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Stephanie S G Brown, Shinjini Basu, Heather C Whalley, Peter C Kind, Andrew C Stanfield
The FMR1 premutation confers a 40-60% risk for males of developing a neurodegenerative disease called the Fragile X-associated Tremor Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS). FXTAS is a late-onset disease that primarily involves progressive symptoms of tremor and ataxia, as well as cognitive decline that can develop into dementia in some patients. At present, it is not clear whether changes to brain function are detectable in motor regions prior to the onset of frank symptomatology. The present study therefore aimed to utilize an fMRI motor task for the first time in an asymptomatic premutation population...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Carlo Alberto Artusi, Ashar Farooqi, Alberto Romagnolo, Luca Marsili, Roberta Balestrino, Leonard L Sokol, Lily L Wang, Maurizio Zibetti, Andrew P Duker, George T Mandybur, Leonardo Lopiano, Aristide Merola
BACKGROUND: In uncommon tremor disorders, clinical efficacy and optimal anatomical targets for deep brain stimulation (DBS) remain inadequately studied and insufficiently quantified. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of and Relevant articles were identified using the following keywords: "tremor", "Holmes tremor", "orthostatic tremor", "multiple sclerosis", "multiple sclerosis tremor", "neuropathy", "neuropathic tremor", "fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome", and "fragile X...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Neurology
M Rebecca Glineburg, Peter K Todd, Nicolas Charlet-Berguerand, Chantal Sellier
Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late-onset inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive intention tremor, gait ataxia and dementia associated with mild brain atrophy. The cause of FXTAS is a premutation expansion, of 55 to 200 CGG repeats localized within the 5'UTR of FMR1. These repeats are transcribed in the sense and antisense directions into mutants RNAs, which have increased expression in FXTAS. Furthermore, CGG sense and CCG antisense expanded repeats are translated into novel proteins despite their localization in putatively non-coding regions of the transcript...
February 14, 2018: Brain Research
Ryan Shickman, Jessica Famula, Flora Tassone, Maureen Leehey, Emilio Ferrer, Susan M Rivera, David Hessl
BACKGROUND: Fragile X premutation carriers are at increased risk for fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), but to date we know little about prediction of onset and rate of progression and even less about treatment of this neurodegenerative disease. Thus, the longitudinal study of carriers, and the identification of potential biomarkers and prodromal states, is essential. Here we present results of baseline assessments from an ongoing longitudinal project. METHODS: The cohort consisted of 73 men, 48 with the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) premutation (55-200 cytosine-cytosine-guanine or CGG repeats) and 25 well-matched controls (< 40 repeats) aged between 40 and 75 years...
February 1, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Gülsah Aydin, Gabriele Dekomien, Sabine Hoffjan, Wanda Maria Gerding, Jörg T Epplen, Larissa Arning
BACKGROUND: Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) subtypes are often caused by expansions in non-coding regions of genes like SCA8, SCA10, SCA12 and SCA36. Other ataxias are known to be associated with repeat expansions such as fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) or expansions in the C9orf72 gene. When no mutation has been identified in the aforementioned genes next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based diagnostics may also be applied. In order to define an optimal diagnostic strategy, more information about the frequency and phenotypic characteristics of rare repeat expansion disorders associated with ataxia should be at hand...
January 9, 2018: BMC Neurology
Wilmar Saldarriaga-Gil, Tatiana Rodriguez-Guerrero, Andres Fandiño-Losada, Julian Ramirez-Cheyne
Introduction: The FMR1 gene has four allelic variants according to the number of repeats of the CGG triplet. Premutation carriers with between 55 and 200 repeats are susceptible to developing pathologies such as tremor and ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) and fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI) syndrome. Case description: The patient was a 53-year-old female farmer with severe tremor in the upper limbs at rest that worsens with movement, tremor in the jaw and tongue, and generalized cerebral atrophy...
September 30, 2017: Colombia Médica: CM
Małgorzata Zofia Lisik
Premutation in the FMR1 gene occur in the general population with an estimated prevalence 1 in 130-260 females and 1 in 250-810 males. Carriers of premutation are at risk of development of spectrum of neurological, psychiatric and immunological disorders in adulthood. Fragile X-associated disease caused by dynamic mutation (expansion of CGG repeats) can be divided into three disorders: FXS - Fragile X syndrome, FXPOI - Fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency, FXTAS -Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, which can be present in few generations of one family...
October 29, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
Manon Boivin, Rob Willemsen, Renate K Hukema, Chantal Sellier
Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by an expansion of 55-200 CGG repeats located in the FMR1 gene. The main clinical and neuropathological features of FXTAS are progressive intention tremor and gait ataxia associated with brain atrophy, neuronal cell loss and presence of ubiquitin-positive intranuclear inclusions in both neurons and astrocytes. At the molecular level, FXTAS is characterized by increased expression of FMR1 sense and antisense RNA containing expanded CGG or GGC repeats, respectively...
December 6, 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Gabriella Esposito, Maria Roberta Tremolaterra, Maria Savarese, Michele Spiniello, Maria Pia Patrizio, Barbara Lombardo, Lucio Pastore, Francesco Salvatore, Antonella Carsana
BACKGROUND: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability (ID). Together with fragile X-associated tremor and ataxia (FXTAS) and fragile X-associated premature ovarian failure (POF)/primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), FXS depends on dysfunctional expression of the FMR1 gene on Xq27.3. In most cases, FXS is caused by a >200 CGG repeats in FMR1 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and by promoter hypermethylation that results in gene silencing. Males and females with unmethylated premutated alleles (repeats between 55 and 200) are at risk for FXTAS and POF/POI...
January 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Limor Man, Jovana Lekovich, Zev Rosenwaks, Jeannine Gerhardt
Fragile X syndrome (FXS), is caused by a loss-of-function mutation in the FMR1 gene located on the X-chromosome, which leads to the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability in males and the leading single-gene defect associated with autism. A full mutation (FM) is represented by more than 200 CGG repeats within the FMR1 gene, resulting in FXS. A FM is inherited from women carrying a FM or a premutation (PM; 55-200 CGG repeats) allele. PM is associated with phenotypes distinct from those associated with FM...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Elizabeth Tseng, Hiu-Tung Tang, Reem Rafik AlOlaby, Luke Hickey, Flora Tassone
FMR1 premutation carriers (55-200 CGG repeats) are at risk for developing Fragile X-associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS), an adult onset neurodegenerative disorder. Approximately 20% of female carriers will develop Fragile X-associated Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (FXPOI), in addition to a number of clinical problems affecting premutation carriers throughout their life span. Marked elevation in FMR1 mRNA levels have been observed with premutation alleles resulting in RNA toxicity, the leading molecular mechanism proposed for the FMR1 associated disorders observed in premutation carriers...
November 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Bruce E Hayward, Daman Kumari, Karen Usdin
The fragile X-related disorders are a group of three clinical conditions resulting from the instability of a CGG-repeat tract at the 5' end of the FMR1 transcript. Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) and fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI) are disorders seen in carriers of FMR1 alleles with 55-200 repeats. Female carriers of these premutation (PM) alleles are also at risk of having a child who has an FMR1 allele with >200 repeats. Most of these full mutation (FM) alleles are epigenetically silenced resulting in a deficit of the FMR1 gene product, FMRP...
October 2017: Human Genetics
Mirna Lechpammer, Verónica Martínez Cerdeńo, Michael Ryan Hunsaker, Mina Hah, Hilary Gonzales, Steve Tisch, Ronald Joffe, Roger Pamphlett, Flora Tassone, Paul J Hagerman, Samuel J Bolitho, Randi J Hagerman
This report describes unique presentations of inclusion body myositis (IBM) in two unrelated patients, one male and one female, with genetically and histologically confirmed fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). We summarize overlapping symptoms between two disorders, clinical course, and histopathological analyses of the two patients with FXTAS and sporadic IBM, clinically defined per diagnostic criteria of the European Neuromuscular Centre. In case 1, a post-mortem analysis of available brain and muscle tissues is also described...
August 31, 2017: Croatian Medical Journal
Marieke F Jager, Christian Ott, Peter M Kraus, Christopher J Kaplan, Winston Pouse, Robert E Marvel, Richard F Haglund, Daniel M Neumark, Stephen R Leone
Coulomb correlations can manifest in exotic properties in solids, but how these properties can be accessed and ultimately manipulated in real time is not well understood. The insulator-to-metal phase transition in vanadium dioxide (VO2) is a canonical example of such correlations. Here, few-femtosecond extreme UV transient absorption spectroscopy (FXTAS) at the vanadium M2,3 edge is used to track the insulator-to-metal phase transition in VO2 This technique allows observation of the bulk material in real time, follows the photoexcitation process in both the insulating and metallic phases, probes the subsequent relaxation in the metallic phase, and measures the phase-transition dynamics in the insulating phase...
September 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
J Y Wang, A M Trivedi, N R Carrillo, J Yang, A Schneider, C Giulivi, P Adams, F Tassone, K Kim, S M Rivera, N Lubarr, C-Y Wu, R W Irwin, R D Brinton, J M Olichney, M A Rogawski, R J Hagerman
Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder affecting approximately 45% of male and 16% of female carriers of the FMR1 premutation over the age of 50 years. Currently, no effective treatment is available. We performed an open-label intervention study to assess whether allopregnanolone, a neurosteroid promoting regeneration and repair, can improve clinical symptoms, brain activity, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements in patients with FXTAS. Six patients underwent weekly intravenous infusions of allopregnanolone (2-6 mg over 30 min) for 12 weeks...
October 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
M Mila, M I Alvarez-Mora, I Madrigal, L Rodriguez-Revenga
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability and the leading form of the monogenic cause of autism. Fragile X mental retardation type 1 (FMR1) gene premutation is the first single-gene cause of primary ovarian failure (Fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency [FXPOI]) and one of the most common causes of ataxia (fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome [FXTAS]), multiple additional phenotypes such as fibromyalgia, hypothyroidism, migraine headaches, sleep disturbances, sleep apnea, restless legs syndrome, central pain syndrome, neuropathy and neuropsychiatric alterations has been described...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Genetics
Ha Eun Kong, Juan Zhao, Shunliang Xu, Peng Jin, Yan Jin
Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a premutation CGG repeat expansion (55-200 repeats) within the 5' UTR of the fragile X gene (FMR1). FXTAS is characterized by intension tremor, cerebellar ataxia, progressive neurodegeneration, parkinsonism and cognitive decline. The development of transgenic mouse and Drosophila melanogaster models carrying an expanded CGG repeat has yielded valuable insight into the pathophysiology of FXTAS. To date, we know of two main molecular mechanisms of this disorder: (1) a toxic gain of function of the expanded CGG-repeat FMR1 mRNA, which results in the binding/sequestration of the CGG-binding proteins; and (2) CGG repeat-associated non-AUG-initiated (RAN) translation, which generates a polyglycine peptide toxic to cells...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Annie L Shelton, Kim M Cornish, David Godler, Quang Minh Bui, Scott Kolbe, Joanne Fielding
OBJECTIVE: To examine the interrelationships between fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) mRNA and the FMR1 exon 1/intron 1 boundary methylation, white matter microstructure, and executive function, in women with a FMR1 premutation expansion (PM; 55-199 CGG repeats) and controls (CGG < 44). METHODS: Twenty women with PM without fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) and 20 control women between 22 and 54 years of age completed this study. FMR1 mRNA and methylation levels for 9 CpG sites within the FMR1 exon 1/intron 1 boundary from peripheral blood samples were analyzed...
May 30, 2017: Neurology
Verónica Martínez-Cerdeño, Mirna Lechpammer, Stephen Noctor, Jeanelle Ariza, Paul Hagerman, Randi Hagerman
This is a report of FMR1 premutation with Prader-Willi phenotype (PWP) and FXTAS. Although the PWP is common in fragile X syndrome (FXS), it has never been described in someone with the premutation. The patient presented intranuclear inclusions, severe obesity, hyperphagia, and ADHD symptoms, typical of the PWP in FXS. In addition, the autopsy revealed multiple architectural cortical abnormalities.
May 2017: Clinical Case Reports
Gaëlle Robin, José R López, Glenda M Espinal, Susan Hulsizer, Paul J Hagerman, Isaac N Pessah
Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a neurological disorder that affects premutation carriers with 55-200 CGG-expansion repeats (preCGG) in FMR1, presenting with early alterations in neuronal network formation and function that precede neurodegeneration. Whether intranuclear inclusions containing DNA damage response (DDR) proteins are causally linked to abnormal synaptic function, neuronal growth and survival are unknown. In a mouse that harbors a premutation CGG expansion (preCGG), cortical and hippocampal FMRP expression is moderately reduced from birth through adulthood, with greater FMRP reductions in the soma than in the neurite, despite several-fold elevation of Fmr1 mRNA levels...
July 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
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