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transverse myelitis mri

Hussein Algahtani, Bader Shirah, Raafat Ahmad, Hind Abobaker, Mohammed Hmoud
CONTEXT: Methanol is the simplest member of alcohol family. However, it is an extremely toxic substance to humans upon exposure with severe and detrimental effects that range from visual loss to death. Spinal cord involvement in methanol intoxication is a rare occurrence. FINDINGS: In this article, we are reporting a case of methanol intoxication with extensive spinal cord involvement possibly due to necrosis. A literature review yielded only two cases of spinal cord involvement due to methanol intoxication...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Masataka Fukuoka, Ichiro Kuki, Hisashi Kawawaki, Kiyohiro Kim, Yuka Hattori, Hitomi Tsuji, Asako Horino, Megumi Nukui, Shin Okazaki
An 11-year-old boy presented with progressive leg hypesthesia but no history of trauma. Dysuria and constipation appeared subsequent to gait difficulty. He was admitted 8days after onset. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed longitudinal hyperintensity with cord swelling and hypointensity on T2-weighted images, suggesting severe inflammation and microbleeding change, respectively. Gadolinium contrast-enhanced MRI demonstrated mild enhancement in the lesions. Platelet count and coagulation findings were normal, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed no pleocytosis...
September 26, 2016: Brain & Development
I Kister, E Johnson, E Raz, J Babb, J Loh, T M Shepherd
BACKGROUND: There is substantial overlap between MRI of acute spinal cord lesions from neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and spinal cord infarct (SCI) in clinical practice. However, early differentiation is important since management approaches to minimize morbidity from NMO or SCI differ significantly. OBJECTIVE: To identify MRI features at initial presentation that may help to differentiate NMO acute myelitis from SCI. METHODS: 2 board-certified neuroradiologists, blinded to final diagnosis, retrospectively characterized MRI features at symptom onset for subjects with serologically-proven NMO (N=13) or SCI (N=11) from a single institution...
September 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Tanawat Tengsirikomol, Sasitorn Siritho, Naraporn Prayoonwiwat
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A few reports studied the time use to diagnose patient with neuromyelitis optica (NMO). The Aim of the study is to evaluate the interval from disease onset to the time when patients fulfilled the NMO diagnostic criteria 2006 in Thai. METHOD: A retrospective study of the NMO patients visiting the MS clinic and related disorders at Siriraj hospital was reviewed. RESULTS: There were 42 definite NMO. All were female. The most common first presentations were optic neuritis (ON) (45...
September 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Marina Milic, Jeremy H Rees
Radiotherapy is the mainstay of treatment after surgery for high-grade gliomas and is usually well tolerated. Radiation toxicity in the brain is usually classified according to the timing of side effects in relation to treatment, as either acute (during radiotherapy), early delayed (within 12 weeks of radiotherapy) or late delayed (months to years after radiotherapy). We report two cases of young women who developed severe acute demyelination within 4 months of radiotherapy for glioma, one of whom had a previous history of transverse myelitis...
September 9, 2016: Practical Neurology
Michael Absoud, Benjamin M Greenberg, Ming Lim, Tim Lotze, Terrence Thomas, Kumaran Deiva
Pediatric acute transverse myelitis (ATM) is an immune-mediated CNS disorder and contributes to 20% of children experiencing a first acquired demyelinating syndrome (ADS). ATM must be differentiated from other presentations of myelopathy and may be the first presentation of relapsing ADS such as neuromyelitis optica (NMO) or multiple sclerosis (MS). The tenets of the diagnostic criteria for ATM established by the Transverse Myelitis Consortium Working Group can generally be applied in children; however, a clear sensory level may not be evident in some...
August 30, 2016: Neurology
Weihe Zhang, Yujuan Jiao, Lei Cui, Lei Liu, Linwei Zhang, Jinsong Jiao
Longitudinally extensive myelopathy (LEM) is a rare spinal syndrome, and was mostly assessed in western populations. In order to investigate the etiological, clinical, and radiological features of LEM in Chinese patients, we retrospectively analyzed eighty-nine (40 men and 49 women, median age 45.9±15.7years) patients with LEM hospitalized in China-Japan Friendship Hospital. LEM comprised autoimmune inflammatory myelitis (n=53), metabolic and compressive disorders (n=13), vascular diseases (n=10), neoplastic diseases (n=7), infectious diseases (n=4), and syringomyelia (n=2)...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Serap Ural, Behiye Özer, Fazıl Gelal, Derya Dirim Erdoğan, Nurbanu Sezak, Recep Balık, Tuna Demirdal, Metin Korkmaz
Toxocariasis caused by Toxocara canis or less frequently by T.catis is a common parasitic infection worldwide. Clinical spectrum in humans can vary from asymptomatic infection to serious organ disfunction depending on the load of parasite, migration target of the larva and the inflammatory response of the host. Transverse myelitis (TM) due to toxocariasis is an uncommon illness identified mainly as case reports in literature. In this report, a case of TM who was diagnosed as neurotoxocariasis by serological findings has been presented...
July 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
S Mirbagheri, D Eckart Sorte, C A Zamora, M Mossa-Basha, S D Newsome, I Izbudak
Longitudinal extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) is defined as an intramedullary spinal cord T2 signal abnormality extending craniocaudally over at least three vertebral bodies on an MRI study. Timely and appropriate diagnosis greatly facilitates patient management. The radiologist should review the relevant clinical information and determine the patient demographics and acuity of symptoms. Herein, we review the spectrum of diseases causing LETM and propose interpretation to guide the radiologist when presented with the MRI finding of LETM...
October 2016: Clinical Radiology
Danisha Figueroa, Carmen Isache, Michael Sands, Nilmarie Guzman
Transverse myelitis is a neurological disorder of the spinal cord that can have a variety of etiologies. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection has been described as one of the causes, most commonly HSV type 2. We report here a case of an 18 year old male who presented with weakness that started in his upper extremities and rapidly evolved to quadriplegia. Magnetic resonance imaging of spine was consistent with transverse myelitis. HSV type 1 PCR testing on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was positive. He was started on acyclovir and steroids, but despite therapy, patient did not recover motor function...
2016: IDCases
Teresa M Crout, Laura P Parks, Vikas Majithia
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), previously known as Devic's syndrome, are a group of inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by severe, immune-mediated demyelination and axonal damage, predominantly targeting optic nerves and the spinal cord typically associated with a disease-specific serum NMO-IgG antibody that selectively binds aquaporin-4 (AQP4). The classic and best-defined features of NMOSD include acute attacks of bilateral or rapidly sequential optic neuritis (leading to visual loss) or transverse myelitis (often causing limb weakness and bladder dysfunction) or both with a typically relapsing course...
August 2016: Current Rheumatology Reports
Seiji Okada, Charles Chang, Geraldine Chang, James J Yue
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Venous hypertensive myelopathy (VHM) results from spinal vascular malformations of arteriovenous shunting that increases spinal venous pressure, leading to congestive edema and neurologic dysfunction. There has been no report of VHM associated with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to report an extremely rare case of VHM likely due to CSM. STUDY DESIGN: This study is a case report and review of the literature...
June 9, 2016: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
C F Bi, H R Qian, L J Peng, L L Mao, X Huang, D Y Xia, X Lei, X K Qi
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the features of patients who converted from clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) to multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and explore the correlated factors. METHODS: A total of 151 patients admitted in our unit as CIS from January 2009 to December 2014 were enrolled in the study. All patients were divided into the following four groups by locations of the initial lesion, which were the spinal cord, the optic nerve, the brain stem and the multifocal lesions...
June 2016: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
J de Sèze, L Kremer, N Collongues
The relationship between neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and multiple sclerosis (MS) has long been controversial. NMO was previously considered a form of MS involving predominantly the spinal cord and optic nerve. However, since the discovery of NMO-IgG/aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody, an NMO-specific autoantibody to AQP4, some unique clinical features, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and other laboratory findings in NMO, have been further clarified. AQP4 antibody is now the most important laboratory finding for the diagnosis of NMO...
April 2016: Revue Neurologique
Salini Thulasirajah, Daniela Pohl, Jorge Davila-Acosta, Sunita Venkateswaran
Under the umbrella of pediatric-acquired demyelinating syndromes, there is a multitude of disorders, including optic neuritis, transverse myelitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), multiple sclerosis (MS), and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). Due to overlapping clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features, it can be challenging to provide an accurate diagnosis. In view of therapeutic and prognostic implications, an early and reliable diagnosis is however of utmost importance...
August 2016: Neuropediatrics
Abdurrahman Aycan, Seymen Ozdemir, Harun Arslan, Edip Gonullu, Cemal Bozkına
A 33-year-old male patient experienced temporary sensory loss and weakness in the right lower extremity one month prior to admission. The patient was admitted to a private clinic with a three-day history of acute onset of sensory loss and weakness in both lower extremities and was treated and followed up with a prediagnosis of transverse myelitis and the Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS). The patient was subsequently transferred to our clinic and the neurologic examination revealed paraplegia in both lower extremities, positive bilateral Babinski signs, and hypesthesia below the T10 dermatome with saddle anesthesia...
2016: Case Reports in Surgery
Smail Daoudi, Melissa Bouzar
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a disabling inflammatory condition that targets astrocytes in the optic nerves and spinal cord. Recent advances led to the individualization of a set of conditions now referred as NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD). OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and characteristics of NMO SD in north Algeria. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The present study is a retrospective and descriptive work which took place in Nedir Mohamed teaching hospital, Tizi-Ouzou, Algeria...
March 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
A Gupta, S N Kumar, A B Taly
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to observe neurological and functional recovery in patients with acute transverse myelitis (ATM) with inpatient rehabilitation and correlate with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study was conducted with 43 ATM patients (19 males) admitted in the tertiary university research hospital from July 2012 to June 2014. Detailed MRI findings were noted. Neurological status was assessed using the ASIA impairment scale (AIS) and functional recovery was assessed using the Barthel Index score (BI) and Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM)...
March 1, 2016: Spinal Cord
Renu Suthar, Naveen Sankhyan, Jitendra K Sahu, Niranjan K Khandelwal, Sunit Singhi, Pratibha Singhi
BACKGROUND: Acute transvers myelitis (ATM) is a rare and disabling condition in childhood. There are only few reports of clinical profile, prognosis and predictors of ATM from developing countries. OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical profile of children with ATM and predictors of its outcome. METHOD: Retrospective analysis of children <12 years of age diagnosed with ATM over a period of 6 years from a tertiary care institute. RESULTS: Thirty six children (21 boys, median age-7...
May 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Alfonso Escobar-Villalba, Susana Sainz de la Maza, Paula Pérez Torre, Juan Carlos Galán, Mario Rodríguez-Domínguez, Enric Monreal Laguillo, Pedro Luis Martínez Ulloa, Javier Buisán Catevilla, Iñigo Corral
BACKGROUND: HHV7 reactivation has been occasionally reported as a cause of encephalitis or myelitis in transplant recipients, but to our knowledge it has never been associated with neurological disease in HIV-infected patients. We report a case of acute myelitis in an HIV-infected patient, with sustained HHV-7 DNA amplification in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and a favourable response to foscarnet. CASE REPORT: A 40 year-old man with HIV infection was admitted with asymmetric hypoesthesia in legs and paraparesis...
April 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
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