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"Long term memory"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729730/a-selective-inhibitor-of-histone-deacetylase-3-prevents-cognitive-deficits-and-suppresses-striatal-cag-repeat-expansions-in-huntington-s-disease-mice
#1
Nuria Suelves, Lucy Kirkham-McCarthy, Robert S Lahue, Silvia Ginés
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder whose major symptoms include progressive motor and cognitive dysfunction. Cognitive decline is a critical quality of life concern for HD patients and families. The enzyme histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) appears to be important in HD pathology by negatively regulating genes involved in cognitive functions. Furthermore, HDAC3 has been implicated in the aberrant transcriptional patterns that help cause disease symptoms in HD mice. HDAC3 also helps fuel CAG repeat expansions in human cells, suggesting that HDAC3 may power striatal expansions in the HTT gene thought to drive disease progression...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720467/intradermal-immunization-with-raav1-vector-induces-robust-memory-cd8-t-cell-responses-independently-of-transgene-expression-in-dcs
#2
Alexandre Ghenassia, David-Alexandre Gross, Stéphanie Lorain, Fabiola Tros, Dominique Urbain, Sofia Benkhelifa-Ziyyat, Alain Charbit, Jean Davoust, Pascal Chappert
Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors exhibit interesting properties as vaccine carriers for their ability to induce long-lasting antibody responses. However, rAAV-based vaccines have been suggested to trigger functionally impaired long-term memory CD8(+) T cell responses, in part due to poor dendritic cell (DC) transduction. Such results, albeit limited to intramuscular immunization, undermined the use of rAAV as vaccine vehicles against intracellular pathogens. We report here that intradermal immunization with a model rAAV2/1-based vaccine drives the development of bona fide long-term memory CD8(+) T cell responses...
July 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719981/the-mental-representation-of-the-human-gait-in-patients-with-severe-knee-osteoarthrosis-a-clinical-study-to-aid-understanding-of-impairment-and-disability
#3
Robert Jacksteit, Anett Mau-Moeller, Martin Behrens, Rainer Bader, Wolfram Mittelmeier, Ralf Skripitz, Tino Stöckel
OBJECTIVE: Objectives were (1) to explore differences in gait-specific long-term memory structures and gait performance between knee osteoarthrosis patients and healthy subjects and (2) to identify the extent to which the gait-specific mental representation is associated with gait performance. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: In total, 18 knee osteoarthrosis patients and 18 control subjects. METHODS: Spatio-temporal (gait speed, step length) and temporophasic (stance time, swing time, single support time, total double support time) gait parameters and gait variability were measured with an electronic walkway (OptoGait)...
July 1, 2017: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719855/high-fat-diet-and-aging-interact-to-produce-neuroinflammation-and-impair-hippocampal-and-amygdalar-dependent-memory
#4
Sarah J Spencer, Heather D'Angelo, Alita Soch, Linda R Watkins, Steven F Maier, Ruth M Barrientos
More Americans are consuming diets higher in saturated fats and refined sugars than ever before, and based on increasing obesity rates, this is a growing trend among older adults as well. While high saturated fat diet (HFD) consumption has been shown to sensitize the inflammatory response to a subsequent immune challenge in young adult rats, the inflammatory effect of HFD in the already-vulnerable aging brain has not yet been assessed. Here, we explored whether short-term (3 days) consumption of HFD would serve as a neuroinflammatory trigger in aging animals, leading to cognitive deficits...
June 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713278/the-neuroanatomical-neurophysiological-and-psychological-basis-of-memory-current-models-and-their-origins
#5
REVIEW
Eduardo Camina, Francisco Güell
This review aims to classify and clarify, from a neuroanatomical, neurophysiological, and psychological perspective, different memory models that are currently widespread in the literature as well as to describe their origins. We believe it is important to consider previous developments without which one cannot adequately understand the kinds of models that are now current in the scientific literature. This article intends to provide a comprehensive and rigorous overview for understanding and ordering the latest scientific advances related to this subject...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710722/organosulfur-compound-protects-against-memory-decline-induced-by-scopolamine-through-modulation-of-oxidative-stress-and-na-k-atpase-activity-in-mice
#6
Fernanda D da Silva, Mikaela P Pinz, Renata L de Oliveira, Karline C Rodrigues, Francine R Ianiski, Mariana M Bassaco, Claudio C Silveira, Cristiano R Jesse, Silvane S Roman, Ethel A Wilhelm, Cristiane Luchese
The present study investigated the possible effect of BMMS in protecting against memory impairment in an Alzheimer's disease model induced by scopolamine in mice. Another objective was to evaluate the involvement of oxidative stress and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice. Male Swiss mice were divided into four groups: groups I and III received canola oil (10 ml/kg, intragastrically (i.g.)), while groups II and IV received BMMS (10 mg/kg, i.g.). Thirty minutes after treatments, groups III and IV received scopolamine (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i...
July 14, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710599/task-relevant-perceptual-features-can-define-categories-in-visual-memory-too
#7
Karla B Antonelli, Carrick C Williams
Although Konkle, Brady, Alvarez, and Oliva (2010, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 139(3), 558) claim that visual long-term memory (VLTM) is organized on underlying conceptual, not perceptual, information, visual memory results from visual search tasks are not well explained by this theory. We hypothesized that when viewing an object, any task-relevant visual information is critical to the organizational structure of VLTM. In two experiments, we examined the organization of VLTM by measuring the amount of retroactive interference created by objects possessing different combinations of task-relevant features...
July 14, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701985/retrieval-practice-fails-to-insulate-episodic-memories-against-interference-after-stroke
#8
Bernhard Pastötter, Hanna Eberle, Ingo Aue, Karl-Heinz T Bäuml
Recent work in cognitive psychology showed that retrieval practice of previously studied information can insulate this information against retroactive interference from subsequently studied other information in healthy individuals. The present study examined whether this beneficial effect of interference reduction is also present in patients with stroke. Twenty-two patients with stroke, 4.6 months post injury on average, and 22 healthy controls participated in the experiment. In each of two experimental sessions, participants first studied a list of items (list 1) and then underwent a practice phase in which the list 1 items were either restudied or retrieval practiced...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700985/genes-involved-in-long-term-memory-are-expressed-in-testis-of-cryptorchid-boys-and-respond-to-gnrha-treatment
#9
Faruk Hadziselimovic, Katharina Gegenschatz-Schmid, Gilvydas Verkauskas, Philippe Demougin, Vytautas Bilius, Darius Dasevicius, Michael B Stadler
It has been known for many years that boys with unilateral or bilateral undescended testis (cryptorchidism) tend to have a low IQ, and those who belong to the high infertility risk (HIR) group perform less well at school than low infertility risk (LIR) patients. However, the molecular biological processes underlying this phenomenon are not understood. In this study, we report the outcome of testicular RNA profiling for genes involved in long-term memory formation. We analyzed the histology and the transcriptome of testicular biopsies from bilateral HIR cryptorchid boys, comparing those who received GnRHa treatment for 6 months after the first surgery with those who did not receive GnRHa before the second surgery...
July 13, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700922/the-functional-amyloid-orb2a-binds-to-lipid-membranes
#10
Maria A Soria, Silvia A Cervantes, Thalia H Bajakian, Ansgar B Siemer
Lipid membranes interact with and influence the aggregation of many amyloid-forming proteins. Orb2 is a cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding protein homolog in Drosophila melanogaster that forms functional amyloids necessary for long-term memory. One isoform, Orb2A, has a unique N-terminus that has been shown to be important for the formation of amyloid-like aggregates and long-term memory in vivo. Orb2A is also found enriched in the synaptic membrane fraction. Our sequence and hydropathy analysis suggests that it can form an amphipathic helix, which is ideal for lipid membrane interaction...
July 11, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691573/plasticity-in-the-working-memory-system-life-span-changes-and-response-to-injury
#11
Sean Froudist-Walsh, Diana López-Barroso, María José Torres-Prioris, Paula Croxson, Marcelo L Berthier
Working memory acts as a key bridge between perception, long-term memory, and action. The brain regions, connections, and neurotransmitters that underlie working memory undergo dramatic plastic changes during the life span, and in response to injury. Early life reliance on deep gray matter structures fades during adolescence as increasing reliance on prefrontal and parietal cortex accompanies the development of executive aspects of working memory. The rise and fall of working memory capacity and executive functions parallels the development and loss of neurotransmitter function in frontal cortical areas...
July 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689930/long-term-verbal-memory-recall-deficits-in-fragile-x-premutation-females
#12
Annie L Shelton, Kim Cornish, Joanne Fielding
Carriers of a FMR1 premutation allele (between 55 and 199 CGG repeats) are at risk of developing a wide range of medical, psychiatric and cognitive disorders, including executive dysfunction. These cognitive deficits are often less severe for female premutation carriers compared to male premutation carriers, albeit similar in nature. However, it remains unclear whether female premutation carriers who exhibit executive dysfunction also record verbal learning and memory deficits like those of their male counterparts...
July 6, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689773/the-toll-like-receptor-ligands-hiltonol-%C3%A2-polyiclc-and-imiquimod-effectively-activate-antigen-specific-immune-responses-in-tasmanian-devils-sarcophilus-harrisii
#13
Amanda L Patchett, Cesar Tovar, Lynn M Corcoran, A Bruce Lyons, Gregory M Woods
Devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) describes two genetically distinct transmissible tumours that pose a significant threat to the survival of the Tasmanian devil. A prophylactic vaccine could protect devils from DFTD transmission. For this vaccine to be effective, potent immune adjuvants will be required. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) promote robust immune responses in human cancer studies and are highly conserved across mammalian species. In this study, we investigated the proficiency of TLR ligands for immune activation in the Tasmanian devil using in vitro mononuclear cell stimulations and in vivo immunisation trials with a model antigen...
July 6, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687315/nadph-oxidase-contributes-to-streptozotocin-induced-neurodegeneration
#14
Katherine Garcia Ravelli, Barbara Dos Anjos Rosário, Andrea Rodrigues Vasconcelos, Cristoforo Scavone, Rosana Camarini, Marina S Hernandes, Luiz Roberto Britto
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive loss of memory. The neurodegeneration induced by AD has been linked to oxidative damage. However, little is known about the involvement of NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2), a multisubunit enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to produce reactive oxygen species, in the pathogenesis of AD. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of Nox2 in memory, in AD-related brain abnormalities, oxidative damage, inflammation and neuronal death in the hippocampus in the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced AD-like state by comparing the effects of that drug on mice lacking gp91(phox-/-) and wild-type (Wt) mice...
July 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686806/hippocampal-damage-causes-retrograde-but-not-anterograde-memory-loss-for-context-fear-discrimination-in-rats
#15
Justin Q Lee, Robert J Sutherland, Robert J McDonald
There is a substantial body of evidence that the hippocampus (HPC) plays and essential role in context discrimination in rodents. Studies reporting anterograde amnesia (AA) used repeated, alternating, distributed conditioning and extinction sessions to measure context fear discrimination. In addition, there is uncertainty about the extent of damage to the HPC. Here, we induced conditioned fear prior to discrimination tests and rats sustained extensive, quantified pre- or post-training HPC damage. Unlike previous work, we found that extensive HPC damage spares context discrimination, we observed no AA...
July 7, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684327/revisiting-the-earliest-electrophysiological-correlate-of-familiar-face-recognition
#16
Wanyi Huang, Xia Wu, Liping Hu, Lei Wang, Yulong Ding, Zhe Qu
The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to reinvestigate the earliest face familiarity effect (FFE: ERP differences between familiar and unfamiliar faces) that genuinely reflects cognitive processes underlying recognition of familiar faces in long-term memory. To trigger relatively early FFEs, participants were required to categorize upright and inverted famous faces and unknown faces in a task that placed high demand on face recognition. More importantly, to determine whether an observed FFE was linked to on-line face recognition, systematical investigation about the relationship between the FFE and behavioral performance of face recognition was conducted...
July 4, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683263/igf1-dependent-synaptic-plasticity-of-mitral-cells-in-olfactory-memory-during-social-learning
#17
Zhihui Liu, Zijun Chen, Congping Shang, Fei Yan, Yingchao Shi, Jiajing Zhang, Baole Qu, Hailin Han, Yanying Wang, Dapeng Li, Thomas C Südhof, Peng Cao
During social transmission of food preference (STFP), mice form long-term memory of food odors presented by a social partner. How does the brain associate a social context with odor signals to promote memory encoding? Here we show that odor exposure during STFP, but not unconditioned odor exposure, induces glomerulus-specific long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength selectively at the GABAergic component of dendrodendritic synapses of granule and mitral cells in the olfactory bulb. Conditional deletion of synaptotagmin-10, the Ca(2+) sensor for IGF1 secretion from mitral cells, or deletion of IGF1 receptor in the olfactory bulb prevented the socially relevant GABAergic LTP and impaired memory formation after STFP...
July 5, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681806/departing-from-powerpoint-default-mode-applying-mayer-s-multimedia-principles-for-enhanced-learning-of-parasitology
#18
Jyoti Mahantesh Nagmoti
PURPOSE: PowerPoint (PPT™) presentation has become an integral part of day-to-day teaching in medicine. Most often, PPT™ is used in its default mode which in fact, is known to cause boredom and ineffective learning. Research has shown improved short-term memory by applying multimedia principles for designing and delivering lectures. However, such evidence in medical education is scarce. Therefore, we attempted to evaluate the effect of multimedia principles on enhanced learning of parasitology...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676746/regulation-of-fear-extinction-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-by-dopamine-d2-receptors-accompanied-by-altered-glur1-glur1-ser845-and-nr2b-levels
#19
Yan-Wei Shi, Bu-Fang Fan, Li Xue, Jia-Ling Wen, Hu Zhao
The amygdala, a critical structure for both Pavlovian fear conditioning and fear extinction, receives sparse but comprehensive dopamine innervation and contains dopamine D1 and D2 receptors. Fear extinction, which involves learning to suppress the expression of a previously learned fear, appears to require the dopaminergic system. The specific roles of D2 receptors in mediating associative learning underlying fear extinction require further study. Intra-basolateral amygdala (BLA) infusions of a D2 receptor agonist, quinpirole, and a D2 receptor antagonist, sulpiride, prior to fear extinction and extinction retention were tested 24 h after fear extinction training for long-term memory (LTM)...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665181/eye-gaze-influences-working-memory-for-happy-but-not-angry-faces
#20
Margaret C Jackson
Previous research has shown that angry and happy faces are perceived as less emotionally intense when shown with averted versus direct gaze. Other work reports that long-term memory (LTM) for angry (but not happy) faces was poorer when they were encoded with averted versus direct gaze, suggesting that threat signals are diluted when eye contact is not engaged. The current study examined whether gaze modulates working memory (WM) for angry and happy faces. In stark contrast to LTM effects, WM for angry faces was not significantly modulated by gaze direction...
June 30, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
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