
June 14, 2018: Immunotherapy
Walter Alexander
Our coverage of this year's International Liver Congress reviews sessions on hepatitis C, primary biliary cholangitis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.
June 2018: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
Y Qin, P Liao
Hepatitis B (HB) is a worldwide public health problem, closely related with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The implementation of universal hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination programs has led to significant reduction in incidence of acute and chronic HB, liver cirrhosis and HCC. However, this success is now being threatened by the discovery of HBV vaccine breakthrough infection caused by the S gene mutants of HBV, high maternal viral load and virus-induced immunosuppression. An alteration in the antigenicity and immunogenicity of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) due to S gene mutations may compromise detection of HBsAg (diagnosis-escape mutants), treatment with hepatitis B-specific immunoglobulin (HBIG), and even cause infections in individuals who are antihepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) antibody-positive after immunization (vaccine-escape mutants)...
2018: Acta Virologica
Federica Di Marco, Giada M Vecchio, Biagio Di Stefano, Antonio Pesce, Stefano Puleo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 12, 2018: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Esther Caparrós, Rubén Francés
The three main causes of inflammation and chronic injury in the liver are viral hepatitis, alcohol consumption, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, all of which can lead to liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, which in turn may prompt the need for liver transplant. The interleukin (IL)-20 is a subfamily part of the IL-10 family of cytokines that helps the liver respond to damage and disease, they participate in the control of tissue homeostasis, and in the immunological responses developed in this organ...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Xuan Guo, Jin-Yi Zhong, Jun-Wen Li
In the twenty-seven years since the discovery of hepatitis C virus (HCV) the majority of individuals exposed to HCV establish a persistent infection, which is a leading cause of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In developed nations, the cure rates of HCV infection could be over 90% with direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens, which has made the great progress in global eradication. However, the cost of these treatments is so expensive that the patients in developing nations, where the disease burden is the most severe, could not afford it, which highly restricted its access...
June 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
Luca Viganò, Andrea Laurenzi, Luigi Solbiati, Fabio Procopio, Daniel Cherqui, Guido Torzilli
BACKGROUND: Patients with a single hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ≤3 cm and preserved liver function have the highest likelihood to be cured if treated. The most adequate treatment methods are yet a matter that is debated. METHODS: We reviewed the literature about open anatomic resection (AR), laparoscopic liver resection (LLR), and percutaneous thermal ablation (PTA). RESULTS: PTA is effective as resection for HCC < 2 cm, when they are neither subcapsular nor perivascular...
June 11, 2018: Digestive Surgery
Chia-Jui Yen, Tae-You Kim, Yin-Hsun Feng, Yee Chao, Deng-Yn Lin, Baek-Yeol Ryoo, Dennis Chin-Lun Huang, David Schnell, Julia Hocke, Arsène-Bienvenu Loembé, Ann-Lii Cheng
Background: Nintedanib is an oral, triple angiokinase inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor/platelet-derived growth factor/fibroblast growth factor receptors. This randomized, multicenter, open-label, phase I/II study evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics, maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in terms of dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), and efficacy of nintedanib versus sorafenib in Asian patients with unresectable advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients and Methods: For the phase I portion, patients were stratified into two groups according to their alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) and Child-Pugh score at baseline...
May 2018: Liver Cancer
Anand Narayan Singh, Ragini Kilambi, Prasenjit Das, Kumble Seetharama Madhusudhan, Sujoy Pal
Isolated, metastatic hemangiopericytoma of liver is an extremely rare entity. We present a case of hemangiopericytoma of the liver, metastatic from a meningeal hemangiopericytoma, who presented 10 years after the surgical excision of the primary tumour and morphologically mimicked a hepatocellular carcinoma. We review the literature regarding this entity and discuss the difficulties in preoperative diagnosis and the need for a thorough preoperative evaluation.
June 2018: Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology
Ryan L Setten, Helen L Lightfoot, Nagy A Habib, John J Rossi
Oligonucleotide drug development has revolutionised the drug discovery field allowing the notoriously "undruggable" genome to potentially become "druggable". Within this field, 'small' or 'short' activating RNAs (saRNA) are a more recently discovered category of short double stranded RNA with clinical potential. SaRNAs promote endogenous transcription from target loci, a phenomenon widely observed in mammals known as RNA activation (RNAa). The ability to target a particular gene is dependent on the sequence of the saRNA...
June 10, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
X R Peng, Y Lu, M H Zhang, L T Li, X B Xie, J Y Gong, J S Wang
Objective: To explore the relationship between genotype and phenotype of ABCB11 deficiency. Methods: Clinical data of two siblings with ABCB11 deficiency were retrospectively analyzed. Related literature from PubMed, CNKI and Wangfang databases was reviewed to date (up to August 2017) with 'ABCB11 gene' or 'bile salt export pump', 'cholestasis' and 'child' as key words. Results: The patients were siblings. Both of them presented as jaundice, pruritus and hepatosplenomegaly since 3 days after birth. Significant laboratory findings on admission of the older sister included high total bilirubin, 170 µmol/L;conjugated bilirubin, 115...
June 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Guenter Haemmerle, Achim Lass
Excessive accumulation of triacylglycerol is the common denominator of a wide range of clinical pathologies of liver diseases, termed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Such excessive triacylglycerol deposition in the liver is also referred to as hepatic steatosis. Although liver steatosis often resolves over time, it eventually progresses to steatohepatitis, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, with associated complications, including liver failure, hepatocellular carcinoma and ultimately death of affected individuals...
June 5, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Carmen Vinaixa, Nazia Selzner, Marina Berenguer
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), with or without hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a growing indication for liver transplantation (LT) worldwide, particularly in the western world. Patients with NASH typically combine features of metabolic syndrome with cardiovascular comorbidities, which challenge pre-LT evaluation, surgical approaches, post-LT management and outcomes. Post-LT survival in NASH patients is excellent, similar to that achieved with other indications, particularly in the absence of cardiovascular comorbidities...
June 8, 2018: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
Neehar D Parikh, Vincent D Marshall, Michael Green, Theodore S Lawrence, Nataliya Razumilava, Dawn Owen, Amit G Singal, Mary Feng
INTRODUCTION: For early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, ablative strategies are potentially curative treatment options. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has emerged as a promising ablative therapy, although its comparison with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) remains confined to a single institution retrospective review. We sought to characterize the comparative outcomes and cost between the two treatment strategies. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database (2004-2011) and identified adult patients with stage I or II HCC and treated with RFA or SBRT as the initial treatment within 6 months of diagnosis...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Eva Braunwarth, Stefan Stättner, Margot Fodor, Benno Cardini, Thomas Resch, Rupert Oberhuber, Daniel Putzer, Reto Bale, Manuel Maglione, Christian Margreiter, Stefan Schneeberger, Dietmar Öfner, Florian Primavesi
Background: Owing to remarkable improvements of surgical techniques and associated specialities, liver surgery has become the standard of care for hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. Although applied with much greater safety, hepatic resections for primary liver tumours remain challenging and need to be integrated in a complex multidisciplinary treatment approach. Methods: This literature review gives an update on the recent developments regarding basics of open and laparoscopic liver surgery and surgical strategies for primary liver tumours...
2018: European Surgery: ACA: Acta Chirurgica Austriaca
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