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Molecular allergen

Ashfaq Ghumra, Marcos Alcocer
Cell-based assays are widely used in all aspects of research ranging from understanding basic biological function to identifying compounds for disease intervention. Immortalized cell lines have been ideal components of these assays due to the low cost of growth, easy maintenance, and the ability to obtain homogenous cell populations. Like other molecular assays, cell-based systems have been automated to reduce experimental error. Complex lipids are now recognized as important components of the allergic response, the study of the interaction between NKTs and lipid-activated DCs opens a new perspective into the intrinsic allergenicity of proteins...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Sara Benedé, Rosina López-Fandiño, Elena Molina
Cow's milk allergy is defined as an immunologically mediated adverse reaction to cow's milk proteins and it is usually, along with hen's egg allergy, the first food allergy identified in childhood.One of the main aspects to consider when evaluating the allergenic potential of food proteins is the effect of gastric digestion. It is known that allergens are usually able to survive the harsh acidic environment of the stomach, tolerate the presence of surfactants, and resist digestion by pepsin. They might also be digested into high molecular weight peptide fragments, which retain the same, or sometimes increased, IgE-binding...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Raquel Madrid, Silvia de la Cruz, Aina García, Rosario Martín, Isabel González, Teresa García
Phage display is a powerful tool to produce recombinant antibodies against a given antigen without animal immunization. This technology employs libraries of recombinant bacteriophages that display billions of different functional antibody fragments on their surface. They are selected by panning in vitro against the target antigen in search for specific binders. In this chapter, we describe the selection of single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies to be used for detection of allergenic proteins from nuts in food products...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jing Lin, Marcos Alcocer
Food allergy has become a major public health problem worldwide. In the past two decades, development in molecular biology and immunology has led to many new techniques that had improved traditional methods in the food allergy field. These methods greatly facilitate identification, characterization, and quantification of food allergen and are certainly leading to better diagnostics and therapeutics for food allergic diseases. Here we review methods commonly used for food allergens.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Shokrollah Farrokhi, Narjes Abbasirad, Ali Movahed, Hossein Ali Khazaei, Masoud Pishjoo, Nima Rezaei
Toll-like receptors (TLRs), a family of pattern recognition receptors expressed on many cell types of innate immunity, recognize the pathogen-associated molecular patterns of microbes. The hygiene hypothesis suggests that a reduced microbial exposure in early childhood increases the susceptibility to allergic diseases due to deviation in development of the immune system. TLRs are key roles in the right and healthy direction of adaptive immunity with the induction of T-helper 2 toward Th1 immune responses and regulatory T cells...
March 2017: Immunotherapy
Elisabetta De Angelis, Rosa Pilolli, Simona L Bavaro, Linda Monaci
Soy is an important component of the human diet thanks to its nutritional value and high protein content; however, it also represents a risk for allergenic consumers due to its potential to trigger adverse reactions in sensitized individuals. The putative correlation between immunoreactivity and resistance to the human gastrointestinal (GI) digestion has drawn attention to investigating soybean proteins digestibility. In this work, we provided further insights into this field by performing in vitro simulated GI digestion experiments directly on ground soybean seeds, to provide more realistic results obtained from the digestion of the whole food matrix...
March 15, 2017: Food & Function
Uta Jappe
Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) does not achieve 100% efficacy, nor is there a reliable marker for therapy failure. However, advances in molecular allergology over the past few years have allowed a significantly improved characterization of the patients using molecular-allergological analysis methods (molecular phenotyping). Thus, major and minor allergens can be identified. In addition, the marker allergens for the severity of an allergic reaction, the pathological and therapeutic predictive marker allergens, and sensitization patterns are identified...
March 14, 2017: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
Feng Zhao, Jörg Durner, J Barbro Winkler, Claudia Traidl-Hoffmann, Tim-Matthias Strom, Dieter Ernst, Ulrike Frank
Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) is a highly allergenic annual ruderal plant and native to Northern America, but now also spreading across Europe. Air pollution and climate change will not only affect plant growth, pollen production and duration of the whole pollen season, but also the amount of allergenic encoding transcripts and proteins of the pollen. The objective of this study was to get a better understanding of transcriptional changes in ragweed pollen upon NO2 and O3 fumigation. This will also contribute to a systems biology approach to understand the reaction of the allergenic pollen to air pollution and climate change...
March 8, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Natalia Ballardini, Anna Nopp, Carl Hamsten, Mirja Vetander, Erik Melén, Caroline Nilsson, Markus Ollert, Carsten Flohr, Annette Kuehn, Marianne van Hage
Availability of "exotic" foods is steadily increasing. In this report, we describe the first case of anaphylaxis to crocodile meat. The patient was a 13-year-old boy with severe immunoglobulin E-mediated allergy to chicken meat. When tasting crocodile meat for the first time, he developed an anaphylactic reaction. Cross-reactivity between chicken and crocodile meat was suspected to have triggered this reaction. Basophil activation and immunoglobulin E testing confirmed the boy's allergic reaction to crocodile meat proteins...
March 8, 2017: Pediatrics
Rashmi Prava Mohanty, Mark Alan Buchheim, James Anderson, Estelle Levetin
Although considered rare, airborne pollen can be deposited far from its place of origin under a confluence of favorable conditions. Temporally anomalous records of Cupressacean pollen collected from January air samples in London, Ontario, Canada have been cited as a new case of long-distance transport. Data on pollination season implicated Juniperus ashei (mountain cedar), with populations in central Texas and south central Oklahoma, as the nearest source of the Cupressacean pollen in the Canadian air samples...
2017: PloS One
Dwan Price, M Leigh Ackland, Cenk Suphioglu
BACKGROUND: Peanuts are still one of the highest contributors to anaphylactic deaths after ingestion of a food allergen. At the molecular level, interactions between peanut allergens and the intestinal epithelium are largely unexplored. Previous findings by our research group demonstrated that the major peanut allergens, i.e., Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3, and Ara h 6, were able to cross the Caco-2 human cell culture model of the intestinal epithelium. This research broadened our investigation to identify the mechanisms by which the Caco-2 monolayers uptake peanut allergens, specifically by endocytosis...
March 8, 2017: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Thierry Olivry, Stanley M Dunston, Claude Favrot, Pascal Prélaud, Toshiroh Tsukui
BACKGROUND: Atopic dogs with hypersensitivity to Dermatophagoides farinae (Df) have IgE recognizing high molecular weight (MW) allergens more often than the low MW Der f 1 and 2. A new high MW Df allergen, Zen-1, has been identified recently. OBJECTIVES: To determine the IgE reactivity of American and European Df-hypersensitive dogs to Zen-1, Der f 1 and Der f 2. METHODS: We tested sera from 33 Df-reactive dogs from the USA, 29 from Europe and 15 experimentally sensitized to Df, by ELISA against crude Df, Der f 1, Der f 2 and Zen-1...
April 2017: Veterinary Dermatology
Thierry Olivry, Judy S Paps, Stanley M Dunston
BACKGROUND: Allergen immunotherapy is currently the only intervention proposed to specifically prevent clinical flares after allergen challenges. The low molecular weight Der f 2 (Df2) is a major allergen in Japanese dogs sensitized to Dermatophagoides farinae house dust mites. OBJECTIVES: Pilot, blinded, placebo-controlled experiment testing the efficacy of subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) with high doses of recombinant Df2 conjugated to the maltotriose pullulan (rDf2-P)...
April 2017: Veterinary Dermatology
Luís Miguel Lourenço Martins, Andreia Grilo Marques, Luísa Maria Dotti Silva Pereira, Saul José Semião-Santos, Ofélia Pereira Bento
INTRODUCTION: Much less is known about grass-pollen allergens to dogs, when compared with humans. Genetic-based patterns might play an important role in sensitization profiles, conditioning the success of allergen-specific immunotherapy. AIM: Mapping of Dactylis glomerata (D. glomerata) and Phleum pratense (P. pratense) allergens for grass pollen-sensitized atopic dogs, for better understanding how individual allergograms may influence the response to grass-pollen immunotherapy...
February 2017: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
J Depciuch, I Kasprzyk, O Sadik, M Parlińska-Wojtan
ABSTRACT: In this study, the effect of urbanization and environmental pollution on qualitative (structural) and quantitative changes of the Corylus avellana (hazel) pollen was investigated using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and curve-fitting analysis of amide I profile. The obtained spectroscopic results show significant variations in the fraction of proteins in the hazel pollen, which probably depend on various degrees of anthropopression...
2017: Aerobiologia
Rosario Josefina Uzuriaga-Sánchez, Ademar Wong, Sabir Khan, Maria I Pividori, Gino Picasso, Maria D P T Sotomayor
Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) in combination with magnetic nanoparticles, in a core@shell format, were studied for selective detection of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), a powerful allergenic substance. Magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by the co-precipitation method and mixed with oleic acid (OA). This material was then encapsulated in three types of hydrophobic polymeric matrix, poly-(MA-co-EDGMA), poly-(AA-co-EDGMA), and poly-(1-VN-co-EDGMA), by the mini-emulsion method. These matrices were used due to their ability to interact specifically with the functional groups of the analyte...
May 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Joanna Zgorzelska-Kowalik, Jolanta Walusiak-Skorupa, Ewa Nowakowska-Świrta, Marta Wiszniewska
BACKGROUND: The performance of specific inhalation challenge test (SICT) - reference method in diagnostics of occupational allergy - has some limitations due to health status of a particular patient. Therefore, it is extremely important to identify usefulness of other tests, and the evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of commercially available serum specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) kits to the most common high molecular weight agents has been launched. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group comprised 141 subjects - 110 bakers and 31 farmers - with suspicion of occupational airway allergy...
February 28, 2017: Medycyna Pracy
Adam M Chaker, Ulrich M Zissler, Martin Wagenmann, Carsten Schmidt-Weber
Clinical diagnoses of allergic airway disease need confirmation of a relevant sensitization to allergens. Serum-based component-resolved diagnosis has become increasingly popular and allows the precise assessment of specific IgE to molecular allergens. Molecular allergen diagnosis has improved our understanding of disease phenotypes in allergic patients, including cross-reactive patterns and food allergy. Beyond sensitization profiles, characterization of the (endo-)type and severity of a local allergic disease is useful for targeted therapy with biologics in advanced allergic airway disease...
2017: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
Qigao Guo, Qing Liu, Neil A Smith, Guolu Liang, Ming-Bo Wang
Understanding the fundamental nature of a molecular process or a biological pathway is often a catalyst for the development of new technologies in biology. Indeed, studies from late 1990s to early 2000s have uncovered multiple overlapping but functionally distinct RNA silencing pathways in plants, including the posttranscriptional microRNA and small interfering RNA pathways and the transcriptional RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway. These findings have in turn been exploited for developing artificial RNA silencing technologies such as hairpin RNA, artificial microRNA, intrinsic direct repeat, 3' UTR inverted repeat, artificial trans-acting siRNA, and virus-induced gene silencing technologies...
December 2016: Current Genomics
Kevin D Quinn, Michaela Schedel, Yasmeen Nkrumah-Elie, Anthony Joetham, Michael Armstrong, Charmion Cruickshank-Quinn, Richard Reisdorph, Erwin W Gelfand, Nichole Reisdorph
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a complex lung disease resulting from the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. To understand the molecular changes that occur during the development of allergic asthma without genetic and environmental confounders, an experimental model of allergic asthma in mice was used. Our goals were to (1) identify changes at the small molecule level due to allergen exposure, (2) determine perturbed pathways due to disease, and (3) determine whether small molecule changes correlate with lung function...
February 18, 2017: Allergy
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