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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933169/-history-and-presence-of-hepatitis-b%C3%A2-and-c%C3%A2-therapy
#1
Petr Husa
Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are the worlds major causes of chronic liver disease. Care of patients infected with HBV and HCV and/or over the last 20 years has significantly improved thanks to the better understanding of the pathophysiology of disease, improvement of diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive options. The goal of treatment of chronic hepatitis B is to extend the length of life and improve its quality through the barriers of the progression of chronic hepatitis to cirrhosis, decompensation cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914862/-liver-diseases-the-pathogenetic-role-of-the-gut-microbiome-and-the-potential-of-treatment-for-its-modulation
#2
K A Aitbaev, I T Murkamilov, V V Fomin
The paper gives an update on the role of the gut microbiome (GM) in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, liver cirrhosis (LC), and its complications, such as hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and discusses the possibilities of its correction with prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). The pathophysiology of the liver diseases in question demonstrates some common features that are characterized by pathogenic changes in the composition of the gastrointestinal tract microflora, by intestinal barrier impairments, by development of endotoxemia, by increased liver expression of proinflammatory factors, and by development of liver inflammation...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903501/sex-differential-responses-of-tumor-promotion-associated-genes-and-dysregulation-of-novel-long-noncoding-rnas-in-constitutive-androstane-receptor-activated-mouse-liver
#3
Nicholas J Lodato, Tisha Melia, Andy Rampersaud, David J Waxman
Xenobiotic agonists of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) induce many hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes, but following prolonged exposure, promote hepatocellular carcinoma, most notably in male mouse liver. Here, we used nuclear RNA-seq to characterize global changes in the mouse liver transcriptome following exposure to the CAR-specific agonist ligand 1,4-bis-[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP), including changes in novel long noncoding RNAs that may contribute to xenobiotic-induced pathophysiology...
September 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893365/coffee-consumption-and-prevention-of-cirrhosis-in-support-of-the-caffeine-hypothesis
#4
Jonathan Dranoff
It is widely acknowledged that coffee is the most widely used drug on Earth. While this is true, coffee is also a foodstuff with wide variation, so its use is often directed at satisfying dietary urges. When used as a drug, coffee is almost invariably used as a stimulant rather than to treat or prevent particular diseases. Thus, it has been an exciting revelation in recent years that coffee consumption is inversely related to progression of liver fibrosis to cirrhosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma.As is often the case, epidemiological observations have preceded pathophysiological explanations for this effect...
September 11, 2017: Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884871/lncrna-atb-an-indispensable-cancer-related-long-noncoding-rna
#5
REVIEW
Jinglin Li, Zhenglong Li, Wangyang Zheng, Xinheng Li, Zhidong Wang, Yunfu Cui, Xingming Jiang
OBJECTIVES: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a group of non-protein-coding RNAs that are greater than 200 nucleotides in length. Increasing evidence indicates that lncRNAs, which may serve as either oncogenes or tumour suppressor genes, play a vital role in the pathophysiology of human diseases, especially in tumourigenesis and progression. Deregulation of lncRNAs impacts different cellular processes, such as proliferation, dedifferentiation, migration, invasion and anti-apoptosis. The aim of this review was to explore the molecular mechanism and clinical significance of long non-coding RNA-activated by transforming growth factor β (lncRNA-ATB) in various types of cancers...
September 8, 2017: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858692/modeling-hepatitis-virus-infections-and-treatment-strategies-in-humanized-mice
#6
REVIEW
Dina Kremsdorf, Helene Strick-Marchand
Hepatitis viruses cause chronic liver diseases such as fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinomas that are difficult to treat and constitute a global health problem. Species-specific viral tropism has limited the usefulness of small animal models to study the impact of viral hepatitis. Immunodeficient mice grafted with human hepatocytes are susceptible to hepatitis viruses B, C, D and E (HBV, HCV, HDV and HEV), developing full viral life cycles, and delivering a means to investigate virus-host interactions and antiviral treatments...
August 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836282/white-matter-fiber-integrity-of-the-saccadic-eye-movement-network-differs-between-schizophrenia-and-healthy-groups
#7
David J Schaeffer, Amanda L Rodrigue, Courtney R Burton, Jordan E Pierce, Megan N Murphy, Brett A Clementz, Jennifer E McDowell
Recent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies suggest that altered white matter fiber integrity is a pathophysiological feature of schizophrenia. Lower white matter integrity is associated with poor cognitive control, a characteristic of schizophrenia that can be measured using antisaccade tasks. Although the functional neural correlates of poor antisaccade performance have been well documented, fewer studies have investigated the extent to which white matter fibers connecting the functional nodes of this network contribute to antisaccade performance...
August 23, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800792/microrna-125a-5p-inhibits-cell-proliferation-and-induces-apoptosis-in-hepatitis-b-virus-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma-by-downregulation-of-erbb3
#8
Guoyun Li, Wei Zhang, Li Gong, Xiaoping Huang
MicroRNAs, a class of endogenous non-coding RNAs, regulate gene expression at post-transcriptional level, thus taking part in multiple biological processed. Increasing miRNAs are found to be dysregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and are involved in liver tumorigenesis. In this study, miR-125a-5p was found to obviously downregulate much more in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC. To investigate the effects of miR-125a-5p, miR-125a-5p was overexpressed in HepG2.2.15 and HepG3X cells, respectively. The findings have indicated that overexpression of miR-125a-5p dramatically inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis...
August 11, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781795/transmembrane-channel-like-protein-8-as-a-potential-biomarker-for-poor-prognosis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#9
Panpan Lu, Qiang Ding, Shuping Ding, Yuhui Fan, Xin Li, Dean Tian, Mei Liu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive malignant tumor and the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Transmembrane channel-like protein 8 (TMC8) is reported to play a major role in several aspects of human pathophysiology, such as ion channel permeability, human papillomavirus infection and skin cancer; however, its role in HCC has not been fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression levels of TMC8 in 146 pairs of liver cancer samples and adjacent non-tumorous samples using immunohistochemistry...
August 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752441/pathophysiology-of-alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficiency-liver-disease
#10
Jeffrey H Teckman, Keith S Blomenkamp
Classical alpha-1 antitrypsin (a1AT) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disease associated with an increased risk of liver disease in adults and children, and with lung disease in adults (Teckman and Jain, Curr Gastroenterol Rep 16(1):367, 2014). The vast majority of the liver disease is associated with homozygosity for the Z mutant allele, the so-called PIZZ. These homozygous individuals synthesize large quantities of a1AT mutant Z protein in the liver, but the mutant protein folds improperly during biogenesis and approximately 85% of the molecules are retained within the hepatocytes rather than appropriately secreted...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730823/pathophysiological-analysis-of-the-progression-of-hepatic-lesions-in-stam-mice
#11
T Saito, M Muramatsu, Y Ishii, Y Saigo, T Konuma, Y Toriniwa, K Miyajima, T Ohta
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a current health issue since the disease often leads to hepatocellular carcinoma; however, the pathogenesis of the disease has still not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the pathophysiological changes observed in hepatic lesions in STAM mice, a novel NASH model. STAM mice, high fat-diet (HFD) fed mice, and streptozotocin (STZ) treated mice were prepared, and changes over time, such as biological parameters, mRNA expression, and histopathological findings, were evaluated once animal reached 5, 7, and 10 weeks of age...
July 18, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702738/impact-of-etiological-treatment-on-prognosis
#12
REVIEW
Chien-Wei Su, Ying-Ying Yang, Han-Chieh Lin
Portal hypertension (PHT) is a frequent and severe complication of cirrhosis. PHT may lead to the development of various complications with high mortality. Liver transplantation is the gold standard as a surgical curative treatment for end-stage liver disease. Theoretically, etiological treatment focusing on the pathophysiology of the underlying disease should be the objective of the nonsurgical management of cirrhotic PHT. Chronic viral hepatitis is the major etiology of cirrhosis and PHT. In cirrhotic patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection, antiviral therapies can suppress viral replication, ameliorate hepatic inflammation, regress fibrosis, and restore liver functional reserve...
July 12, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685993/association-of-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-micrornas-with-susceptibility-to-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-and-hbv-related-liver-complications-a-study-in-a-saudi-arabian-population
#13
Ahmed A Al-Qahtani, Mashael R Al-Anazi, Nyla Nazir, Kaiser Wani, Ayman A Abdo, Faisal M Sanai, Mohammed Q Khan, Hamad I Al-Ashgar, Ali Albenmousa, Waleed K Al-Hamoudi, Khalid A Alswat, Mohammed N Al-Ahdal
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of 10 SNPs in different microRNAs (miRNAs) with susceptibility to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, HBV clearance, persistence of chronic HBV infection, and progression to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients were categorized into the following groups: inactive HBV carrier, active HBV carrier, HBV-cleared subject, and cirrhosis+HCC. Samples were analyzed for 10 SNPs in microRNAs using either PCR-based genotyping or the TaqMan assay...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652891/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-an-expanded-review
#14
REVIEW
Mark Benedict, Xuchen Zhang
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses the simple steatosis to more progressive steatosis with associated hepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and in some cases hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD is a growing epidemic, not only in the United States, but worldwide in part due to obesity and insulin resistance leading to liver accumulation of triglycerides and free fatty acids. Numerous risk factors for the development of NAFLD have been espoused with most having some form of metabolic derangement or insulin resistance at the core of its pathophysiology...
June 8, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634412/extracellular-vesicles-in-liver-disease-and-potential-as-biomarkers-and-therapeutic-targets
#15
REVIEW
Gyongyi Szabo, Fatemeh Momen-Heravi
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membranous vesicles originating from different cells in the liver. The pathophysiological role of EVs is increasingly recognized in liver diseases, including alcoholic liver disease, NAFLD, viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. EVs, via their cargo, can provide communication between different cell types in the liver and between organs. EVs are explored as biomarkers of disease and could also represent therapeutic targets and vehicles for treatment delivery. Here, we review advances in understanding the role of EVs in liver diseases and discuss their utility in biomarker discovery and therapeutics...
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632778/over-expressing-the-soluble-gp130-fc-does-not-ameliorate-methionine-and-choline-deficient-diet-induced-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-mice
#16
Helene L Kammoun, Tamara Louise Allen, Darren Colin Henstridge, Michael James Kraakman, Lone Peijs, Stefan Rose-John, Mark Anthony Febbraio
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a liver disease with the potential to lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of NASH, with the so-called IL-6 'trans-signaling' cascade being responsible for the pro-inflammatory actions of this cytokine. We aimed to block IL-6 'trans-signaling', using a transgenic mouse that overexpresses human soluble glycoprotein130 (sgp130Fc Tg mice) fed a commonly used dietary model of inducing NASH (methionine and choline deficient-diet; MCD diet) and hypothesized that markers of NASH would be ameliorated in such mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632197/toxic-age-tage-theory-for-the-pathophysiology-of-the-onset-progression-of-nafld-and-ald
#17
REVIEW
Masayoshi Takeuchi, Jun-Ichi Takino, Akiko Sakasai-Sakai, Takanobu Takata, Mikihiro Tsutsumi
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) are among the most common causes of chronic liver diseases in the westernized world. NAFLD and ALD are frequently accompanied by extrahepatic complications, including hepatocellular carcinoma and cardiovascular diseases, which have a negative impact on patient survival. The chronic ingestion of an excessive daily diet containing sugar/high-fructose corn syrup increases the level of the fructose/glucose metabolite, glyceraldehyde (GA), while the chronic consumption of an excessive number of alcoholic beverages increases the level of the alcohol metabolite, acetaldehyde (AA) in the liver...
June 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626882/quantitative-proteome-analysis-of-plasma-microparticles-for-the-characterization-of-hcv-induced-hepatic-cirrhosis-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#18
Raghda Saad Zaghloul Taleb, Pacint Moez, Doreen Younan, Martin Eisenacher, Matthias Tenbusch, Barbara Sitek, Thilo Bracht
PURPOSE: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignant liver tumor and a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Cirrhosis induced by hepatitis-C virus (HCV) infection is the most critical risk factor for HCC. However, the mechanism of HCV-induced carcinogenesis is not fully understood. Plasma microparticles (PMP) contribute to numerous physiological and pathological processes and contain proteins whose composition correlates to the respective pathophysiological conditions...
June 19, 2017: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621554/gut-microbiota-changes-and-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#19
Tomislav Preveden, Emidio Scarpellini, Natasa Milić, Francesco Luzza, Ludovico Abenavoli
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a global health problem with 150 million infected people worldwide. Liver can be greatly affected by changes in gut microbiota due to increased intestinal permeability with passage of microbial antigens into the liver through the portal circulation. The concept of 'gut-liver' axis is important to understand the pathophysiology of several liver diseases. Several recent studies also revealed that an altered gut microbiota can be implicated in the pathogenesis of HCV-induced chronic liver disease (CHC)...
September 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552096/the-role-of-incretin-hormones-and-glucagon-in-patients-with-liver-disease
#20
Anders Ellekær Junker
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is defined as hepatic steatosis exceeding 5% of hepatocytes with no other reason for hepatic fat accumulation. The association between NAFLD and type 2 diabetes is strong. Accordingly, up to 70% of obese patients with type 2 diabetes have NAFLD. The spectrum of NAFLD ranges from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis with variable degrees of fibrosis and cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is the end-stage of chronic liver disease and is characterised by diffuse fibrosis and nodular regeneration of hepatocytes...
May 2017: Danish Medical Journal
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