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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195343/galectin-9-diverse-roles-in-hepatic-immune-homeostasis-and-inflammation
#1
REVIEW
Lucy Golden-Mason, Hugo R Rosen
Glycan-binding proteins which include galectins are involved at all stages of immunity and inflammation, ranging from initiation through resolution. Galectin-9 (Gal-9) is highly expressed in the liver and has a wide variety of biological functions in innate and adaptive immunity that are instrumental in the maintenance of hepatic homeostasis. In the setting of viral hepatitis, increased expression of Gal-9 drives the expansion of regulatory T cells and contraction of effector T cells, thereby favoring viral persistence...
February 13, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174483/dual-effect-of-wisp-1-in-diverse-pathological-processes
#2
Mengmeng Feng, Shuqin Jia
Wnt-1 inducible signaling pathway-1 (WISP-1), also known as CCN-4, belongs to the connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) family. WISP-1 is primarily expressed in embryonic stem cells and is involved in adult organ development. WISP-1 participates in many cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and adhesion. In addition, WISP-1 plays an important role in diverse pathophysiological processes, such as embryonic development, inflammation, injury repairs and cancers. Recent studies showed that WISP-1 was highly correlated with tumor progression and malignant transformation, whereas it played an oncogenic role in colorectal cancer, cholangiocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma and breast cancer...
December 2016: Chinese Journal of Cancer Research, Chung-kuo Yen Cheng Yen Chiu
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163185/genomic-characterization-and-dynamic-methylation-of-promoter-facilitates-transcriptional-regulation-of-h2a-variants-h2a-1-and-h2a-2-in-various-pathophysiological-states-of-hepatocyte
#3
Monica Tyagi, Divya Reddy, Sanjay Gupta
Differential expression of homomorphous variants of H2A family of histone H2A.1 and H2A.2 have been associated with hepatocellular carcinoma and maintenance of undifferentiated state of hepatocyte. However, not much is known about the transcriptional regulation of these H2A variants. The current study revealed the presence of 43bp 5'-regulatory region upstream of translation start site and a 26bp 3' stem loop conserved region for both the H2A.1 and H2A.2 variants. However, alignment of both H2A.1 and H2A.2 5'-untranslated region (UTR) sequences revealed no significant degree of homology between them despite the coding exon being very similar amongst the variants...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107896/cortisol-levels-in-hair-are-altered-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-case-control-study-in-primary-care
#4
A-K Norlin, S Walter, E Theodorsson, V Tegelstrom, E Grodzinsky, M P Jones, Å Faresjö
OBJECTIVE: Stress is an important component in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Long term Hypothalamus Pituitary Adrenal (HPA)-axis activity can be studied by measuring hair cortisol concentrations (HCC). Some previous studies have indicated a dysregulated HPA-axis in IBS patients, but cortisol levels in hair have not yet been studied. We investigated whether HCC and self-reported stress differentiate IBS patients from controls. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study within 10 Swedish Primary Health Care Centers we compared patients in working age with active IBS to patients without GI complaints...
February 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104508/exposure-to-high-levels-of-fumarate-and-succinate-leads-to-apoptotic-cytotoxicity-and-altered-global-dna-methylation-profiles-in-vitro
#5
Johannes F Wentzel, Angélique Lewies, Abel J Bronkhorst, Etresia van Dyk, Lissinda H du Plessis, Piet J Pretorius
In the Krebs cycle, succinate is oxidized to fumarate by succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), followed by the conversion of fumarate to malate by fumarate hydratase (FH). In cells with defective SDH and FH, the Krebs cycle is congested, respiration impaired and fumarate and succinate accumulates. Several studies have indicated that the accumulation of these substrates are associated with cytotoxicity and oncogenesis. High levels of succinate and fumarate induce hypoxia inducible factor (HIF1A) hydroxylases, leading to the activation of oncogenic HIF pathways...
January 16, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097107/surgical-resection-of-localized-hepatocellular-carcinoma-patient-selection-and-special-consideration
#6
REVIEW
Ka Wing Ma, Tan To Cheung
Localized hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) refers to a solitary or few tumors located within either the left or right hemiliver without evidence of bilobar or extrahepatic spread. This term encompasses a heterogeneous morphology with no regard to stage of prognosis of the disease. Surgical resection remains the mainstay of curative treatment for the localized HCC. Various biochemical and radiological tests constitute an indispensible part of preoperative assessment. Emergence of laparoscopic hepatectomy has brought liver resection into a new era...
2017: Journal of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063004/tubulin-alpha-8-is-expressed-in-hepatic-stellate-cells-and-is-induced-in-transformed-hepatocytes
#7
Lisa Rein-Fischboeck, Rebekka Pohl, Elisabeth M Haberl, Sebastian Zimny, Maximilian Neumann, Kristina Eisinger, Thomas S Weiss, Sabrina Krautbauer, Christa Buechler
Tubulin alpha 8 (TUBA8) is highly abundant in murine liver tumors suggesting a role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a risk factor for HCC. In mice that are fed with a methionine-choline deficient diet for two weeks to induce advanced murine NASH, we do see increased hepatic levels of TUBA8 protein. In animals given a high-fat diet for 14 weeks or an atherogenic diet for 12 weeks, hepatic TUBA8 is unchanged. TUBA8 is highly expressed in human hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and co-localizes with the HSC marker desmin in the murine liver...
January 7, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049764/the-scf%C3%AE-trcp-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-complex-targets-lipin1-for-ubiquitination-and-degradation-to-promote-hepatic-lipogenesis
#8
Kouhei Shimizu, Hidefumi Fukushima, Kohei Ogura, Evan C Lien, Naoe Taira Nihira, Jinfang Zhang, Brian J North, Ailan Guo, Katsuyuki Nagashima, Tadashi Nakagawa, Seira Hoshikawa, Asami Watahiki, Koji Okabe, Aya Yamada, Alex Toker, John M Asara, Satoshi Fukumoto, Keiichi I Nakayama, Keiko Nakayama, Hiroyuki Inuzuka, Wenyi Wei
The SCF(β-TRCP) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex plays pivotal roles in normal cellular physiology and in pathophysiological conditions. Identification of β-transducin repeat-containing protein (β-TRCP) substrates is therefore critical to understand SCF(β-TRCP) biology and function. We used a β-TRCP-phosphodegron motif-specific antibody in a β-TRCP substrate screen coupled with tandem mass spectrometry and identified multiple β-TRCP substrates. One of these substrates was Lipin1, an enzyme and suppressor of the family of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) transcription factors, which activate genes encoding lipogenic factors...
January 3, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981611/grb14-inhibition-triggers-insulin-induced-mouse-hepatocyte-proliferation-and-is-associated-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#9
Lucille Morzyglod, Michèle Caüzac, Lucie Popineau, Pierre-Damien Denechaud, Luis Fajas, Bruno Ragazzon, Véronique Fauveau, Julien Planchais, Mireille Vasseur-Cognet, Laetitia Fartoux, Olivier Scatton, Olivier Rosmorduc, Sandra Guilmeau, Catherine Postic, Chantal Desdouets, Christèle Desbois-Mouthon, Anne-Françoise Burnol
: Metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes are recognized as independent risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hyperinsulinemia, a hallmark of these pathologies, is suspected to be involved in HCC development. The molecular adapter Grb14 is an inhibitor of insulin receptor (IR) catalytic activity, highly expressed in the liver. To study its involvement in hepatocyte proliferation we specifically inhibited its liver expression using an shRNA strategy in mice. Enhanced insulin signaling upon Grb14 downregulation (Grb14i) was accompanied by a transient induction of S phase entrance by quiescent hepatocytes, indicating that Grb14 is a potent repressor of cell division...
December 16, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916167/post-resection-recurrence-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-cirrhotic-patients-is-thrombocytopenia-a-risk-factor-for-recurrence
#10
Ahmed Shehta, Ho-Seong Han, Soyeon Ahn, Yoo-Seok Yoon, Jai Young Cho, Young Rok Choi
PURPOSE: Liver resection is the main treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with sufficient liver reserve. However, the long-term outcomes are dismal because the recurrence rate is high, especially in cirrhotic patients. The role of platelets as a predictive factor for HCC recurrence is still controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the preoperative platelet count on HCC recurrence after liver resection in patients with liver cirrhosis. STUDY DESIGN: Between 2004 and 2013, 233 HCC patients with pathologically proven liver cirrhosis underwent liver resection and were enrolled in this study...
December 2016: Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913395/metabolomic-characterization-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis-for-biomarker-discovery
#11
Cristina Di Poto, Alessia Ferrarini, Yi Zhao, Rency S Varghese, Chao Tu, Yiming Zuo, Minkun Wang, Mohammad R Nezami Ranjbar, Yue Luo, Chi Zhang, Chirag S Desai, Kirti Shetty, Mahlet G Tadesse, Habtom W Ressom
BACKGROUND: Metabolomics plays an important role in providing insight into the etiology and mechanisms of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This is accomplished by a comprehensive analysis of patterns involved in metabolic alterations in human specimens. This study compares the levels of plasma metabolites in HCC cases versus cirrhotic patients and evaluates the ability of candidate metabolites in distinguishing the two groups. Also, it investigates the combined use of metabolites and clinical covariates for detection of HCC in patients with liver cirrhosis...
December 2, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903585/autophagy-in-chronic-liver-diseases-the-two-faces-of-janus
#12
Philippe Gual, Helene Gilgenkrantz, Sophie Lotersztajn
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are the leading causes of cirrhosis and increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and liver-related death. ALD and NAFLD share common pathogenic features extending from isolated steatosis to steatohepatitis, steatofibrosis, which can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The pathophysiological mechanisms of the progression of NAFLD and ALD are complex and still unclear. Important links between the regulation of autophagy (Macroautophagy and Chaperome-mediated autophagy) and chronic liver diseases have been reported...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899914/how-useful-are-monogenic-rodent-models-for-the-study-of-human-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#13
REVIEW
Jake P Mann, Robert K Semple, Matthew J Armstrong
Improving understanding of the genetic basis of human non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has the potential to facilitate risk stratification of affected patients, permit personalized treatment, and inform development of new therapeutic strategies. Animal models have been widely used to interrogate the pathophysiology of, and genetic predisposition to, NAFLD. Nevertheless, considerable interspecies differences in intermediary metabolism potentially limit the extent to which results can be extrapolated to humans...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891128/immune-imbalances-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-from-general-biomarkers-and-neutrophils-to-interleukin-17-axis-activation-and-new-therapeutic-targets
#14
REVIEW
Feliciano Chanana Paquissi
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasing problem worldwide and is associated with negative outcomes such as cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular events. Current evidence shows that the immune response has an important participation driving the initiation, maintenance, and progression of the disease. So, various immune imbalances, from cellular to cytokines levels, have been studied, either for better compression of the disease pathophysiology or as biomarkers for severity assessment and outcome prediction...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890867/obesity-related-digestive-diseases-and-their-pathophysiology
#15
REVIEW
Su Youn Nam
Obesity is a growing medical and public health problem worldwide. Many digestive diseases are related to obesity. In this article, the current state of our knowledge of obesity-related digestive diseases, their pathogenesis, and the medical and metabolic consequences of weight reduction are discussed. Obesity-related digestive diseases include gastroesophageal reflux disease, Barrett's esophagus, esophageal cancer, colon polyp and cancer, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, hepatitis C-related disease, hepatocellular carcinoma, gallstone, cholangiocarcinoma, and pancreatic cancer...
November 29, 2016: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889186/circadian-homeostasis-of-liver-metabolism-suppresses-hepatocarcinogenesis
#16
Nicole M Kettner, Horatio Voicu, Milton J Finegold, Cristian Coarfa, Arun Sreekumar, Nagireddy Putluri, Chinenye A Katchy, Choogon Lee, David D Moore, Loning Fu
Chronic jet lag induces spontaneous hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in wild-type mice following a mechanism very similar to that observed in obese humans. The process initiates with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) that progresses to steatohepatitis and fibrosis before HCC detection. This pathophysiological pathway is driven by jet-lag-induced genome-wide gene deregulation and global liver metabolic dysfunction, with nuclear receptor-controlled cholesterol/bile acid and xenobiotic metabolism among the top deregulated pathways...
December 12, 2016: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878289/oncogenic-function-of-plac1-on-the-proliferation-and-metastasis-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#17
Yuan Wu, Xiaocong Lin, Xiaoqing Di, Yonghua Chen, Hanning Zhao, Xin Wang
Placenta-specific protein 1 (Plac1), which is selectively expressed in the placental syncytiotrophoblast in adult normal tissues, plays an essential role in normal placental and embryonic development. Accumulating evidence suggests that enhanced Plac1 expression is closely associated with the progression of human cancer. Whether Plac1 contributes to the pathophysiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. In the present study, our data revealed that the expression of Plac1 in human HCC tissues was upregulated, which significantly correlated with metastasis of HCC...
January 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807065/clinical-and-therapeutic-implications-of-follistatin-in-solid-tumours
#18
REVIEW
Lei Shi, Jeyna Resaul, Sioned Owen, Lin Ye, Wen G Jiang
Follistatin (FST), as a single-chain glycosylated protein, has two major isoforms, FST288 and FST315. The FST315 isoform is the predominant form whilst the FST288 variant accounts for less than 5% of the encoded mRNA. FST is differentially expressed in human tissues and aberrant expression has been observed in a variety of solid tumours, including gonadal, gastric and lung cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and melanoma. Based on the current evidence, FST is an antagonist of transforming growth factor beta family members, such as activin and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs)...
November 2016: Cancer Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757953/animal-models-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-current-perspectives-and-recent-advances
#19
REVIEW
Jennie Ka Ching Lau, Xiang Zhang, Jun Yu
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a continuous spectrum of diseases characterized by excessive lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. NAFLD progresses from simple liver steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and, in more severe cases, to liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Because of its growing worldwide prevalence, various animal models that mirror both the histopathology and the pathophysiology of each stage of human NAFLD have been developed. The selection of appropriate animal models continues to be one of the key questions faced in this field...
January 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729736/hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#20
REVIEW
Carrie R Wong, Mindie H Nguyen, Joseph K Lim
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the United States and represents an increasingly important etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with annual cumulative incidence rates ranging from 2% to 12% in cohorts of NAFLD cirrhosis. While the risk of progression of NAFLD to HCC remains higher among patients with fibrosis or cirrhosis, an increasing amount of literature describes NAFLD-HCC as a disease that can occur in the absence of cirrhosis. Efforts to characterize the pathogenesis of NAFLD-HCC have suggested mechanisms that strongly associate with states of hyperinsulinemia and chronic inflammation, cellular mechanisms including adaptive immune responses and hepatic progenitor cell populations, and genetic polymorphisms including mutations of PNPLA3...
October 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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