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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779237/enzyme-free-replication-with-two-or-four-bases
#1
Clemens Richert, Elena Hänle
All known forms of life encode their genetic information in a sequence of bases of a genetic polymer and produce copies of their genes via semiconservative replication. How this process started before polymerase enzymes had been evolved is unclear. Enzyme-free copying of short stretches of DNA or RNA sequence has been demonstrated, using activated nucleotides, but not replication. We have developed a methodology for replication. It involves extension with reversible termination, enzyme-free ligation, and strand capture and allowed us to monitor nucleotide incorporation for an entire helical turn of DNA, both during a first and a second round of copying...
May 20, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779177/computational-identification-of-structural-factors-affecting-the-mutagenic-potential-of-aromatic-amines-study-design-and-experimental-validation
#2
Svetoslav H Slavov, Iva Stoyanova-Slavova, William Mattes, Richard D Beger, Beat J Brüschweiler
A grid-based, alignment-independent 3D-SDAR (three-dimensional spectral data-activity relationship) approach based on simulated 13 C and 15 N NMR chemical shifts augmented with through-space interatomic distances was used to model the mutagenicity of 554 primary and 419 secondary aromatic amines. A robust modeling strategy supported by extensive validation including randomized training/hold-out test set pairs, validation sets, "blind" external test sets as well as experimental validation was applied to avoid over-parameterization and build Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD 2004) compliant models...
May 19, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779137/ulnar-neuropathy-at-wrist-entrapment-at-a-very-congested-site
#3
Daniele Coraci, Claudia Loreti, Giulia Piccinini, Pietro E Doneddu, Silvia Biscotti, Luca Padua
Ulnar tunnel syndrome indicates ulnar neuropathy at different sites within the wrist. Several classifications of ulnar tunnel syndrome are present in literature, based upon typical nerve anatomy. However, anatomical variations are not uncommon and can complicate assessment. The etiology is also complex, due to the numerous potential causes of entrapment. Clinical examination, neurophysiological testing, and imaging are all used to support the diagnosis. At present, many therapeutic approaches are available, ranging from observation to surgical management...
May 19, 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779065/digital-technologies-in-the-treatment-of-anxiety-recent-innovations-and-future-directions
#4
REVIEW
Joseph Firth, John Torous, Rebekah Carney, Jill Newby, Theodore D Cosco, Helen Christensen, Jerome Sarris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the efficacy, limitations, and future of e-health treatments for anxiety. Within this, we provide detail on "first-generation" e-health approaches, such as computerized therapies. Additionally, we assess the emergence and early efficacy of newer methods of treatment delivery, including smartphone apps and virtual reality interventions, discussing the potential and pitfalls for each. RECENT FINDINGS: There is now substantial clinical research demonstrating the efficacy of internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of anxiety...
May 19, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779045/clinical-utility-of-fdg-pet-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-atypical-parkinsonism-associated-with-dementia
#5
REVIEW
Zuzana Walker, Federica Gandolfo, Stefania Orini, Valentina Garibotto, Federica Agosta, Javier Arbizu, Femke Bouwman, Alexander Drzezga, Peter Nestor, Marina Boccardi, Daniele Altomare, Cristina Festari, Flavio Nobili
PURPOSE: There are no comprehensive guidelines for the use of FDG PET in the following three clinical scenarios: (1) diagnostic work-up of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) at risk of future cognitive decline, (2) discriminating idiopathic PD from progressive supranuclear palsy, and (3) identifying the underlying neuropathology in corticobasal syndrome. METHODS: We therefore performed three literature searches and evaluated the selected studies for quality of design, risk of bias, inconsistency, imprecision, indirectness and effect size...
May 19, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779042/combining-theoretical-and-experimental-data-to-decipher-cftr-3d-structures-and-functions
#6
Brice Hoffmann, Ahmad Elbahnsi, Pierre Lehn, Jean-Luc Décout, Fabio Pietrucci, Jean-Paul Mornon, Isabelle Callebaut
Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) has recently provided invaluable experimental data about the full-length cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) 3D structure. However, this experimental information deals with inactive states of the channel, either in an apo, quiescent conformation, in which nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) are widely separated or in an ATP-bound, yet closed conformation. Here, we show that 3D structure models of the open and closed forms of the channel, now further supported by metadynamics simulations and by comparison with the cryo-EM data, could be used to gain some insights into critical features of the conformational transition toward active CFTR forms...
May 19, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779017/-xpg-rs17655-g-c-polymorphism-associated-with-cancer-risk-evidence-from-60-studies
#7
Jie Zhao, Shanshan Chen, Haixia Zhou, Ting Zhang, Yang Liu, Jing He, Jinhong Zhu, Jichen Ruan
Xeroderma pigmentosum group G (XPG), a key component in nucleotide excision repair pathway, functions to cut DNA lesions during DNA repair. Genetic variations that alter DNA repair gene expression or function may decrease DNA repair ability and impair genome integrity, thereby predisposing to cancer. The association between XPG rs17655 G>C polymorphism and cancer risk has been investigated extensively, but the results remain contradictory. To get a more accurate conclusion, we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of 60 case-control studies, involving 27,098 cancer cases and 30,535 healthy controls...
May 20, 2018: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779014/current-insights-on-use-of-growth-factors-as-therapy-for-intervertebral-disc-degeneration
#8
Justin C Kennon, Mohamed E Awad, Norman Chutkan, John DeVine, Sadanand Fulzele
Chronic low back pain is a critical health problem and a leading cause of disability in aging populations. A major cause of low back pain is considered to be the degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD). Recent advances in therapeutics, particularly cell and tissue engineering, offer potential methods for inhibiting or reversing IVD degeneration, which have previously been impossible. The use of growth factors is under serious consideration as a potential therapy to enhance IVD tissue regeneration. We reviewed the role of chosen prototypical growth factors and growth factor combinations that have the capacity to improve IVD restoration...
May 19, 2018: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779002/developing-a-testing-battery-for-measuring-dogs-stifle-functionality-the-finnish-canine-stifle-index-fcsi
#9
Heli K Hyytiäinen, Sari H Mölsä, Jouni J T Junnila, Outi M Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Anna K Hielm-Björkman
This study aimed at developing a quantitative testing battery for dogs' stifle functionality, as, unlike in human medicine, currently none is available in the veterinary field. Forty-three dogs with surgically treated unilateral cranial cruciate ligament rupture and 21 dogs with no known musculoskeletal problems were included. Eight previously studied tests: compensation in sitting and lying positions, symmetry of thrust in hindlimbs when rising from lying and sitting, static weight bearing, stifle flexion and extension and muscle mass symmetry, were summed into the Finnish Canine Stifle Index (FCSI)...
May 19, 2018: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778889/polypyrrole-increases-branching-and-neurite-extension-by-neuro2a-cells-on-pbat-ultrathin-fibers
#10
Alessandro E C Granato, André C Ribeiro, Fernanda R Marciano, Bruno V M Rodrigues, Anderson O Lobo, Marimelia Porcionatto
We present a methodology for production and application of electrospun hybrid materials containing commercial polyester (poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate; PBAT), and a conductive polymer (polypirrole; PPy) as scaffold for neuronal growth and differentiation. The physical-chemical properties of the scaffolds and optimization of the electrospinning parameters are presented. The electrospun scaffolds are biocompatible and allow proper adhesion and spread of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Fibers produced with PBAT with or without PPy were used as scaffold for Neuro2a mouse neuroblastoma cells adhesion and differentiation...
May 17, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778842/curcumin-attenuates-sepsis-induced-acute-organ-dysfunction-by-preventing-inflammation-and-enhancing-the-suppressive-function-of-tregs
#11
Longwang Chen, Yang Lu, Linjun Zhao, Lili Hu, Qiaomeng Qiu, Zhuoling Zhang, Mengfang Li, Guangliang Hong, Bing Wu, Guangju Zhao, Zhongqiu Lu
Sepsis is characterized by the extensive release of cytokines and other mediators. It results in a dysregulated immune response and can lead to organ damage and death. Curcumin has anti-inflammatory properties and immunoregulation functions in various disorders such as sepsis, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, lung fibrosis, gallstone formation, and diabetes. This paper investigates the effects of curcumin on immune status and inflammatory response in mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)...
May 17, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778819/detection-of-tem-and-ctx-m-genes-from-ciprofloxacin-resistant-proteus-mirabilis-and-escherichia-coli-isolated-on-urinary-tract-infections-utis
#12
Govindan Rajivgandhi, Muthuchamy Maruthupandy, Natesan Manoharan
The multidrug resistant Gram negative bacteria (MDRGNB) is an emerging burden and now represents a daily challenge for the management of antimicrobial therapy in healthcare settings. The present study was aimed to detect the prevalence of TEM and CTX-M type genes from GNB on urinary tract infection (UTIs). The ciprofloxacin resistant uropathogens were detected by HEXA UTI 5 disc diffusion method. The phenotypic detection of uropathogens producing extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs) was confirmed by double disc combination (DDCT) and phenotype confirmation methods (PCT)...
May 17, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778783/intra-vitreal-%C3%AE-b-crystallin-fused-to-elastin-like-polypeptide-provides-neuroprotection-in-a-mouse-model-of-age-related-macular-degeneration
#13
Parameswaran G Sreekumar, Zhe Li, Wan Wang, Christine Spee, David R Hinton, Ram Kannan, J Andrew MacKay
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of severe and irreversible central vision loss, and the primary site of AMD pathology is the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Geographic atrophy (GA) is an advanced form of AMD characterized by extensive RPE cell loss, subsequent degeneration of photoreceptors, and thinning of retina. This report describes the protective potential of a peptide derived from the αB crystallin protein using a sodium iodate (NaIO3 ) induced mouse model of GA. Systemic NaIO3 challenge causes degeneration of the RPE and neighboring photoreceptors, which have similarities to retinas of GA patients...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778724/a-tangle-of-forms-and-phylogeny-extensive-morphological-homoplasy-and-molecular-clock-heterogeneity-in-bonnetina-and-related-tarantulas
#14
David Ortiz, Oscar F Francke, Jason E Bond
Tarantula spider systematics has long been considered problematic. Species diagnosis and phylogenetic hypotheses have historically relied on morphological features, which are known to be relatively conserved and/or highly homoplastic across the family. Morphology-based attempts to clarify the phylogeny of the highly diverse New World Theraphosinae, have only been moderately successful, and the time-frame of tarantulas' evolution is nearly terra incognita. Here we present a molecular phylogenetic analysis of the Theraphosinae genus Bonnetina and related lineages, employing one mitochondrial (COI) and five nuclear (ITS1, EF1G, MID1IP1, MRPL44, and I3568) loci...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778636/surgeon-performed-ultrasound-for-the-assessment-of-parotid-masses
#15
Melissa Zheng, Karolina A Plonowska, Madeleine P Strohl, William R Ryan
BACKGROUND: Studies on parotid gland ultrasound assessments performed specifically by surgeons are seldom reported. METHODS: Retrospective series of a single academic surgeon experience, analyzing 70 new parotid masses with evaluable preoperative SP-US characteristics, location measurements, and perioperative events. RESULTS: 31/70 masses were malignant. SP-US characteristics significantly associated with both malignancy and positive margins included extraparenchymal extension, irregular borders, hypervascularity, infiltration, and the lack of deep enhancement...
April 16, 2018: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778634/genetic-characterization-of-anaplasma-marginale-strains-from-tunisia-using-single-and-multiple-gene-typing-reveals-novel-variants-with-an-extensive-genetic-diversity
#16
Mourad Ben Said, Alaa Ben Asker, Hanène Belkahia, Raoua Ghribi, Rachid Selmi, Lilia Messadi
Anaplasma marginale, which is responsible for bovine anaplasmosis in tropical and subtropical regions, is a tick-borne obligatory intraerythrocytic bacterium of cattle and wild ruminants. In Tunisia, information about the genetic diversity and the phylogeny of A. marginale strains are limited to the msp4 gene analysis. The purpose of this study is to investigate A. marginale isolates infecting 16 cattle located in different bioclimatic areas of northern Tunisia with single gene analysis and multilocus sequence typing methods on the basis of seven partial genes (dnaA, ftsZ, groEL, lipA, secY, recA and sucB)...
May 12, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778632/how-to-save-both-transverse-colon-and-continence-after-extensive-left-colon-surgery-a-case-report-of-a-new-procedure
#17
Marica Grasso, Alessandro Cimmino, Nicola Sangiuliano, Antonello Niglio
INTRODUCTION: Nowadays, after wide left colectomy, it is necessary to choose one of the following procedures: a definitive transverse colostomy, an ileo-rectal anastomosis or a right colo-rectal anastomosis (Deloyers procedure). PRESENTATION OF CASE: We performed our new procedure on a 63 years-old man. After an extensive left proctocolectomy, the intestinal continuity between the transverse colon and rectum was obtained by transposition and rotation of the right colon into the pelvis...
April 21, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778621/-surgical-treatment-of-early-stage-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-by-thoracoscopic-segmental-resection
#18
A Seguin-Givelet, J Lutz, E Brian, M Grigoroiu, D Gossot
The rate of segmental resection for early stage non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is increasing. However, the indications remain controversial. The aim of this study is to analyze the preliminary results of thoracoscopic segmental resection in early stage NSCLC in terms of morbidity, oncological validity and survival. We report the preliminary results of a consecutive series of 226 thoracoscopic segmentectomies for suspicion of early stage NSCLC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 2007 and 2016, we performed 322 thoracoscopic anatomical sublobar resections (ASLR)...
May 17, 2018: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778573/metabolites-from-the-endophytic-fungus-cylindrocarpon-sp-isolated-from-tropical-plant-sapium-ellipticum
#19
Ramsay S T Kamdem, Wafo Pascal, Nidja Rehberg, Lasse van Geelen, Simon-Patrick Höfert, Tim-Oliver Knedel, Christoph Janiak, Parichat Sureechatchaiyan, Matthias U Kassack, Wenhan Lin, Rainer Kalscheuer, Zhen Liu, Peter Proksch
Three new polyketides, cylindrocarpones A-C (1-3), two new pyridone alkaloids, cylindrocarpyridones A-B (5-6), a new pyrone cylindropyrone (7), together with seven know compounds were isolated from the endophytic fungus, Cylindrocarpon sp., obtained from the tropical plant Sapium ellipticum. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by extensive analysis of their spectroscopic data (1D and 2D NMR, HRESIMS). The absolute configuration of 19-O-methyl-pyrrocidine B (13) was confirmed by X-ray analysis...
May 17, 2018: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778571/phenylacetylene-bearing-3-4-seco-cleistanthane-diterpenoids-from-the-roots-of-phyllanthus-glaucus
#20
Zhaodi Wu, Yongji Lai, Qing Zhang, Shuangshuang Xie, Mi Zhang, Zhengxi Hu, Xiao-Nian Li, Jianping Wang, Zengwei Luo, Yongbo Xue, Qun Zhou, Hucheng Zhu, Yonghui Zhang
Three new cleistanthane diterpenoids, phyllanglins A-C (1-3), a new natural product, 4-acetyl-bergenin (4), and three known compounds (5-7) were isolated from the roots of Phyllanthus glaucus. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic data analyses and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Phyllanglins A-C were unusual cleistanthane diterpenoids with phenylacetylene moieties, and a plausible biogenetic pathway was proposed to discuss the origins of them. All of the isolates were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activities...
May 17, 2018: Fitoterapia
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