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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550750/mobile-phone-conversations-listening-to-music-and-quiet-electric-cars-are-traffic-sounds-important-for-safe-cycling
#1
A Stelling-Konczak, G P van Wee, J J F Commandeur, M Hagenzieker
Listening to music or talking on the phone while cycling as well as the growing number of quiet (electric) cars on the road can make the use of auditory cues challenging for cyclists. The present study examined to what extent and in which traffic situations traffic sounds are important for safe cycling. Furthermore, the study investigated the potential safety implications of limited auditory information caused by quiet (electric) cars and by cyclists listening to music or talking on the phone. An Internet survey among 2249 cyclists in three age groups (16-18, 30-40 and 65-70year old) was carried out to collect information on the following aspects: 1) the auditory perception of traffic sounds, including the sounds of quiet (electric) cars; 2) the possible compensatory behaviours of cyclists who listen to music or talk on their mobile phones; 3) the possible contribution of listening to music and talking on the phone to cycling crashes and incidents...
May 24, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550725/geographical-variation-and-age-related-dietary-exposure-to-arsenic-in-rice-from-bangladesh
#2
Shofiqul Islam, Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman, M R Islam, Ravi Naidu
An extensive number (965) of rice samples collected by household survey from 73 upazilas (i.e. sub-districts) in Bangladesh was analyzed to determine regional variation, distribution and associated health risks from arsenic (As). No previous study had conducted a study examining such a large number of rice samples. The mean and median concentrations of total As were 126μg/kg and 107μg/kg, respectively, ranging from between 3 and 680μg/kg. Importantly, total As levels of aromatic rice were significantly lower (average 58μg/kg) than non-aromatic rice (average 150μg/kg) and also varied with rice grain size...
May 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550718/attachment-to-place-in-advanced-age-a-study-of-the-lilacs-nz-cohort
#3
Janine L Wiles, Anna Rolleston, Avinesh Pillai, Joanna Broad, Ruth Teh, Merryn Gott, Ngaire Kerse
An extensive body of research theorises that attachment to place is positively associated with health, particularly for older people. Building on this, we measure how indicators of attachment to place are associated with health for in people of advanced age in New Zealand. We use data from a cohort study (LiLACS NZ), which includes an indigenous Māori cohort aged 80-90 years and a non-Māori cohort aged 85 years from a mixed urban/rural region in New Zealand. Each cohort undertook a comprehensive interview and health assessment (n = 267 Māori and n = 404 non-Māori)...
May 4, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550499/systematic-review-of-fmri-compatible-devices-design-and-testing-criteria
#4
REVIEW
V Hartwig, N Carbonaro, A Tognetti, N Vanello
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is at present one of the most used methodologies for functional brain exploration, both in clinical and research settings. fMRI can noninvasively measure neural activity by using specific experimental paradigms. Often, these paradigms require the stimulation of the subject to perform sensorimotor tasks: in the past, the stimuli have been administered manually for investigating fundamental aspects of tactile perception and somatosensory processing. Nowadays, the use of mechatronic devices to stimulate the subject during fMRI studies is growing, also to assure reproducibility, control, and monitoring of task performances...
May 26, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550497/clinicopathological-features-of-intraductal-papillary-neoplasms-of-the-bile-duct-a-comparison-with-intraductal-papillary-mucinous-neoplasm-of-the-pancreas-with-reference-to-subtypes
#5
Yuki Fukumura, Yasuni Nakanuma, Yuko Kakuda, Masaru Takase, Takashi Yao
Intraductal papillary epithelial neoplasms of the pancreatobiliary system (intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN)) seem to share many clinicopathological features; however, IPNB has not been fully characterized. In order to understand the clinicopathological/immunohistochemical features of IPNB better, we compared 52 cases of IPNB with 42 cases of IPMNs with mural nodules. The IPNB cases were divided into two groups according to their histological similarity and according to five key histological findings...
May 26, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550453/exchange-of-genetic-sequences-between-viruses-and-hosts
#6
Robin A Weiss
Although genetic transfer between viruses and vertebrate hosts occurs less frequently than gene flow between bacteriophages and prokaryotes, it is extensive and has affected the evolution of both parties. With retroviruses, the integration of proviral DNA into chromosomal DNA can result in the activation of adjacent host gene expression and in the transduction of host transcripts into retroviral genomes as oncogenes. Yet in contrast to lysogenic phage, there is little evidence that viral oncogenes persist in a chain of natural transmission or that retroviral transduction is a significant driver of the horizontal spread of host genes...
May 28, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550281/decadal-variations-in-eastern-canada-s-taiga-wood-biomass-production-forced-by-ocean-atmosphere-interactions
#7
Etienne Boucher, Antoine Nicault, Dominique Arseneault, Yves Bégin, Mehdi Pasha Karami
Across Eastern Canada (EC), taiga forests represent an important carbon reservoir, but the extent to which climate variability affects this ecosystem over decades remains uncertain. Here, we analyze an extensive network of black spruce (Picea mariana Mill.) ring width and wood density measurements and provide new evidence that wood biomass production is influenced by large-scale, internal ocean-atmosphere processes. We show that while black spruce wood biomass production is primarily governed by growing season temperatures, the Atlantic ocean conveys heat from the subtropics and influences the decadal persistence in taiga forests productivity...
May 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550249/avn-492-a-novel-highly-selective-5-ht6r-antagonist-preclinical-evaluation
#8
Alexandre V Ivachtchenko, Ilya Okun, Vladimir Aladinskiy, Yan Ivanenkov, Angela Koryakova, Ruben Karapetyan, Oleg Mitkin, Ramiz Salimov, Andrey Ivashchenko
Discovery of 5-HT6 receptor subtype and its exclusive localization within the central nervous system led to extensive investigations of its role in Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and obesity. In the present study, we present preclinical evaluation of a novel highly-potent and highly-selective 5-HT6R antagonist, AVN-492. The affinity of AVN-492 to bind to 5-HT6R (Ki = 91 pM) was more than three orders of magnitude higher than that to bind to the only other target, 5-HT2BR, (Ki = 170 nM). Thus, the compound displayed great 5-HT6R selectivity against all other serotonin receptor subtypes, and is extremely specific against any other receptors such as adrenergic, GABAergic, dopaminergic, histaminergic, etc...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550177/role-of-thiosulfate-in-hydrogen-sulfide-dependent-redox-signaling-in-endothelial-cells
#9
Anna Leskova, Siblile Pardue, John D Glawe, Christopher G Kevil, Xinggui Shen
Recent reports have revealed that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) exerts critical actions to promote cardiovascular homeostasis and health. Thiosulfate (S2O3(2-)) is one of the products formed during oxidative H2S metabolism, and thiosulfate has been used extensively and safely to treat calcific uremic arteriopathy in dialysis patients. Yet despite its significance, fundamental questions regarding how thiosulfate and H2S interact during redox signaling remain unanswered. In this study, we examined the effect of exogenous thiosulfate on hypoxia-induced H2S metabolite bioavailability in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
May 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550171/%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptor-stimulation-inhibits-proarrhythmic-alternans-in-post-infarction-border-zone-cardiomyocytes-a-computational-analysis
#10
Jakub Tomek, Blanca Rodriguez, Gil Bub, Jordi Heijman
The border zone (BZ) of viable myocardium adjacent to an infarct undergoes extensive autonomic and electrical remodelling and is prone to repolarisation alternans-induced cardiac arrhythmias. BZ remodelling processes may promote or inhibit calcium and/or repolarisation alternans and may differentially affect ventricular arrhythmogenesis. Here, we employed a detailed computational model of the canine ventricular cardiomyocyte to study the determinants of alternans in the BZ and their regulation by β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) stimulation...
May 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550158/viewing-benefit-sharing-in-global-health-research-through-the-lens-of-aristotelian-justice
#11
REVIEW
Bege Dauda, Kris Dierickx
The ethics of benefit sharing has been a topical issue in global health research in resource-limited countries. It pertains to the distribution of goods, benefits and advantages to the research participants, communities and countries that are involved in research. One of the nuances in benefit sharing is the ethical justification on which the concept should be based. Extensive literature outlining the different principles underlying benefit sharing is available. The purpose of this paper is to examine the proposed principles using Aristotelian principles of justice...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550150/cellulose-synthesis-and-cell-expansion-are-regulated-by-different-mechanisms-in-growing-arabidopsis-hypocotyls
#12
Alexander A Ivakov, Anna Flis, Federico Apelt, Maximilian Fuenfgeld, Ulrike Scherer, Mark Stitt, Friedrich Kragler, Kris Vissenberg, Staffan Persson, Dmitry Suslov
Plant growth is sustained by two complementary processes - biomass biosynthesis and cell expansion. The cell wall is crucial to both as it forms the majority of biomass, while its extensibility limits cell expansion. Cellulose is a major component of the cell wall and cellulose synthesis is pivotal to plant cell growth and its regulation is poorly understood. Using periodic diurnal variation in Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyl growth, we found that cellulose synthesis and cell expansion can be uncoupled and are regulated by different mechanisms...
May 26, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550099/viral-delivery-of-c9orf72-hexanucleotide-repeat-expansions-in-mice-lead-to-repeat-length-dependent-neuropathology-and-behavioral-deficits
#13
Saul Herranz-Martin, Jayanth Chandran, Katherine Lewis, Padraig Mulcahy, Adrian Higginbottom, Callum Walker, Isabel Martinez-Pena Y Valenzuela, Ross A Jones, Ian Coldicott, Tommaso Iannitti, Mohammed Akaaboune, Sherif F El-Khamisy, Thomas H Gillingwater, Pamela J Shaw, Mimoun Azzouz
Intronic GGGGCC repeat expansions in C9orf72 are the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Two major pathologies stemming from the hexanucleotide RNA expansions (HREs) have been identified in postmortem tissue: intracellular RNA foci and repeat-associated non-ATG dependent (RAN) dipeptides, though it is unclear how these and other hallmarks of disease contribute to the pathophysiology of neuronal injury. Here we generated two novel lines of mice that overexpress either 10 pure or 102 interrupted G4C2 repeats mediated by adeno-associated virus (AAV) and characterized relevant pathology and disease-related behavioral phenotypes...
May 26, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549876/prediction-and-analysis-of-promiscuous-t-cell-epitopes-derived-from-the-vaccine-candidate-antigens-of-leishmania-donovani-binding-to-mhc-class-ii-alleles-using-in-silico-approach
#14
Manju Kashyap, Varun Jaiswal, Umar Farooq
Visceral leishmaniasis is a dreadful infectious disease and caused by the intracellular protozoan parasites, Leishmania donovani and Leishmania infantum. Despite extensive efforts for developing effective prophylactic vaccine, still no vaccine is available against leishmaniasis. However, advancement in immunoinformatics methods generated new dimension in peptide based vaccine development. The present study was aimed to identify T-cell epitopes from the vaccine candidate antigens like Lipophosphogylcan-3(LPG-3) and Nucleoside hydrolase (NH) from the L...
May 23, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549768/myasthenia-gravis-after-allogeneic-bone-marrow-transplantation-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#15
Yutaka Tsutsumi, Takashi Kamiishi, Ryo Kikuchi, Shinichi Ito, Satomi Matsuoka, Takanori Teshima
A 52-year-old man with acute myeloid leukemia underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and developed extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease and myasthenia gravis (MG), which became involved with oculobulbar and proximal upper and lower limb weakness in 677days. In the literature, we identified 24 cases where MG developed after allo-SCT. Graft-versus-host disease development and male recipients of female donors might be prone to the development of posttransplant MG (odds ratio, 3.75)...
May 18, 2017: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549736/ultrasound-strain-imaging-in-assessment-of-biceps-muscle-stiffness-and-dynamic-motion-in-healthy-adults
#16
Jing Gao, Pai-Chi Li, Johnson Chen, Wen He, Li-Juan Du, Robert Min, Michael O'Dell
We prospectively evaluated the feasibility of using ultrasound strain imaging (USI) to assess biceps brachii muscle (BBM) stiffness and dynamic motion in 10 healthy adults. The BBM axial deformation was produced by external compression with a sandbag (1.0 kg) tied onto the transducer. The BBM lateral movement was produced by manual passive elbow flexion and extension. By use of 2-D speckle tracking, captured 5-s real-time ultrasound data of BBM were processed to estimate axial strain, representing muscle stiffness, and lateral strain and tissue velocity, representing muscle dynamic motion...
May 23, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549722/deficient-prepulse-inhibition-in-schizophrenia-in-a-multi-site-cohort-internal-replication-and-extension
#17
Neal R Swerdlow, Gregory A Light, Michael L Thomas, Joyce Sprock, Monica E Calkins, Michael F Green, Tiffany A Greenwood, Raquel E Gur, Ruben C Gur, Laura C Lazzeroni, Keith H Nuechterlein, Allen D Radant, Larry J Seidman, Larry J Siever, Jeremy M Silverman, William S Stone, Catherine A Sugar, Debby W Tsuang, Ming T Tsuang, Bruce I Turetsky, David L Braff
BACKGROUND: The Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS) collected case-control endophenotype and genetic information from 2457 patients and healthy subjects (HS) across 5 test sites over 3.5 years. Analysis of the first "wave" (W1) of 1400 subjects identified prepulse inhibition (PPI) deficits in patients vs. HS. Data from the second COGS "wave" (W2), and the combined W(1+2), were used to assess: 1) the replicability of PPI deficits in this design; 2) the impact of response criteria on PPI deficits; and 3) PPI in a large cohort of antipsychotic-free patients...
May 23, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549678/use-of-mathematics-to-guide-target-selection-in-systems-pharmacology-application-to-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-rtk-pathways
#18
Neil Benson, Piet H van der Graaf, Lambertus A Peletier
A key element of the drug discovery process is target selection. Although the topic is subject to much discussion and experimental effort, there are no defined quantitative rules around optimal selection. Often 'rules of thumb', that have not been subject to rigorous exploration, are used. In this paper we explore the 'rule of thumb' notion that the molecule that initiates a pathway signal is the optimal target. Given the multi-factorial and complex nature of this question, we have simplified an example pathway to its logical minimum of two steps and used a mathematical model of this to explore the different options in the context of typical small and large molecule drugs...
May 23, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549646/increased-central-dopaminergic-activity-might-be-involved-in-the-behavioral-abnormality-of-cuprizone-exposure-mice
#19
Haoxiao Chang, Jianghong Liu, Yifan Zhang, Fang Wang, Yanchuan Wu, Li Zhang, Houxi Ai, Guangliang Chen, Linlin Yin
The neurotoxican cuprizone (CPZ, a copper chelator) has been used extensively to create a mouse model of demyelination. However, the effects on behavior of CPZ treatment have not been reported in C57BL/6 mice given a diet containing 0.4% CPZ within 3weeks. Behavioral abnormalities were assessed using a range of test: Y-maze, spontaneous locomotor activity, rota-rod test, novel object recognition, climbing. Mice exposed to CPZ displayed more arm entrance, locomotor movements, and climbing behavior, suggesting an increase in central nervous system activity...
May 23, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549604/effects-of-eight-different-ligament-property-datasets-on-biomechanics-of-a-lumbar-l4-l5-finite-element-model
#20
S Naserkhaki, N Arjmand, A Shirazi-Adl, F Farahmand, M El-Rich
Ligaments assist trunk muscles in balancing external moments and providing spinal stability. In absence of the personalized material properties for ligaments, finite element (FE) models use dispersed data from the literature. This study aims to investigate the relative effects of eight different ligament property datasets on FE model responses. Eight L4-L5 models distinct only in ligament properties were constructed and loaded under moment (15Nm) alone or combined with a compressive follower load (FL). Range of motions (RoM) of the disc-alone model matched well in vitro data...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
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