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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689434/estimating-the-cost-effectiveness-of-lung-cancer-screening-with-low-dose-computed-tomography-for-high-risk-smokers-in-australia
#1
Stephen Wade, Marianne Weber, Michael Caruana, Yoon-Jung Kang, Henry Marshall, Renee Manser, Shalini Vinod, Nicole Rankin, Kwun Fong, Karen Canfell
BACKGROUND: Health economic evaluations of lung cancer screening with low dose computerised tomography (LDCT) that are underpinned by clinical outcomes are few. METHODS: We assessed the cost-effectiveness of LDCT lung screening in Australia by applying Australian cost and survival data to the outcomes observed in the U.S. National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), in which a 20% lung cancer mortality benefit was demonstrated for three rounds of annual screening among high-risk smokers aged 55-74 years...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687239/the-development-of-a-four-electrode-bio-impedance-sensor-for-identification-and-localization-of-deep-pulmonary-nodules
#2
Rasool Baghbani, Mohammad Hassan Moradi, Mohammad Behgam Shadmehr
Identifying and localizing of deep pulmonary nodules are among the main challenges that thoracic surgeons face during operations, particularly in thoracoscopic procedures. To facilitate this, we have tried to introduce a non-invasive and safe method by measuring the lung electrical bio-impedance spectrum with a four-electrode array sensor. To study the feasibility of this method, since any change in the depth or diameter of the nodule in the lung tissue is not practical, we used the finite element modeling of the lung tissue and pulmonary nodule to allow changes in the depth and diameter of the nodule, as well as the distance in between the injection electrodes...
April 23, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683931/value-of-18f-fdg-pet-ct-imaging-in-the-staging-restaging-monitoring-of-response-to-therapy-and-surveillance-of-uterine-leiomyosarcomas
#3
Ophélie Bélissant, Laurence Champion, Hind Thevenet, Pierre Weinmann, Jean-Louis Alberini
OBJECTIVE: Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is the most common subtype of uterine sarcomas. It is a rare and aggressive tumour. The aim of the present study was to assess the performance of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) PET/CT imaging in four clinical settings: initial staging, restaging, monitoring of response to therapy and post-therapy surveillance of uterine LMS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A bicentric retrospective study was carried out on a group of 21 patients with uterine LMS for whom a total of 52 PET/CT scans were available in initial staging (n=11), restaging (n=11), monitoring of response to therapy (n=17) and post-therapy surveillance (n=13)...
April 20, 2018: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682139/pulmonary-epithelioid-angiosarcoma-responsive-to-chemotherapy-a-case-report
#4
Lora Shirey, Demetrius Coombs, Aditya Talwar, Timothy Mickus
Primary pulmonary epithelioid angiosarcoma (AS) is an extremely rare cancer with a poor prognosis. The presenting symptoms and imaging results are nonspecific and hold similarities with more common lung pathology, contributing to missed or delayed diagnosis. Complementing radiological imaging with patient information, such as presenting symptoms and exposures, is important for early consideration of pulmonary epithelioid AS. Even with supportive imaging findings and clinical suspicion for pulmonary epithelioid AS, the most reliable and definitive method for diagnosis is through immunohistochemistry...
April 2018: Radiology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680408/silicosis-decreases-bone-mineral-density-in-rats
#5
Zhang Hui, Xu Dingjie, Yuan Yuan, Wei Zhongqiu, Mao Na, Bei Mingjian, Gou Yu, Liu Guangyuan, Gao Xuemin, Li Shifeng, Geng Yucong, Yang Fang, Ross Summer, Xu Hong
Silicosis is the most common occupational lung disease in China, and is associated with a variety of complications, many of which are poorly understood. For example, recent data indicate that silicosis associates with the development of osteopenia, and in some cases this bone loss is severe, meeting criteria for osteoporosis. Although many factors are likely to contribute to this relationship, including a sedentary lifestyle in patients with advanced silicotic lung disease, we hypothesized that silica might directly reduce bone mineral density...
April 19, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675357/radiological-signs-associated-with-pulmonary-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-an-analysis-of-published-evidences
#6
Yì Xiáng J Wáng, Myung Jin Chung, Aliaksandr Skrahin, Alex Rosenthal, Andrei Gabrielian, Michael Tartakovsky
Background: Despite that confirmative diagnosis of pulmonary drug-sensitive tuberculosis (DS-TB) and multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is determined by microbiological testing, early suspicions of MDR-TB by chest imaging are highly desirable in order to guide diagnostic process. We aim to perform an analysis of currently available literatures on radiological signs associated with pulmonary MDR-TB. Methods: A literature search was performed using PubMed on January 29, 2018...
March 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675281/coexistent-non-small-cell-carcinoma-and-small-cell-carcinoma-in-a-patient-presenting-with-hyponatremia
#7
Mitchell D Ross, Sreeja Biswas Roy, Pradnya D Patil, Jasmine L Huang, Nitika Thawani, Ralph Drosten, Tanmay S Panchabhai
Despite recent advances in screening methods, lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. By the time lung cancer becomes symptomatic and patients seek treatment, it is often too advanced for curative measures. Low-dose computed tomography (CT) screening has been shown to reduce mortality in patients at high risk of lung cancer. We present a 66-year-old man with a 50-pack-year smoking history who had a right upper lobe (RUL) pulmonary nodule and left lower lobe (LLL) consolidation on a screening CT...
2018: Case Reports in Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672639/computer-aided-diagnosis-of-lung-nodule-using-gradient-tree-boosting-and-bayesian-optimization
#8
Mizuho Nishio, Mitsuo Nishizawa, Osamu Sugiyama, Ryosuke Kojima, Masahiro Yakami, Tomohiro Kuroda, Kaori Togashi
We aimed to evaluate a computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) system for lung nodule classification focussing on (i) usefulness of the conventional CADx system (hand-crafted imaging feature + machine learning algorithm), (ii) comparison between support vector machine (SVM) and gradient tree boosting (XGBoost) as machine learning algorithms, and (iii) effectiveness of parameter optimization using Bayesian optimization and random search. Data on 99 lung nodules (62 lung cancers and 37 benign lung nodules) were included from public databases of CT images...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669530/small-cell-and-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-form-metastasis-on-cellular-4d-lung-model
#9
Dhruva K Mishra, Ross A Miller, Kristi A Pence, Min P Kim
BACKGROUND: Metastasis is the main cause of death for lung cancer patients. The ex vivo 4D acellular lung model has been shown to mimic this metastatic process. However, the main concern is the model's lack of cellular components of the tumor's microenvironment. In this study, we aim to determine if the intact lung microenvironment will still allow lung cancer metastasis to form. METHODS: We harvested a heart-lung block from a rat and placed it in a bioreactor after cannulating the pulmonary artery, trachea and tying the right main bronchus for 10-15 days without any tumor cells as a control group or with NSCLC (A549, H1299 or H460), SCLC (H69, H446 or SHP77) or breast cancer cell lines (MCF7 or MDAMB231) through the trachea...
April 18, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667749/effect-of-lysm-macrophage-depletion-on-lung-pathology-in-mice-with-chronic-bronchitis
#10
Yogesh Saini, Brandon W Lewis, Dongfang Yu, Hong Dang, Alessandra Livraghi-Butrico, Fabio Del Piero, Wanda K O'Neal, Richard C Boucher
Macrophages (MΦ) are key sentinels of respiratory exposure to inhaled environmental stimuli. In normal "healthy" tissues, MΦ are believed to be a dormant cell type that, upon exposure to stress-causing stimuli, may get activated to exhibit pro- or anti-inflammatory roles. To test whether stress present in chronic bronchitic (CB) airways triggers MΦ to manifest protective or detrimental responses, the DTA+ (LysM-regulated Diphtheria Toxin A expressing) strain with partial MΦ-deficiency was crossed with the Scnn1b-Tg mouse model of CB and the progenies were studied at 4-5 weeks of age...
April 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666814/digital-chest-tomosynthesis-the-2017-updated-review-of-an-emerging-application
#11
REVIEW
Arianna Ferrari, Luca Bertolaccini, Piergiorgio Solli, Paola Oriana Di Salvia, David Scaradozzi
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death and second most common cancer among both men and women, but most of them are detected when patients become symptomatic and in late-stage. Chest radiography (CR) is a basic technique for the investigation of lung cancer and has the benefit of convenience and low radiation dose, but detection of malignancy is often difficult. The introduction of computed tomography (CT) for screening has increased the proportion of lung cancer detected but with higher exposure dose and higher costs...
March 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664842/incidental-thoracic-findings-on-routine-computed-tomography-in-epithelial-ovarian-cancer
#12
Bobby D OʼLeary, Teresa Treacy, Tony Geoghegan, Tom A Walsh, William D Boyd, Donal J Brennan
INTRODUCTION: Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is routinely used in the surveillance of epithelial ovarian cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of thoracic findings on routine MDCT surveillance imaging in patients with ovarian carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective evaluation of 100 MDCT studies of patients with a diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer was performed at a university teaching hospital. The cross-sectional studies were reviewed by a consultant radiologist with subspeciality training in cross-sectional imaging...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664761/initial-clinical-experience-with-a-flexible-peripheral-21-g-needle-device
#13
Alain Tremblay, Renelle Myers, Eve-Lea Beaudoin, Martina Bonifazi, Antoine Delage, Marc Fortin, Christopher A Hergott, Paul R MacEachern, Tawimas Shaipanich, Benjamin Shieh, Stefano Gasparini, Stephen Lam
BACKGROUND: Bronchoscopic techniques can be used to safely sample peripheral lung nodules (PLN), and transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) can further increase the diagnostic yield. Current needle devices not necessarily designed for this indication have limitations. We report our initial experience with a new flexible nitinol peripheral TBNA needle specifically designed for such sampling. METHODS: Retrospective case review describing the first clinical cases performed with a commercially available 21-G peripheral TBNA device in 4 centers...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661918/characteristics-of-new-solid-nodules-detected-in-incidence-screening-rounds-of-low-dose-ct-lung-cancer-screening-the-nelson-study
#14
Joan E Walter, Marjolein A Heuvelmans, Geertruida H de Bock, Uraujh Yousaf-Khan, Harry J M Groen, Carlijn M van der Aalst, Kristiaan Nackaerts, Peter M A van Ooijen, Harry J de Koning, Rozemarijn Vliegenthart, Matthijs Oudkerk
PURPOSE: New nodules after baseline are regularly found in low-dose CT lung cancer screening and have a high lung cancer probability. It is unknown whether morphological and location characteristics can improve new nodule risk stratification by size. METHODS: Solid non-calcified nodules detected during incidence screening rounds of the randomised controlled Dutch-Belgian lung cancer screening (NELSON) trial and registered as new or previously below detection limit (15 mm3 ) were included...
April 16, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661040/use-of-augmented-fluoroscopic-imaging-during-diagnostic-bronchoscopy
#15
D Kyle Hogarth
The single pulmonary nodule evaluation is a complex problem. In particular, attempts to biopsy peripheral nodules with bronchoscopy have been hampered by difficulty navigating to the correct airway and then confirming the instruments' proximity to the nodule. Virtual systems in use do not provide real-time feedback of a live image of the nodule in question. Fluoroscopy has traditionally offered limited assistance as often the nodule is not visible and provides no information on airways/pathways to the nodule...
April 17, 2018: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659330/treatment-of-stage-iv-favorable-histology-wilms-tumor-with-lung-metastases-a-report-from-the-children-s-oncology-group-aren0533-study
#16
David B Dix, Nita L Seibel, Yueh-Yun Chi, Geetika Khanna, Eric Gratias, James R Anderson, Elizabeth A Mullen, James I Geller, John A Kalapurakal, Arnold C Paulino, Elizabeth J Perlman, Peter F Ehrlich, Marcio Malogolowkin, Julie M Gastier-Foster, Elizabeth Wagner, Paul E Grundy, Conrad V Fernandez, Jeffrey S Dome
Purpose The National Wilms Tumor Study (NWTS) treatment of favorable histology Wilms tumor with lung metastases was vincristine/dactinomycin/doxorubicin (DD4A) and lung radiation therapy (RT). The AREN0533 study applied a new risk stratification and treatment strategy to improve event-free survival (EFS) while reducing exposure to lung RT. Methods Patients with favorable histology Wilms tumor and isolated lung metastases showing complete lung nodule response (CR) after 6 weeks of DD4A continued receiving chemotherapy without lung RT...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659181/combination-of-anginex-gene-therapy-and-radiation-decelerates-the-growth-and-pulmonary-metastasis-of-human-osteosarcoma-xenografts
#17
Kai Zhao, Shang-You Yang, Jun Geng, Xuan Gong, Weiming Gong, Lin Shen, Bin Ning
Investigate whether rAAV-anginex gene therapy combined with radiotherapy could decrease growth and pulmonary metastasis of osteosarcoma in mice and examine the mechanisms involved in this therapeutic strategy. During in vitro experiment, multiple treatment regimes (rAAV-eGFP, radiotherapy, rAAV-anginex, combination therapy) were applied to determine effects on proliferation of endothelial cells (ECs) and G-292 osteosarcoma cells. During in vivo analysis, the same multiple treatment regimes were applied to osteosarcoma tumor-bearing mice...
April 16, 2018: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658011/a-listeria-derived-polypeptide-promotes-in-vivo-activation-of-nk-cells-for-antitumor-therapy
#18
Amber L Ortiz, Laurel L Lenz
Immunotherapies have shown promise in treatment of cancer, but more potent and targeted therapies are needed. Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes with innate ability to recognize and lyse tumor cells. When activated, they also produce type II interferon (IFNγ) to orchestrate the activity of other immune cells. Strategies to elicit NK cell activation in vivo have potential usefulness in anti-tumor immunotherapies. Here, we report on a strategy to stimulate NK cell activation and anti-tumor activity in mice with established B16...
June 1, 2017: ImmunoHorizons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656749/tumor-associated-macrophages-support-the-growth-of-fgf9-induced-lung-adenocarcinoma-by-multiple-mechanisms
#19
Ahmed E Hegab, Mari Ozaki, Shizuko Kagawa, Junko Hamamoto, Hiroyuki Yasuda, Katsuhiko Naoki, Kenzo Soejima, Yongjun Yin, Tomonari Kinoshita, Tomonori Yaguchi, Yutaka Kawakami, David M Ornitz, Tomoko Betsuyaku
OBJECTIVES: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are known to promote tumorigenesis but the mechanism(s) remain elusive. We have developed a mouse model of lung cancer that is initiated through an inducible overexpression of fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) in type-2 pneumocytes. Expression of FGF9 in adult lungs resulted in a rapid development of multiple adenocarcinoma-like tumor nodules, and is associated with an intense immunological reaction. The purpose of this study is to characterize the immune response to the FGF9-induced lung adenocarcinoma and to determine the contribution of TAMs to growth and survival of these tumors...
May 2018: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652577/lung-cancers-associated-with-cystic-airspaces-underrecognized-features-of-early-disease
#20
Sarah Sheard, Joanna Moser, Charlie Sayer, Konstantinos Stefanidis, Anand Devaraj, Ioannis Vlahos
Early lung cancers associated with cystic airspaces are increasingly being recognized as a cause of delayed diagnoses-owing to data gathered from screening trials and encounters in routine clinical practice as more patients undergo serial imaging. Several morphologic subtypes of cancers associated with cystic airspaces exist and can exhibit variable patterns of progression as the solid elements of the tumor grow. Current understanding of the pathogenesis of these malignancies is limited, and the numbers of cases reported in the literature are small...
April 13, 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
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