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hcc pathophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800792/microrna-125a-5p-inhibits-cell-proliferation-and-induces-apoptosis-in-hepatitis-b-virus-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma-by-downregulation-of-erbb3
#1
Guoyun Li, Wei Zhang, Li Gong, Xiaoping Huang
MicroRNAs, a class of endogenous non-coding RNAs, regulate gene expression at post-transcriptional level, thus taking part in multiple biological processed. Increasing miRNAs are found to be dysregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and are involved in liver tumorigenesis. In this study, miR-125a-5p was found to obviously downregulate much more in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC. To investigate the effects of miR-125a-5p, miR-125a-5p was overexpressed in HepG2.2.15 and HepG3X cells, respectively. The findings have indicated that overexpression of miR-125a-5p dramatically inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis...
August 11, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781795/transmembrane-channel-like-protein-8-as-a-potential-biomarker-for-poor-prognosis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#2
Panpan Lu, Qiang Ding, Shuping Ding, Yuhui Fan, Xin Li, Dean Tian, Mei Liu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive malignant tumor and the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Transmembrane channel-like protein 8 (TMC8) is reported to play a major role in several aspects of human pathophysiology, such as ion channel permeability, human papillomavirus infection and skin cancer; however, its role in HCC has not been fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression levels of TMC8 in 146 pairs of liver cancer samples and adjacent non-tumorous samples using immunohistochemistry...
August 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752441/pathophysiology-of-alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficiency-liver-disease
#3
Jeffrey H Teckman, Keith S Blomenkamp
Classical alpha-1 antitrypsin (a1AT) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disease associated with an increased risk of liver disease in adults and children, and with lung disease in adults (Teckman and Jain, Curr Gastroenterol Rep 16(1):367, 2014). The vast majority of the liver disease is associated with homozygosity for the Z mutant allele, the so-called PIZZ. These homozygous individuals synthesize large quantities of a1AT mutant Z protein in the liver, but the mutant protein folds improperly during biogenesis and approximately 85% of the molecules are retained within the hepatocytes rather than appropriately secreted...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730823/pathophysiological-analysis-of-the-progression-of-hepatic-lesions-in-stam-mice
#4
T Saito, M Muramatsu, Y Ishii, Y Saigo, T Konuma, Y Toriniwa, K Miyajima, T Ohta
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a current health issue since the disease often leads to hepatocellular carcinoma; however, the pathogenesis of the disease has still not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the pathophysiological changes observed in hepatic lesions in STAM mice, a novel NASH model. STAM mice, high fat-diet (HFD) fed mice, and streptozotocin (STZ) treated mice were prepared, and changes over time, such as biological parameters, mRNA expression, and histopathological findings, were evaluated once animal reached 5, 7, and 10 weeks of age...
July 18, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702738/impact-of-etiological-treatment-on-prognosis
#5
REVIEW
Chien-Wei Su, Ying-Ying Yang, Han-Chieh Lin
Portal hypertension (PHT) is a frequent and severe complication of cirrhosis. PHT may lead to the development of various complications with high mortality. Liver transplantation is the gold standard as a surgical curative treatment for end-stage liver disease. Theoretically, etiological treatment focusing on the pathophysiology of the underlying disease should be the objective of the nonsurgical management of cirrhotic PHT. Chronic viral hepatitis is the major etiology of cirrhosis and PHT. In cirrhotic patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection, antiviral therapies can suppress viral replication, ameliorate hepatic inflammation, regress fibrosis, and restore liver functional reserve...
July 12, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685993/association-of-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-micrornas-with-susceptibility-to-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-and-hbv-related-liver-complications-a-study-in-a-saudi-arabian-population
#6
Ahmed A Al-Qahtani, Mashael R Al-Anazi, Nyla Nazir, Kaiser Wani, Ayman A Abdo, Faisal M Sanai, Mohammed Q Khan, Hamad I Al-Ashgar, Ali Albenmousa, Waleed K Al-Hamoudi, Khalid A Alswat, Mohammed N Al-Ahdal
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of 10 SNPs in different microRNAs (miRNAs) with susceptibility to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, HBV clearance, persistence of chronic HBV infection, and progression to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients were categorized into the following groups: inactive HBV carrier, active HBV carrier, HBV-cleared subject, and cirrhosis+HCC. Samples were analyzed for 10 SNPs in microRNAs using either PCR-based genotyping or the TaqMan assay...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652891/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-an-expanded-review
#7
REVIEW
Mark Benedict, Xuchen Zhang
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses the simple steatosis to more progressive steatosis with associated hepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and in some cases hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD is a growing epidemic, not only in the United States, but worldwide in part due to obesity and insulin resistance leading to liver accumulation of triglycerides and free fatty acids. Numerous risk factors for the development of NAFLD have been espoused with most having some form of metabolic derangement or insulin resistance at the core of its pathophysiology...
June 8, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634412/extracellular-vesicles-in-liver-disease-and-potential-as-biomarkers-and-therapeutic-targets
#8
REVIEW
Gyongyi Szabo, Fatemeh Momen-Heravi
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membranous vesicles originating from different cells in the liver. The pathophysiological role of EVs is increasingly recognized in liver diseases, including alcoholic liver disease, NAFLD, viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. EVs, via their cargo, can provide communication between different cell types in the liver and between organs. EVs are explored as biomarkers of disease and could also represent therapeutic targets and vehicles for treatment delivery. Here, we review advances in understanding the role of EVs in liver diseases and discuss their utility in biomarker discovery and therapeutics...
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632778/over-expressing-the-soluble-gp130-fc-does-not-ameliorate-methionine-and-choline-deficient-diet-induced-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-mice
#9
Helene L Kammoun, Tamara Louise Allen, Darren Colin Henstridge, Michael James Kraakman, Lone Peijs, Stefan Rose-John, Mark Anthony Febbraio
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a liver disease with the potential to lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of NASH, with the so-called IL-6 'trans-signaling' cascade being responsible for the pro-inflammatory actions of this cytokine. We aimed to block IL-6 'trans-signaling', using a transgenic mouse that overexpresses human soluble glycoprotein130 (sgp130Fc Tg mice) fed a commonly used dietary model of inducing NASH (methionine and choline deficient-diet; MCD diet) and hypothesized that markers of NASH would be ameliorated in such mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632197/toxic-age-tage-theory-for-the-pathophysiology-of-the-onset-progression-of-nafld-and-ald
#10
REVIEW
Masayoshi Takeuchi, Jun-Ichi Takino, Akiko Sakasai-Sakai, Takanobu Takata, Mikihiro Tsutsumi
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) are among the most common causes of chronic liver diseases in the westernized world. NAFLD and ALD are frequently accompanied by extrahepatic complications, including hepatocellular carcinoma and cardiovascular diseases, which have a negative impact on patient survival. The chronic ingestion of an excessive daily diet containing sugar/high-fructose corn syrup increases the level of the fructose/glucose metabolite, glyceraldehyde (GA), while the chronic consumption of an excessive number of alcoholic beverages increases the level of the alcohol metabolite, acetaldehyde (AA) in the liver...
June 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626882/quantitative-proteome-analysis-of-plasma-microparticles-for-the-characterization-of-hcv-induced-hepatic-cirrhosis-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#11
Raghda Saad Zaghloul Taleb, Pacint Moez, Doreen Younan, Martin Eisenacher, Matthias Tenbusch, Barbara Sitek, Thilo Bracht
PURPOSE: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignant liver tumor and a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Cirrhosis induced by hepatitis-C virus (HCV) infection is the most critical risk factor for HCC. However, the mechanism of HCV-induced carcinogenesis is not fully understood. Plasma microparticles (PMP) contribute to numerous physiological and pathological processes and contain proteins whose composition correlates to the respective pathophysiological conditions...
June 19, 2017: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621554/gut-microbiota-changes-and-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#12
Tomislav Preveden, Emidio Scarpellini, Natasa Milić, Francesco Luzza, Ludovico Abenavoli
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a global health problem with 150 million infected people worldwide. Liver can be greatly affected by changes in gut microbiota due to increased intestinal permeability with passage of microbial antigens into the liver through the portal circulation. The concept of 'gut-liver' axis is important to understand the pathophysiology of several liver diseases. Several recent studies also revealed that an altered gut microbiota can be implicated in the pathogenesis of HCV-induced chronic liver disease (CHC)...
June 23, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552096/the-role-of-incretin-hormones-and-glucagon-in-patients-with-liver-disease
#13
Anders Ellekær Junker
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is defined as hepatic steatosis exceeding 5% of hepatocytes with no other reason for hepatic fat accumulation. The association between NAFLD and type 2 diabetes is strong. Accordingly, up to 70% of obese patients with type 2 diabetes have NAFLD. The spectrum of NAFLD ranges from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis with variable degrees of fibrosis and cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is the end-stage of chronic liver disease and is characterised by diffuse fibrosis and nodular regeneration of hepatocytes...
May 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535506/long-noncoding-rna-afap1-as1-promoted-tumor-growth-and-invasion-in-cholangiocarcinoma
#14
Xu Lu, Chuang Zhou, Renfeng Li, Yilei Deng, Longshuan Zhao, Wenlong Zhai
BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to play important roles in a wide range of pathophysiological processes, including cancer progression. Our previous study has shown that AFAP1-AS1 was upregulated and acted as an oncogene in hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the expression and biological functions of lncRNA AFAP1-AS1 in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) remains largely unknown. METHODS: The expression level of AFAP1-AS1 was measured in 56 pairs of human cholangiocarcinoma tumor tissues and corresponding adjacent normal bile duct tissues...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512251/inhibition-of-the-cell-death-pathway-in-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-nash-related-hepatocarcinogenesis-is-associated-with-histone-h4-lysine-16-deacetylation
#15
Aline de Conti, Kostiantyn Dreval, Volodymyr Tryndyak, Orish E Orisakwe, Sharon A Ross, Frederick A Beland, Igor P Pogribny
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most aggressive human cancers, and its incidence is steadily increasing worldwide. Recent epidemiologic findings have suggested that the increased incidence of HCC is associated with obesity, type II diabetes mellitus, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); however, the mechanisms and the molecular pathogenesis of NASH-related HCC are not fully understood. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the development of NASH-related HCC, we investigated the hepatic transcriptomic and histone modification profiles in Stelic Animal Model mice, the first animal model of NASH-related HCC to resemble the disease pathogenesis in humans...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509806/advances-in-management-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#16
Manon Allaire, Jean-Charles Nault
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of death by cancer worldwide due to a dismal prognosis. The aim of this review is to summarize the main advances in the pathophysiology and management of HCC. RECENT FINDINGS: Genomic analysis has recently delineated the key signaling pathways aberrantly deregulated in HCC (telomere maintenance, cell cycle gene, Wnt/β-catenin, epigenetic modifier, oxidative stress etc.). Major advances in the clinical care of patients with HCC are helping to refine the diagnosis algorithm and tumor staging...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480063/viral-hepatitis-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-etiology-and-management
#17
REVIEW
Philippe J Zamor, Andrew S deLemos, Mark W Russo
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) are associated with hepatic fibrosis and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). There are differences and variation with the incidence of HCC worldwide. Additionally, HCC develops via different pathways with these viral hepatitides. This review outlines the various mechanisms and pathophysiology that contributes to this process. There will also be a review on the recommended screening for HCC. Treatment considerations, which are different for these viruses, will be outlined in this review...
April 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404113/pathogenesis-and-novel-treatment-options-for-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#18
REVIEW
Vincent Wai-Sun Wong, Shiv Chitturi, Grace Lai-Hung Wong, Jun Yu, Henry Lik-Yuen Chan, Geoffrey C Farrell
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease affects 20-40% of the population. Its active form, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), is characterised by hepatocyte injury, liver inflammation, and progression of fibrosis, and has emerged as one of the most important causes of liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma. Weight reduction of 10% by dietary restriction and regular exercise is sufficient to reverse NASH in most patients, but in practice this reduction is often not achieved. Available drugs such as vitamin E, pioglitazone, and pentoxifylline have borderline efficacy, but are limited by potential side-effects and toxicities, and do not improve liver fibrosis...
September 2016: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365930/hepatocellular-carcinoma-development-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-is-it-going-to-be-the-plague-of-the-21st-century-a-literature-review-focusing-on-pathogenesis-prevention-and-treatment
#19
Chrysoula Argyrou, Demetrios Moris, Spiridon Vernadakis
Liver carcinogenesis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a subject of intense research nowadays, since NAFLD is the most common chronic liver disease, affecting a great percentage of the population worldwide, while hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which represents the most common primary liver malignancy, is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality. The underlying pathogenic pathways of both NAFLD and HCC are not completely understood, but there is growing evidence that they share many common pathophysiologic mechanisms and risk factors...
January 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290069/significance-of-genetic-polymorphisms-in-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#20
REVIEW
Hisamitsu Miyaaki, Kazuhiko Nakao
Because of recent advances in genetic research such as genome-wide association studies, the underlying genetic mechanisms of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathophysiology have been elucidated. Here, we present a review of the current literature on the impact of genetic polymorphisms in patients with NAFLD. These genetic polymorphisms, which regulate lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism, and the renin-angiotensin system, are involved in NAFLD onset, steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
June 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
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