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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429473/surgery-for-limited-stage-small-cell-lung-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Hayley Barnes, Katharine See, Stephen Barnett, Renée Manser
BACKGROUND: Current treatment guidelines for limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) recommend concomitant platinum-based chemo-radiotherapy plus prophylactic cranial irradiation, based on the premise that SCLC disseminates early, and is chemosensitive. However, although there is usually a favourable initial response, relapse is common and the cure rate for limited-stage SCLC remains relatively poor. Some recent clinical practice guidelines have recommended surgery for stage 1 (limited) SCLC followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, but this recommendation is largely based on the findings of observational studies...
April 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427482/a-genetic-variant-brain-dervied-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-polymorphism-interacts-with-hostile-parenting-to-predict-error-related-brain-activity-and-thereby-risk-for-internalizing-disorders-in-children
#2
Alexandria Meyer, Greg Hajcak, Elizabeth Hayden, Haroon I Sheikh, Shiva M Singh, Daniel N Klein
The error-related negativity (ERN) is a negative deflection in the event-related potential occurring when individuals make mistakes, and is increased in children with internalizing psychopathology. We recently found that harsh parenting predicts a larger ERN in children, and recent work has suggested that variation in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene may moderate the impact of early life adversity. Parents and children completed measures of parenting when children were 3 years old (N = 201); 3 years later, the ERN was measured and diagnostic interviews as well as dimensional symptom measures were completed...
April 21, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427286/incomes-and-outcomes-social-security-disability-benefits-in-first-episode-psychosis
#3
Robert A Rosenheck, Sue E Estroff, Kyaw Sint, Haiqun Lin, Kim T Mueser, Delbert G Robinson, Nina R Schooler, Patricia Marcy, John M Kane
OBJECTIVE: Social Security Administration (SSA) disability benefits are an important source of income for people with psychoses and confer eligibility for health insurance. The authors examined the impact of coordinated specialty care on receipt of such benefits in first-episode psychosis, along with the correlates and consequences of receiving them. METHOD: The Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode-Early Treatment Program (RAISE-ETP) study, a 34-site cluster-randomized trial, compared NAVIGATE, a coordinated specialty care program, to usual community care over 2 years...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427009/early-in-life-dietary-zinc-deficiency-and-supplementation-and-mammary-tumor-development-in-adulthood-female-rats
#4
Flávia R M da Silva, Tony F Grassi, Joyce R Zapaterini, Lucas T Bidinotto, Luis F Barbisan
Zinc deficiency during pregnancy and postnatal life can adversely increase risk of developing human diseases at adulthood. The present study was designed to evaluate whether dietary zinc deficiency or supplementation during the pregnancy, lactation and juvenile stages interferes in the development of mammary tumors induced by 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Pregnant female SD rats were allocated into three groups: zinc-adequate diet (ZnA - 35-mg/kg chow), zinc-deficient diet (ZnD - 3-mg/kg chow) or zinc-supplemented diet (ZnS - 180-mg/kg chow) during gestational day 10 (GD 10) until the litters' weaning...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426137/hydroxyurea-hydroxycarbamide-for-sickle-cell-disease
#5
REVIEW
Sarah J Nevitt, Ashley P Jones, Jo Howard
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is one of the most common inherited diseases worldwide. It is associated with lifelong morbidity and a reduced life expectancy. Hydroxyurea (hydroxycarbamide), an oral chemotherapeutic drug, ameliorates some of the clinical problems of SCD, in particular that of pain, by raising fetal haemoglobin. This is an update of a previously published Cochrane Review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of hydroxyurea therapy in people with SCD (all genotypes), of any age, regardless of setting...
April 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424157/childhood-adversity-and-risk-of-suicide-cohort-study-of-548%C3%A2-721-adolescents-and-young-adults-in-sweden
#6
Charlotte Björkenstam, Kyriaki Kosidou, Emma Björkenstam
Objective To examine the relation between childhood adversity, the role of school performance, and childhood psychopathology and the risk of suicide.Design Cohort study of register based indicators of childhood adversity (at ages 0-14) including death in the family (suicide analysed separately), parental substance abuse, parental psychiatric disorder, substantial parental criminality, parental separation/single parent household, receipt of public assistance, and residential instability.Setting Swedish medical birth register and various Swedish population based registers...
April 19, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419095/effectiveness-of-a-live-oral-human-rotavirus-vaccine-after-programmatic-introduction-in-bangladesh-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#7
K Zaman, David A Sack, Kathleen M Neuzil, Mohammad Yunus, Lawrence H Moulton, Jonathan D Sugimoto, Jessica A Fleming, Ilias Hossain, Shams El Arifeen, Tasnim Azim, Mustafizur Rahman, Kristen D C Lewis, Andrea J Feller, Firdausi Qadri, M Elizabeth Halloran, Alejandro Cravioto, John C Victor
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus vaccines are now globally recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), but in early 2009 WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization reviewed available data and concluded that there was no evidence for the efficacy or effectiveness of a two-dose schedule of the human rotavirus vaccine (HRV; Rotarix) given early at 6 and 10 wk of age. Additionally, the effectiveness of programmatic rotavirus vaccination, including possible indirect effects, has not been assessed in low-resource populations in Asia...
April 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418011/more-than-25-years-of-genetic-studies-of-clozapine-induced-agranulocytosis
#8
REVIEW
S A J de With, S L Pulit, W G Staal, R S Kahn, R A Ophoff
Clozapine is one of the most effective atypical antipsychotic drugs prescribed to patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Approximately 1% of patients experience potential life-threatening adverse effects in the form of agranulocytosis, greatly hindering its applicability in clinical practice. The etiology of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis (CIA) remains unclear, but is thought to be a heritable trait. We reviewed the genetic studies of CIA published thus far. One recurrent finding from early candidate gene study to more recent genome-wide analysis is that of the involvement of human leukocyte antigen locus...
April 18, 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416565/cingulo-insular-structural-alterations-associated-with-psychogenic-symptoms-childhood-abuse-and-ptsd-in-functional-neurological-disorders
#9
David L Perez, Nassim Matin, Arthur Barsky, Victor Costumero-Ramos, Sara J Makaretz, Sigrid S Young, Jorge Sepulcre, W Curt LaFrance, Matcheri S Keshavan, Bradford C Dickerson
OBJECTIVE: Adverse early-life events are predisposing factors for functional neurological disorder (FND) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cingulo-insular regions are implicated in the biology of both conditions and are sites of stress-mediated neuroplasticity. We hypothesised that functional neurological symptoms and the magnitude of childhood abuse would be associated with overlapping anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insular volumetric reductions, and that FND and PTSD symptoms would map onto distinct cingulo-insular areas...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416458/on-the-origins-of-sex-based-differences-in-respiratory-disorders-lessons-and-hypotheses-from-stress-neuroendocrinology-in-developing-rats
#10
REVIEW
Jean-Philippe Rousseau, Luana Tenorio-Lopes, Cécile Baldy, Tara Adele Janes, Stéphanie Fournier, Richard Kinkead
The environment plays a critical role in shaping development and function of the brain. Stress, especially when experienced early in life, can interfere with these processes. In the context of respiratory control, perinatal stress can therefore alter the ability to achieve the "fine-tuning" necessary for proper detection of chemosensory stimuli and production of an adequate motor (respiratory) command. Depending on the timing, intensity, and duration, the detrimental consequences of perinatal exposure to adverse conditions on the respiratory network become manifest at various life stages and can persist into adulthood...
April 14, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413813/new-insights-into-early-life-stress-and-behavioral-outcomes
#11
Jessica L Bolton, Jenny Molet, Autumn Ivy, Tallie Z Baram
Adverse early-life experiences, including various forms of early-life stress, have consistently been linked with vulnerability to cognitive and emotional disorders later in life. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the enduring consequences of early-life stress is an active area of research, because this knowledge is critical for developing potential interventions. Animal models of early-life stress typically rely on manipulating maternal/parental presence and care, because these are the major source of early-life experiences in humans...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413267/vasopressors-do-they-have-any-role-in-hemorrhagic-shock
#12
REVIEW
Babita Gupta, Neha Garg, Rashmi Ramachandran
The priority in the management of patients with traumatic hemorrhagic shock is to control the bleeding with simultaneous volume resuscitation to maintain adequate tissue perfusion. Fluid replacement remains the mainstay of initial resuscitation in hemorrhagic shock. Traditionally, vasopressors are contraindicated in the early management of hemorrhagic shock due to their deleterious consequences, although vasopressors may have a role in resuscitation when vasoplegic shock ensues and blood pressure cannot be maintained by fluids alone...
January 2017: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412445/methylphenidate-effects-in-the-young-brain-friend-or-foe
#13
REVIEW
Sara Loureiro-Vieira, Vera Marisa Costa, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Félix Carvalho, João Paulo Soares Capela
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatry disorders in children and adolescents, and methylphenidate (MPH) is a first-line stimulant drug available worldwide for its treatment. Despite the proven therapeutic efficacy, concerns have been raised regarding the possible consequences of chronic MPH exposure during childhood and adolescence. Disturbances in the neurodevelopment at these crucial stages are major concerns given the unknown future life consequences...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412142/early-enriched-physical-environment-reverses-impairments-of-the-hippocampus-but-not-medial-prefrontal-cortex-of-adolescent-socially-isolated-mice
#14
Min Cao, Tinglin Pu, Linmei Wang, Charles Marshall, Hongliang He, Gang Hu, Ming Xiao
Early social isolation (SI) produces a variety of emotional, behavioral and cognitive abnormalities. Conversely, environmental enrichment (EE), a complicated social and physical construct, offers beneficial effects on brain plasticity and development. However, whether or not exclusive physical EE is sufficient to reverse the adverse consequences of adolescent SI remains unclear. Here we reported that 1 month-old solitary mice housed in the EE for 8 weeks corrected spatial cognitive dysfunction, but did not ameliorate social interaction deficits and increased anxiety-like behavior...
April 12, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412029/what-s-in-a-side-effect-the-association-between-pulmonary-vasodilator-adverse-drug-events-and-clinical-outcomes-in-patients-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#15
Peter J Leary, Suhyun Kang, Todd M Kolb, Bradley A Maron, David D Ralph, Youlan Rao, Ryan J Tedford, Roham T Zamanian
BACKGROUND: Adverse drug events (ADEs) with pulmonary vasodilator use in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are common. ADEs may contribute to worse quality of life; however, their relationship to prognosis is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether common ADEs after initiating subcutaneous treprostinil were associated with prognosis in PAH. METHODS: We assembled a retrospective cohort of participants from four clinical trials of treprostinil for PAH, including 908 participants who received subcutaneous treprostinil and 243 who received placebo at the time ADEs were ascertained...
April 6, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411697/veclose-trial-12-month-outcomes-of-cyanoacrylate-closure-versus-radiofrequency-ablation-for-incompetent-great-saphenous-veins
#16
Nick Morrison, Kathleen Gibson, Michael Vasquez, Robert Weiss, Daniel Cher, Monte Madsen, Andrew Jones
OBJECTIVE: Endovenous cyanoacrylate closure (CAC) is a new U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved therapy for treatment of clinically symptomatic venous reflux in saphenous veins. The device is indicated for the permanent closure of lower extremity superficial truncal veins, such as the great saphenous vein (GSV). Early results from a randomized trial of CAC have been reported previously. Herein we report 1-year outcomes. METHODS: There were 222 subjects with symptomatic GSV incompetence randomly assigned to receive either CAC (n = 108) or radiofrequency ablation (RFA; n = 114)...
May 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410632/evolution-of-left-ventricular-size-in-late-survivors-of-surgery-for-hypoplastic-left-heart-syndrome
#17
Markus Bjurbom, Ajay J Iyengar, Florian Moenkemeyer, Igor E Konstantinov, Christian P Brizard, Yves d'Udekem
BACKGROUND: Aortic atresia and mitral atresia are predictors of adverse events in early life in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, but it is unclear whether late outcomes are also affected, and whether this impact is related to a small hypertrophied left ventricle (LV) that impairs right ventricle (RV) function. METHODS: Thirty patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome surviving with a Fontan procedure were identified. Follow-up echocardiograms were available at birth, before the Fontan procedure, and several years after...
April 12, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410269/social-isolation-induces-schizophrenia-like-behavior-potentially-associated-with-hint1-nmda-receptor-1-and-dopamine-receptor-2
#18
Bai-Jia Li, Peng Liu, Zheng Chu, Ying Shang, Meng-Xi Huan, Yong-Hui Dang, Cheng-Ge Gao
Both genetic factors and early life adversity play major roles in the etiology of schizophrenia. Our previous studies indicated that social isolation (SI) during early postnatal development leads to several lasting abnormal behavioral and pathophysiological features resembling the core symptoms of some human neuropsychiatric disorders in mice. The glutamate and dopamine hypotheses are tightly linked to the development of schizophrenia. The cross-talk between glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate acid receptors and dopamine receptors is associated with histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 (HINT1), which is correlated with diverse psychiatric disorders...
April 19, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407508/stress-related-telomere-length-in-children-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Bruno Messina Coimbra, Carolina Muniz Carvalho, Patricia Natalia Moretti, Marcelo Feijó Mello, Sintia I Belangero
Telomeres are repetitive DNA sequences at the ends of chromatids that shorten following each cell replication. Once telomeres reach a critical length, DNA defense mechanisms can direct cells to either a state of arrest (senescence) or apoptosis. Stress induced by adversity is a probable cause of accelerated telomere shortening from an early age. However, few studies have examined the association between stress and telomere length in children, and it remains unclear whether young individuals may show signs of cellular aging early in life...
April 2, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403466/the-role-of-maternal-adverse-childhood-experiences-and-race-in-intergenerational-high-risk-smoking-behaviors
#20
Veronica A Pear, Lucia C Petito, Barbara Abrams
Introduction: A history of adversity in childhood is associated with cigarette smoking in adulthood, but there is less evidence for prenatal and next-generation offspring smoking. We investigated the association between maternal history of childhood adversity, pregnancy smoking, and early initiation of smoking in offspring, overall and by maternal race/ethnicity. Methods: Data on maternal childhood exposure to physical abuse, household alcohol abuse, and household mental illness, prenatal smoking behaviors, and offspring age of smoking initiation were analyzed from the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79, n = 2999 mothers) and the NLSY79 Children and Young Adults Survey (NLSYCYA, n = 6596 children)...
May 1, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
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