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Richard J Cassidy, Yuan Liu, Kirtesh Patel, Jim Zhong, Conor E Steuer, David A Kooby, Maria C Russell, Theresa W Gillespie, Jerome C Landry
BACKGROUND: Stage II and III rectal cancers have been effectively treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) followed by definitive resection. Advancements in surgical technique and systemic therapy have prompted investigation of neoadjuvant multiagent chemotherapy (NMAC) regimens with the elimination of radiation (RT). The objective of the current study was to investigate factors that predict for the use of NCRT versus NMAC and compare outcomes using the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) for select stage II and III rectal cancers...
October 25, 2016: Cancer
Luis Manuel Rodriguez-Mendez, Jose de Jesus Martinez-Ruiz, Ruben Perez-Manzo, Jorge Luis Corona-Hernandez, Juan Luis Alcala-Zermeno, Sergio Sanchez-Enriquez
The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries is rising every year. The autologous hamstring tendon graft, using semitendinosus tendon (SMT) and gracilis tendon (GR), is a common repair technique in the management of ACL injuries due to its multiple advantages. Using a final graft with a minimum diameter of 8 mm is necessary to avoid graft failure. The aim of this study was to find a correlation between preoperative ultrasound (USG) measurement of the SMT and GR tendon diameters (SMTd and GRd) and their actual diameters measured during the grafting procedure...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Knee Surgery
Clayton W Nuelle, Jeffrey L Milles, Ferris M Pfeiffer, James P Stannard, Patrick A Smith, Mauricio Kfuri, James L Cook
No surgical technique recreates native posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) biomechanics. We compared the biomechanics of five different PCL reconstruction techniques versus the native PCL. Cadaveric knees (n = 20) were randomly assigned to one of five reconstruction techniques: Single bundle all-inside arthroscopic inlay, single bundle all-inside suspensory fixation, single bundle arthroscopic-assisted open onlay (SB-ONL), double bundle arthroscopic-assisted open inlay (DB-INL), and double bundle all-inside suspensory fixation (DB-SUSP)...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Knee Surgery
Alessandra Gasior, Giulia Brisighelli, Karen Diefenbach, Victoria Alison Lane, Carlos Reck, Richard J Wood, Marc Levitt
Introduction Functional constipation is a common problem in children. It usually can be managed with laxatives but a small subset of patients develop intolerable cramps and need to be temporarily treated with enemas. The senior author has previously reported: 1) open sigmoid resection as a surgical option, but this did not sufficiently reduce the laxative need, then 2) a transanal approach (with resection of rectosigmoid), but this led to a high rate of soiling due to extensive stretching of the anal canal and loss of the rectal reservoir...
October 25, 2016: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Alexander A Maini, Marc J George, Madhur P Motwani, Richard M Day, Derek W Gilroy, Alastair J O'Brien
Defects in neutrophil function have been implicated in a wide spectrum of clinical conditions. Several models are employed to study activated human neutrophils akin to those found at a site of inflammation. These include whole blood (WB) ex vivo stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and in vivo techniques: cantharidin blister, skin windows and intra-dermal injection of UV-killed E.coli (UVKEc). Neutrophils obtained from these have never been compared. We compared the activation status of neutrophils from each technique in order to inform the optimal model for use in human studies...
2016: PloS One
Lital Meir-Gruber, Yossi Manor, Shiraz Gefen-Halevi, Musa Y Hindiyeh, Fernando Mileguir, Roberto Azar, Gill Smollan, Natasha Belausov, Galia Rahav, Ari Shamiss, Ella Mendelson, Nathan Keller
The presence of pan-resistant bacteria worldwide possesses a threat to global health. It is difficult to evaluate the extent of carriage of resistant bacteria in the population. Sewage sampling is a possible way to monitor populations. We evaluated the presence of pan-resistant bacteria in Israeli sewage collected from all over Israel, by modifying the pour plate method for heterotrophic plate count technique using commercial selective agar plates. This method enables convenient and fast sewage sampling and detection...
2016: PloS One
Ying Chen, Shuyan Cao, Pingping Xu, Wei Han, Tiankai Shan, Jingying Pan, Weiwei Lin, Xue Chen, Xiaodong Wang
BACKGROUND Results from DNA microarray experiments have shown that the expression of miR-34s undergoes significant changes following spinal cord injury (SCI). The present study was designed to detect changes in the expression of miR-34s and its target genes during the acute and sub-acute stages of SCI. MATERIAL AND METHODS Luxol fast blue (LFB) staining for myelin was used to observe the differences in the general morphology of the spinal cord after SCI in a contusion model in rats. qPCR was carried out to determine the expression variation of miR-34s and its target genes during the acute and sub-acute stages of SCI...
October 25, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Tal Hoffmann, Katrin Kistner, Richard W Carr, Mohammed A Nassar, Peter W Reeh, Christian Weidner
The upregulation of the tetrodotoxin-resistant voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.9 has previously been associated with inflammatory hyperalgesia. Na1.9 knockout (KO) mice, however, did not seem insensitive in conventional tests of acute nociception. Using electrophysiological, neurochemical, and behavioral techniques, we now show NaV1.9-null mice exhibit impaired mechanical and thermal sensory capacities and reduced electrical excitability of nociceptors. In single-fiber recordings from isolated skin, the electrical threshold of NaV1...
September 15, 2016: Pain
Mohammad Shakir, Summaiya Hanif, Md Fazle Alam, Hina Younus
Novel bio-relevant monometallic Schiff base complexes of the type, [Cu(L(1))2] (1), [Zn(L(1))2]·2H2O (2), [Cu(L(2))2]·2H2O (3) and [Zn(L(2))2]·H2O (4) [L(1)(E)-3-(((3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenyl)imino)methyl)naphthalen-2-ol and L(2)(E)-2-chloro-4-((1-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)ethylidene)amino)phenol] were synthesized and characterized. A comparative account of analytical, spectroscopic (FT-IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR, Mass, UV-vis and EPR), thermal (TGA/DTA), XRD and SEM studies revealed a correlation between the structure and function of these biologically active molecular entities...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Jacqueline E Gonzalez, Maciek R Antoniewicz
Engineered microbes offer a practical and sustainable alternative to traditional industrial approaches. To increase the economic feasibility of biological processes, microbial isolates are engineered to take up inexpensive feedstocks (including lignocellulosic biomass, syngas, methane, and carbon dioxide), and convert them into substrates of central metabolism and further into value-added products. To trace the metabolism of these feedstocks into products, isotopic tracers are applied together with isotopomer analysis techniques such as (13)C-metabolic flux analysis to provide a detailed picture of pathway utilization...
October 22, 2016: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Jing Jiang, You-Jin Zhao, Xin-Yu Hu, Ming-Ying Du, Zi-Qi Chen, Min Wu, Kai-Ming Li, Hong-Yan Zhu, Poornima Kumar, Qi-Yong Gong
BACKGROUND: Multiple meta-analyses of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have reported impaired white matter integrity in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, owing to inclusion of medicated patients in these studies, it is difficult to conclude whether these reported alterations are associated with MDD or confounded by medication effects. A meta-analysis of DTI studies on medication-free (medication-naive and medication washout) patients with MDD would therefore be necessary to disentangle MDD-specific effects...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Servet Kilic, Kadri Kulualp
This study compared the endodontic absorbent paper point test (EAPTT) and the phenol red thread test (PRTT) for the assessment of tear production rate in a mouse model of dry eye. Fourteen BALB/c breed female mice were allocated into experimental and control groups of equal number. For 6 wk, the experimental group was kept in dry-eye cabinets, whereas the control group was kept in normal cages under ambient conditions. In both groups, the tear production rate was measured by using EAPTT and PRTT before the study, at study baseline, and at weeks 2, 4, and 6...
2016: Comparative Medicine
Massimo Arcerito, Eric Changchien, Oscar Bernal, Adam Konkoly-Thege, John Moon
Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair has been shown to have multiple advantages compared with open repair such as less postoperative pain and earlier resume of daily activities with a comparable recurrence rate. We speculate robotic inguinal hernia repair may yield equivalent benefits, while providing the surgeon added dexterity. One hundred consecutive robotic inguinal hernia repairs with mesh were performed with a mean age of 56 years (25-96). Fifty-six unilateral hernias and 22 bilateral hernias were repaired amongst 62 males and 16 females...
October 2016: American Surgeon
Ethan Frank, Joshua Park, Alfred Simental, Christopher Vuong, Yuan Liu, Daniel Kwon, Yi Lin, Pedro Andrade Filho
Minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT) has gained acceptance as an alternative to conventional thyroidectomy. This technique results in less bleeding, postoperative pain, shorter recovery time, and better cosmetic results without increasing morbidity. We retrospectively assessed outcomes in 583 patients having MIVAT from May 2005 to September 2014. The study population was divided into groups according to periods: 2005 to 2009 and 2010 to 2014. Operative data, complications, and length of stay were collected and compared...
October 2016: American Surgeon
Seyed S Pairawan, Derek Cody, Hahns Kim, M Katherine Hughes, Naveenraj Solomon, Maheswari Senthil, Carlos Garberoglio, Sharon Lum
Nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) offers improved cosmesis for women undergoing mastectomy; however, there is increased risk for complications with this technique. We sought to determine if standard anatomic measurements could be used to predict complications of NSM. We performed a retrospective review of NSM for which anthropometric measurements of sternal notch to nipple distance, base width, and inframammary fold to nipple distance were available, and compared outcomes by anatomic measurements. We identified 102 cases of NSM with measurements available for study performed in 55 patients...
October 2016: American Surgeon
Jessica L Reynolds, Joerg Zehetner, Nikolai Bildzukewicz, Namir Katkhouda, John C Lipham
Laparoscopic repair of large paraesophageal hernias has been challenging due to high recurrence rates with primary repair and complications associated with the use of nonabsorbable mesh to reinforce the hiatus. The aim of our study was to evaluate the recurrence rate over time and mesh-related complications using an absorbable polyglactin mesh secured with Bioglue to reinforce the hiatus after laparoscopic repair of large paraesophageal hernias. There were 190 patients who met inclusion criteria from June 2006 to June 2014...
October 2016: American Surgeon
Shawn Diamond, Hassan S Moghaddas, Stephen S Kaminski, Jonathan Grotts, Lisa Ferrigno, Wesley Schooler
Over two million Americans receive treatment for pressure ulcers (PUs) annually, but national surgical outcomes are not well described. This study investigated rates and risk factors of postoperative complications in patients with PU. The 2011 and 2012 American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Project database was queried and PU patients undergoing flap closure were identified. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression analysis was used and reported as odds ratios (ORs) if (P < 0...
October 2016: American Surgeon
Richard H G Baxter
Both historically and at present, vector control is the most generally effective means of controlling malaria transmission. Insecticides are the predominant method of vector control, but the sterile insect technique (SIT) is a complementary strategy with a successful track record in both agricultural and public health sectors. Strategies of genetic and radiation-induced sterilization of Anopheles have to date been limited by logistical and/or regulatory hurdles. A safe and effective mosquito chemosterilant would therefore be of major utility to future deployment of SIT for malaria control...
October 2016: Chimia
Florian Albrecht, Felix Bischoff, Wilhelm Auwärter, Johannes V Barth, Jascha Repp
In recent years atomic force microscopy (AFM) at highest resolution was widely applied to mostly planar molecules, while its application towards exploring species with structural flexibility and a distinct 3D-character remains a challenge. Herein, the scope of non-contact AFM is widened by investigating subtle conformational differences occurring in the well-studied reference systems 2H-TPP and Cu-TPP on Cu(111). Different saddle-shape conformations of both species can be recognized in conventional constant-height AFM images...
October 25, 2016: Nano Letters
Adrian Guthals, Yutian Gan, Laura Murray, Yongmei Chen, Jeremy Stinson, Gerald R Nakamura, Jennie R Lill, Wendy Sandoval, Nuno Bandeira
One direct route for the discovery of therapeutic human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) involves the isolation of peripheral B cells from survivors/sero-positive individuals after exposure to an infectious reagent or disease etiology followed by single-cell sequencing or hybridoma generation. Peripheral B cells, however, are not always easy to obtain and only represent a small percentage of the total B cell population across all bodily tissues. Although it has been demonstrated that tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) techniques can interrogate the expressed polyclonal antibody (pAb) response to an antigen in vivo, all current approaches identify MS/MS spectra against databases derived from genetic sequencing of B cells from the same patient...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
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