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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323424/toward-a-comprehensive-global-emission-inventory-of-c4-c10-perfluoroalkane-sulfonic-acids-pfsas-and-related-precursors-focus-on-the-life-cycle-of-c8-based-products-and-ongoing-industrial-transition
#1
Zhanyun Wang, Justin M Boucher, Martin Scheringer, Ian T Cousins, Konrad Hungerbuehler
Here a new global emission inventory of C4-C10 perfluoroalkanesulfonic acids (PFSAs) from the life cycle of perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride (POSF)-based products in 1958-2030 is presented. In particular, we substantially improve and expand the previous frameworks by incorporating missing pieces (e.g., emissions to soil through land treatment, overlooked precursors) and updating parameters (e.g., emission factors, degradation half-lives). In 1958-2015, total direct and indirect emissions of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) are estimated as 1228-4930 tonnes, and emissions of PFOS precursors are estimated as 1230-8738 and approximately 670 tonnes for x-perfluorooctanesulfonamides/sulfonamido ethanols (xFOSA/Es) and POSF, respectively...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323073/dietary-electrolyte-balance-affects-growth-performance-amylase-activity-and-metabolic-response-in-the-meagre-argyrosomus-regius
#2
Leonardo J Magnoni, Emilio Salas-Leiton, Maria-João Peixoto, Luis Pereira, Francisca Silva-Brito, Filipa Fontinha, José F M Gonçalves, Jonathan M Wilson, Johan W Schrama, Rodrigo O A Ozório
Dietary ion content is known to alter the acid-base balance in freshwater fish. The current study investigated the metabolic impact of acid-base disturbances produced by differences in dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) in the meagre (Argyrosomus regius), an euryhaline species. Changes in fish performance, gastric chyme characteristics, pH and ion concentrations in the bloodstream, digestive enzyme activities and metabolic rates were analyzed in meagre fed ad libitum two experimental diets (DEB 200 or DEB 700mEq/kg) differing in the Na2CO3 content for 69days...
March 16, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321334/the-interpretation-of-cholesterol-balance-derived-synthesis-data-and-surrogate-noncholesterol-plasma-markers-for-cholesterol-synthesis-under-lipid-lowering-therapies
#3
REVIEW
Frans Stellaard, Dieter Lütjohann
The cholesterol balance procedure allows the calculation of cholesterol synthesis based on the assumption that loss of endogenous cholesterol via fecal excretion and bile acid synthesis is compensated by de novo synthesis. Under ezetimibe therapy hepatic cholesterol is diminished which can be compensated by hepatic de novo synthesis and hepatic extraction of plasma cholesterol. The plasma lathosterol concentration corrected for total cholesterol concentration (R_Lath) as a marker of de novo cholesterol synthesis is increased during ezetimibe treatment but unchanged under treatment with ezetimibe and simvastatin...
2017: Cholesterol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319329/extracellular-acidosis-and-very-low-na-inhibit-nbcn1-and-nhe1-mediated-net-acid-extrusion-from-mouse-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#4
Lisbeth Bonde, Ebbe Boedtkjer
AIM: The electroneutral Na(+) ,HCO3(-) -cotransporter NBCn1 and Na(+) /H(+) -exchanger NHE1 regulate acid-base balance in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and modify artery function and structure. Pathological conditions-notably ischemia-can dramatically perturb intracellular (i) and extracellular (o) pH and [Na(+) ]. We examined effects of low [Na(+) ]o and pHo on NBCn1 and NHE1 activity in VSMCs of small arteries. METHODS: We measured pHi by 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein-based fluorescence microscopy of mouse mesenteric arteries and induced intracellular acidification by NH4(+) -prepulse technique...
March 20, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303465/pharmacotherapy-in-generalized-anxiety-disorder-novel-experimental-medicine-models-and-emerging-drug-targets
#5
REVIEW
David S Baldwin, Ruihua Hou, Robert Gordon, Nathan T M Huneke, Matthew Garner
Many pharmacological and psychological approaches have been found efficacious in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), but many treatment-seeking patients will not respond and others will relapse despite continuing with interventions that initially had beneficial effects. Other patients will respond but then stop treatment early because of untoward effects such as sexual dysfunction, drowsiness, and weight gain. There is much scope for the development of novel approaches that could have greater overall effectiveness or acceptability than currently available interventions or that have particular effectiveness in specific clinical subgroups...
March 16, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301845/dietary-intakes-of-arachidonic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-in-early-life-with-a-special-focus-on-complementary-feeding-in-developing-countries
#6
Stewart Forsyth, Sheila Gautier, Norman Salem
BACKGROUND: In developing countries, dietary intakes of arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in early life are lower than current recommended levels. This review specifically focusses on the contribution that complementary feeding makes to ARA and DHA intakes in medium- to low-income countries. The aims of the review are (1) to determine the availability of ARA and DHA food sources in developing countries, (2) to estimate the contribution of complementary feeding to dietary intakes of ARA and DHA in infants aged 6-36 months, and (3) to relate the dietary ARA and DHA intake data to key socioeconomic and health indicators...
March 17, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300612/characterization-of-melanin-concentrating-hormone-mch-and-its-receptor-in-chickens-tissue-expression-functional-analysis-and-fasting-induced-up-regulation-of-hypothalamic-mch-expression
#7
Lin Cui, Chan Lv, Jiannan Zhang, Chunheng Mo, Dongliang Lin, Juan Li, Yajun Wang
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a neuropeptide expressed in the brain and exerts its actions through interaction with the two known G protein-coupled receptors, namely melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 and 2 (MCHR1 and MCHR2) in mammals. However, the information regarding the expression and functionality of MCH and MCHR(s) remains largely unknown in birds. In this study, using RT-PCR and RACE PCR, we amplified and cloned a MCHR1-like receptor, which is named cMCHR4 according to its evolutionary origin, and a MCHR2 from chicken brain...
March 11, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296160/changes-in-serum-bicarbonate-levels-caused-by-acetate-containing-bicarbonate-buffered-hemodialysis-solution-an-observational-prospective-cohort-study
#8
Mandip Panesar, Neal Shah, Sarosh Vaqar, Kaushik Ivaturi, Gregory Gudleski, Mary Muscarella, Judy Lambert, Winnie Su, Brian Murray
Fresenius Medical Care's NaturaLyte dialysate has been associated with increased risk of sudden cardiac death by causing metabolic alkalosis from its acetate content based on retrospective data using pre-dialysis bicarbonate levels only. The study objective was to measure inter/intra-dialytic changes in serum bicarbonate and degree of alkalosis conferred by varying concentrations of NaturaLyte bicarbonate dialysate. Thirty-nine hemodialysis patients were divided into four groups based on prescribed bicarbonate dialysate concentrations; Group 1 (N = 9): 30-32 mEq/L, Group 2 (N = 5): 33-34 mEq/L, Group 3 (N = 10): 35-36 mEq/L, Group 4 (N = 15): 37-40 mEq/L...
March 13, 2017: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294264/iron-cobalt-bimetal-oxide-nanorods-as-efficient-and-robust-water-oxidation-catalysts
#9
Xichen Zhou, Jingwei Huang, Fuming Zhang, Yukun Zhao, Yan Zhang, Yong Ding
Cobalt-based oxides are considered as potential water oxidation catalysts for future artificial photosynthetic systems because of their high abundance, strong stability and efficient performance. Herein, a series of cobalt-based oxides, MnCo3-nO4 (M = Mn, Fe, Co) samples, were synthesized through changing the metal sources by a low-temperature coprecipitation method. These catalysts were investigated under photochemical and electrochemical water oxidation conditions. And they all exhibited efficient activity for water oxidation under alkaline, acidic and neutral conditions under visible light irradiation...
March 15, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291806/effects-of-silicon-on-oryza-sativa-l-seedling-roots-under-simulated-acid-rain-stress
#10
Shuming Ju, Ningning Yin, Liping Wang, Cuiying Zhang, Yukun Wang
Silicon (Si) has an important function in reducing the damage of environmental stress on plants. Acid rain is a serious abiotic stress factor, and Si can alleviate the stress induced by acid rain on plants. Based on these assumptions, we investigated the effects of silicon on the growth, root phenotype, mineral element contents, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and antioxidative enzymes of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedling roots under simulated acid rain (SAR) stress. The results showed that the combined or single effects of Si and/or SAR on rice roots depend on the concentration of Si and the pH of the SAR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286649/protein-hydrolysates-in-animal-nutrition-industrial-production-bioactive-peptides-and-functional-significance
#11
REVIEW
Yongqing Hou, Zhenlong Wu, Zhaolai Dai, Genhu Wang, Guoyao Wu
Recent years have witnessed growing interest in the role of peptides in animal nutrition. Chemical, enzymatic, or microbial hydrolysis of proteins in animal by-products or plant-source feedstuffs before feeding is an attractive means of generating high-quality small or large peptides that have both nutritional and physiological or regulatory functions in livestock, poultry and fish. These peptides may also be formed from ingested proteins in the gastrointestinal tract, but the types of resultant peptides can vary greatly with the physiological conditions of the animals and the composition of the diets...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284695/effects-of-rumen-undegradable-protein-supplementation-on-productive-performance-and-indicators-of-protein-and-energy-metabolism-in-holstein-fresh-cows
#12
H Amanlou, T Amirabadi Farahani, N Eslamian Farsuni
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding increased dietary crude protein (CP) on productive performance and indicators of protein and energy metabolism during 21 d postpartum. Thirty multiparous Holstein dairy cows were balanced by previous lactation milk yield, body condition score (BCS) at calving, and parity and randomly allocated to 1 of 3 dietary treatments from calving until 21 d postpartum. Dietary treatments were 16.0% CP with 5.0% rumen undegradable protein (RUP) based on dry matter (DM) (16CP), 18...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283476/alveolar-non-selective-channels-are-asic1a-%C3%AE-enac-channels-and-contribute-to-afc
#13
Phi T Trac, Tiffany L Thai, Valerie Linck, Li Zou, Megan M Greenlee, Qiang Yue, Otor K Al-Khalili, Abdel A Alli, Amity F Eaton, Douglas C Eaton
A thin fluid layer in alveoli is normal and results from a balance of fluid entry and fluid uptake by transepithelial salt and water reabsorption. Conventional wisdom suggests the reabsorption is via epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaC), but if all Na(+) reabsorption was via ENaC, then amiloride, an ENaC inhibitor, should block AFC. But amiloride blocks only half of AFC. The reason for failure to block is clear from single channel measurements from alveolar epithelial cells: ENaC channels are observed, but another channel is present at the same frequency that is non-selective for Na(+) over K(+), has a larger conductance, and shorter open and closed times...
March 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279567/optimizing-everolimus-exposure-when-combined-with-calcineurin-inhibitors-in-solid-organ-transplantation
#14
REVIEW
Teun van Gelder, Lutz Fischer, Fuad Shihab, Maria Shipkova
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor everolimus is a narrow therapeutic index drug for which optimal exposure levels are essential. The consistent pharmacokinetic profile of everolimus allows trough concentration (C0) measurement to be an appropriate and reliable index for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). Exposure-response analyses of data from early fixed-dose trials demonstrated that rates of biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR) are significantly higher if everolimus C0 declines below 3 ng/mL, an observation confirmed in subsequent concentration-controlled trials...
February 27, 2017: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274203/comprehensive-transcriptomic-analysis-of-tibetan-schizothoracinae-fish-gymnocypris-przewalskii-reveals-how-it-adapts-to-a-high-altitude-aquatic-life
#15
Chao Tong, Tian Fei, Cunfang Zhang, Kai Zhao
BACKGROUND: Understanding the genetic basis of adaptation to high altitude life is of paramount importance for preserving and managing genetic diversity in highland animals. This objective has been addressed mainly in terrestrial fauna but rarely in aquatic animals. Tibetan Schizothoracinae fish is the ideal model system in evolutionary biology, carrying key insights into evolutionary genetics of speciation and adaptation at high altitude. Gymnocypris przewalskii is the newly formed Schizothoracinae fish species in the Tibetan Plateau, inhabits chronic cold, extreme saline and alkaline aquatic environment in Lake Qinghai, thus evolving the unique genomic signatures to adapt extremely severe environments...
March 9, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271233/regulation-of-glomerulotubular-balance-flow-activated-proximal-tubule-function
#16
REVIEW
Tong Wang, Sheldon Weinbaum, Alan M Weinstein
The purpose of this review is to summarize our knowledge and understanding of the physiological importance and the mechanisms underlying flow-activated proximal tubule transport. Since the earliest micropuncture studies of mammalian proximal tubule, it has been recognized that tubular flow is an important regulator of sodium, potassium, and acid-base transport in the kidney. Increased fluid flow stimulates Na(+) and HCO3(-) absorption in the proximal tubule via stimulation of Na/H-exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) and H(+)-ATPase...
March 7, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264162/model-based-analysis-of-the-long-term-effects-of-fertilization-management-on-cropland-soil-acidification
#17
Mufan Zeng, Wim de Vries, Luc T C Bonten, Qichao Zhu, Tianxiang Hao, Xuejun Liu, Minggang Xu, Xiaojun Shi, Fusuo Zhang, Jianbo Shen
Agricultural soil acidification in China is known to be caused by the over-application of nitrogen (N) fertilizers, but the long-term impacts of different fertilization practices on intensive cropland soil acidification are largely unknown. Here, we further developed the soil acidification model VSD+ for intensive agricultural systems and validated it against observed data from three long-term fertilization experiments in China. The model simulated well the changes in soil pH and base saturation over the last 20 years...
March 16, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260202/biochemical-responses-and-physical-performance-during-high-intensity-resistance-circuit-training-in-hypoxia-and-normoxia
#18
Domingo J Ramos-Campo, Jacobo A Rubio-Arias, Stéphane Dufour, Linda Chung, Vicente Ávila-Gandía, Pedro E Alcaraz
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of hypoxia on metabolic and acid-base balance, blood oxygenation, electrolyte, and half-squat performance variables during high-resistance circuit (HRC) training. METHODS: Twelve resistance-trained subjects participated in this study. After a 6RM testing session, participants performed three randomized trials of HRC: normoxia (NORM: FiO2 = 0.21), moderate hypoxia (MH: FiO2 = 0.16), or high hypoxia (HH: FiO2 = 0...
March 4, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255797/acetate-buffered-crystalloid-infusate-versus-infusion-of-0-9-saline-and-hemodynamic-stability-in-patients-undergoing-renal-transplantation-prospective-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Carmen Pfortmueller, Georg-Christian Funk, Eva Potura, Christian Reiterer, Florian Luf, Barbara Kabon, Wilfred Druml, Edith Fleischmann, Gregor Lindner
BACKGROUND: Infusion therapy is one of the most frequently prescribed medications in hospitalized patients. Currently used crystalloid solutes have a variable composition and may therefore influence acid-base status, intracellular and extracellular water content and plasma electrolyte compositions and have a major impact on organ function and outcome. The aim of our study was to investigate whether use of acetate-based balanced crystalloids leads to better hemodynamic stability compared to 0...
March 2, 2017: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254304/solid-lipid-nanoparticles-for-the-delivery-of-1-3-5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane-pta-platinum-ii-carboxylates
#20
Maddalena Sguizzato, Rita Cortesi, Eleonora Gallerani, Markus Drechsler, Lorenza Marvelli, Paolo Mariani, Federica Carducci, Riccardo Gavioli, Elisabetta Esposito, Paola Bergamini
The use of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) is a promising route for the delivery of platinum complexes aimed to anticancer activity. This paper describes the production and characterization of SLN suitable for the loading of Pt complexes containing the biocompatible phosphine 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (PTA) as neutral ligand. After a screening of several lipidic phases, stearic acid-based SLN were identified as the most appropriate for the purpose. They were produced by emulsion-dilution method and then characterized in terms of dimension, polydispersity, time stability, pH balance and morphological aspect...
May 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
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