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Shipher Wu, Wei-Chun Chang
A new endemic, montane species of the genus Andraca, A. yauichui sp. nov., in Taiwan is described. It can be separated well from a lower montane, notable tea tree pest A. theae (Matsumura, 1909), based on morphological characters of adult, e.g. larger wingspan size, head vertex white rather than brown, valval apex truncate rather than bifurcate, and final instar larva, e.g. the presence of a pair of white spot on lateral part of each abdominal segment and a distinct short anal horn rather than the absence of two characters...
December 1, 2016: Zootaxa
Leonard L L Yeo, Y M Wu, Y L Chen, C H Yeh, T H Lee, H F Wong
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the Wingspan device for the treatment of symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS). METHODS: We audited a prospective ongoing database of consecutive patients who received Wingspan stenting between January 2013 and December 2015. All patients underwent MRI to audit any complications during the early follow-up period. We focused on the clinical demographics, lesion characteristics, treatment results, and periprocedural complications...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
Thomas W Leung, Ashley M Wabnitz, Zhongrong Miao, Marc I Chimowitz
The high rate of recurrent strokes in patients with intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAS) despite medical therapy prompted intracranial angioplasty and/or stenting an adjunctive treatment option. The minute calibers of cerebral arteries, the relative paucity of supporting medial and adventitia layers, the presence of end-anastomosing perforator branches, and the vascular tortuosity from groin to head all demand specialized operative skills and dedicated tools. Since the stroke mechanism of ICAS is diverse, patient selection for endovascular treatment requires a sound understanding of the underlying pathophysiology...
2016: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Shuang Xing, Timothy C Bonebrake, Chin Cheung Tang, Evan J Pickett, Wenda Cheng, Sasha E Greenspan, Stephen E Williams, Brett R Scheffers
Morphology mediates the relationship between an organism's body temperature and its environment. Dark organisms, for example, tend to absorb heat more quickly than lighter individuals, which could influence their responses to temperature. Therefore, temperature-related traits such as morphology may affect patterns of species abundance, richness, and community assembly across a broad range of spatial scales. In this study, we examined variation in color lightness and body size within butterfly communities across hot and cool habitats in the tropical woodland-rainforest ecosystems of northeast Queensland, Australia...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Elizabeth Martin-Silverstone, Mark P Witton, Victoria M Arbour, Philip J Currie
Pterosaur fossils from the Campanian-Maastrichtian of North America have been reported from the continental interior, but few have been described from the west coast. The first pterosaur from the Campanian Northumberland Formation (Nanaimo Group) of Hornby Island, British Columbia, is represented here by a humerus, dorsal vertebrae (including three fused notarial vertebrae), and other fragments. The elements have features typical of Azhdarchoidea, an identification consistent with dominance of this group in the latest Cretaceous...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Eduardo Murias Quintana, Pedro Vega Valdés, Edison Morales Deza, Alberto Gil Garcia, Hugo Cuellar Saenz, Alba L Salgado Bernal, María Cadenas Rodríguez, Lorena Benavente Fernández, Montserrat González Delgado, Nuria Riesco Pérez, Davinia Larrosa Campo, Sergio Calleja Puerta
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to demonstrate our experience in endovascular reconstruction of carotid dissections using the Wingspan Stent System™ (Boston Scientific, Natick, MA, USA), a device we use because of its high radial force and its navigation in extreme curves. METHODS: We treated 11 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke due to carotid dissection with the Wingspan stent, in the cervical carotid artery. RESULTS: Functional evaluation revealed that 10 of the 11 patients were independent at 3 months post surgery and that the 11 stents used were found to be patent at the 6-month follow-up digital subtraction angiography (DSA)...
December 2016: Interventional Neuroradiology
Elliot W Hawkes, David Lentink
Hovering flies generate exceptionally high lift, because their wings generate a stable leading edge vortex. Micro flying robots with a similar wing design can generate similar high lift by either flapping or spinning their wings. While it requires less power to spin a wing, the overall efficiency depends also on the actuator system driving the wing. Here, we present the first holistic analysis to calculate how long a fly-inspired micro robot can hover with flapping versus spinning wings across scales. We integrate aerodynamic data with data-driven scaling laws for actuator, electronics and mechanism performance from fruit fly to hummingbird scales...
October 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Dan Xu, Xi-Cui Du
Patania clava sp. n. is described from the Diaoluo Mountain of Hainan Island, China. The new species is distinguished from its most similar congener, Patania iopasalis (Walker, 1859), by the following features: wingspan 33.0-35.0 mm (vs. 21.0-30.0 mm), ventral cilia of the male antenna as long as the diameter of flagellomere (vs. 1/4), the thick finger-like gnathos (vs. the short broad sheet-like), a long thick needle-like cornutus stretching out from (vs. embedded in) a cluster of spicular cornuti near apex...
2016: ZooKeys
Tatjana Y Hubel, Nickolay I Hristov, Sharon M Swartz, Kenneth S Breuer
We compare kinematics and wake structure over a range of flight speeds (4.0-8.2 m s(-1)) for two bats that pursue insect prey aerially, Tadarida brasiliensis and Myotis velifer Body mass and wingspan are similar in these species, but M. velifer has broader wings and lower wing loading. By using high-speed videography and particle image velocimetry of steady flight in a wind tunnel, we show that three-dimensional kinematics and wake structure are similar in the two species at the higher speeds studied, but differ at lower speeds...
September 26, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Anna B Loveland, Eugene Bah, Rohini Madireddy, Ying Zhang, Axel F Brilot, Nikolaus Grigorieff, Andrei A Korostelev
Stringent response is a conserved bacterial stress response underlying virulence and antibiotic resistance. RelA/SpoT-homolog proteins synthesize transcriptional modulators (p)ppGpp, allowing bacteria to adapt to stress. RelA is activated during amino-acid starvation, when cognate deacyl-tRNA binds to the ribosomal A (aminoacyl-tRNA) site. We report four cryo-EM structures of E. coli RelA bound to the 70S ribosome, in the absence and presence of deacyl-tRNA accommodating in the 30S A site. The boomerang-shaped RelA with a wingspan of more than 100 Å wraps around the A/R (30S A-site/RelA-bound) tRNA...
2016: ELife
Hoang Vu Phan, Quang Tri Truong, Thi Kim Loan Au, Hoon Cheol Park
This work presents a parametric study, using the unsteady blade element theory, to investigate the role of twist in a hovering flapping wing. For the investigation, a flapping-wing system was developed to create a wing motion of large flapping amplitude. Three-dimensional kinematics of a passively twisted wing, which is capable of creating a linearly variable geometric angle of attack (AoA) along the wingspan, was measured during the flapping motion and used for the analysis. Several negative twist or wash-out configurations with different values of twist angle, which is defined as the difference in the average geometric AoAs at the wing root and the wing tip, were obtained from the measured wing kinematics through linear interpolation and extrapolation...
2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Ting Zhao, Wen-Yao Zhu, Xiao-Yi Xiong, Jie Li, Li Wang, Hui-Yan Ding, Fei Wei, Yu Zhou, Zi-Li Gong, Sai-Yu Cheng, Yong Liu, Jie Shuai, Qing-Wu Yang
OBJECTIVE: Our objective is to investigate the safety and long-term efficacy of the Wingspan stent (Boston Scientific, Natick, MA, USA) for treating severe atherosclerotic stenosis of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). METHODS: A total of 278 consecutive patients from our stroke database with clinical symptoms within the prior 90 days and intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis of 70% or above of the MCA were enrolled in this study between September 2012 and November 2014, and these patients were followed until the end of June 2015...
October 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Andrew M Mountcastle, Teressa M Alexander, Callin M Switzer, Stacey A Combes
Previous work has shown that wing wear increases mortality in bumblebees. Although a proximate mechanism for this phenomenon has remained elusive, a leading hypothesis is that wing wear increases predation risk by reducing flight manoeuvrability. We tested the effects of simulated wing wear on flight manoeuvrability in Bombus impatiens bumblebees using a dynamic obstacle course designed to push bees towards their performance limits. We found that removing 22% wing area from the tips of both forewings (symmetric wear) caused a 9% reduction in peak acceleration during manoeuvring flight, while performing the same manipulation on only one wing (asymmetric wear) did not significantly reduce maximum acceleration...
June 2016: Biology Letters
Hong D Vo, Ingo Schiffner, Mandyam V Srinivasan
It is essential for birds to be agile and aware of their immediate environment, especially when flying through dense foliage. To investigate the type of visual signals and strategies used by birds while negotiating cluttered environments, we presented budgerigars with vertically oriented apertures of different widths. We find that, when flying through narrow apertures, birds execute their maneuvers in an anticipatory fashion, with wing closures, if necessary, occurring well in advance of the aperture. When passing through an aperture that is narrower than the wingspan, the birds close their wings at a specific, constant distance before the aperture, which is independent of aperture width...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jun Wang, Yongping Liang, Baomin Li, Xinfeng Liu, Sheng Li, Xiangyu Cao, Ruozhuo Liu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility, safety, clinical, and angiographic follow-up of only overlapping stents therapy for intracranial vertebral artery dissection aneurysms (VADA). METHODS: Eight consecutive patients (6 men, 2 women; mean age 46.8 years ranging from 34 to 62 years) with intracranial VADA admitted to Department of Neurology, Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital from June 2008 to June 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were diagnosed intracranial VADA by MRI or digital subtraction angiography (DSA)...
May 1, 2016: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
Akihiro Koide
The review of drugs and medical devices is an integral part of regulatory science. The Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) evaluates the efficacy, safety, and quality of drugs and medical devices after applications are submitted for regulatory approval. The products are approved when their benefits exceed their risks, i.e., an application is approved if the efficacy of the product in patients was demonstrated and the safety of the product is acceptable in view of its observed benefits. However, drugs and medical devices for which efficacy was not clearly demonstrated in clinical trials makes the decision to approve a difficult process...
2016: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Marco KleinHeerenbrink, Kajsa Warfvinge, Anders Hedenström
Gliding flight is a relatively inexpensive mode of flight used by many larger bird species, where potential energy is used to cover the cost of aerodynamic drag. Birds have great flexibility in their flight configuration, allowing them to control their flight speed and glide angle. However, relatively little is known about how this flexibility affects aerodynamic drag. We measured the wake of a jackdaw (Corvus monedula) gliding in a wind tunnel, and computed the components of aerodynamic drag from the wake...
May 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
M Russ, V Singh, B Loughran, D R Bednarek, S Rudin
A family of imaging task-specific metrics designated Relative Object Detectability (ROD) metrics was developed to enable objective, quantitative comparisons of different x-ray systems. Previously, ROD was defined as the integral over spatial frequencies of the Fourier Transform of the object function, weighted by the detector DQE for one detector, divided by the comparable integral for another detector. When effects of scatter and focal spot unsharpness are included, the generalized metric, GDQE, is substituted for the DQE, resulting in the G-ROD metric...
February 2015: Proceedings of SPIE
Debora S Argetsinger, Jeffrey W Miller, Jeffrey J Fletcher
The Japanese translation of moyamoya means "puff of smoke" and refers to the angiographic appearance of dilated collateral vessels seen during chronic progressive narrowing of the intracranial supraclinoid portions of the internal carotid arteries. Despite cerebral ischemia being the most common presenting symptom, 20% to 40% of adults suffer a hemorrhagic stroke. Due to the lack of evidence and histopathologic findings, intravenous and endovascular reperfusion therapy is typically avoided. This case study presents a patient with moyamoya disease in the hyperacute phase of ischemic stroke...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Wei-Xing Bai, Bu-Lang Gao, Tian-Xiao Li, Zi-Liang Wang, Dong-Yang Cai, Liang-Fu Zhu, Jiang-Yu Xue, Zhao-Shuo Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the safety and long-term effect of using the Wingspan stent for severe symptomatic atherosclerotic basilar artery stenosis (≥70%). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between July 2007 and April 2013, we had 91 consecutive patients (age range 41-82 years old) with symptomatic severe basilar stenosis (70-99%) who underwent Wingspan stenting at our center. All patients had stenosis-related temporary ischemic attack or strokes. We analyzed the demographic data, pre- and post-procedural cerebral angiography, technical success rate, peri-procedural complications, and clinical and imaging follow-ups...
June 2016: Interventional Neuroradiology
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