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"Long term memory"

David L Barack, Steve W C Chang, Michael L Platt
Foraging for resources is a fundamental behavior balancing systematic search and strategic disengagement. The foraging behavior of primates is especially complex and requires long-term memory, value comparison, strategic planning, and decision-making. Here we provide evidence from two different foraging tasks that neurons in primate posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) signal decision salience during foraging to motivate disengagement from the current strategy. In our foraging tasks, salience refers to the difference between decision thresholds and the net harvested reward...
October 11, 2017: Neuron
Grant S Shields, Dominique Doty, Rebecca H Shields, Garrett Gower, George M Slavich, Andrew P Yonelinas
Although substantial research has examined the effects of stress on cognition, much of this research has focused on acute stress (e.g. manipulated in the laboratory) or chronic stress (e.g. persistent interpersonal or financial difficulties). In contrast, the effects of recent life stress on cognition have been relatively understudied. To address this issue, we examined how recent life stress is associated with long-term, working memory, and self-reported memory in a sample of 142 healthy young adults who were assessed at two time points over a two-week period...
October 12, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Munir G Kutlu, Brendan Garrett, Sana Gadiwalla, Jessica M Tumolo, Thomas J Gould
Previous research has shown that acute nicotine, an agonist of nAChRs, impaired fear extinction. However, the effects of acute nicotine on consolidation of contextual fear extinction memories and associated cell signaling cascades are unknown. Therefore, we examined the effects of acute nicotine injections before (pre-extinction) and after (post-extinction) contextual fear extinction on behavior and the phosphorylation of dorsal and ventral hippocampal ERK1/2 and JNK1 and protein levels on the 1(st) and 3(rd) day of extinction...
October 7, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Nyambayar Dashtsoodol, Tomokuni Shigeura, Takuya Tashiro, Minako Aihara, Toshihiro Chikanishi, Hiromi Okada, Keigo Hanada, Hirokazu Sano, Akihiko Kurogi, Masaru Taniguchi
Current tumor therapies, including immunotherapies, focus on passive eradication or at least reduction of the tumor mass. However, cancer patients quite often suffer from tumor relapse or metastasis after such treatments. To overcome these problems, we have developed a natural killer T (NKT) cell-targeted immunotherapy focusing on active engagement of the patient's immune system, but not directly targeting the tumor cells themselves. NKT cells express an invariant antigen receptor α chain encoded by Trav11 (Vα14)-Traj18 (Jα18) gene segments in mice and TRAV10 (Vα24)-TRAJ18 (Jα18) in humans and recognize glycolipid ligand in conjunction with a monomorphic CD1d molecule...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Tai-Yin Chiu, Jie-Hong R Jiang
A synthetic approach to biology is a promising technique for various applications. Recent advancements have demonstrated the feasibility of constructing synthetic two-input logic gates in Escherichia coli cells with long-term memory based on DNA inversion induced by recombinases. Moreover, recent evidences indicate that DNA inversion mediated by genome editing tools is possible. Powerful genome editing technologies, such as CRISPR-Cas9 systems, have great potential to be exploited to implement large-scale recombinase-based circuits...
October 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Mirko Pesce, Raffaella Tatangelo, Irene La Fratta, Alessia Rizzuto, Giovanna Campagna, Cinzia Turli, Alessio Ferrone, Sara Franceschelli, Lorenza Speranza, Antonia Patruno, Patrizia Ballerini, Maria Anna De Lutiis, Mario Felaco, Alfredo Grilli
The cognitive impairment characterizing the phenotype of older adults has been related to the efficiency of the antioxidant system. This study aimed at investigating the effect of memory training (MT) on memory, global cognitive functioning, and the oxidant and antioxidant capacity of plasma. We recruited 52 healthy subjects aged over 60. Twenty-nine subjects were submitted to 6-months of MT (Experimental Group, EG), and 23 were used as a Control Group (CG). Global cognitive functioning was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Short- and Long-Term Memory (STM and LTM, respectively) by the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) at baseline (T0) and after 6-months (T1)...
October 5, 2017: Neuroscience
Lore Goetschalckx, Pieter Moors, Johan Wagemans
You may find some images easier to remember than others. Recent studies of visual memory have found remarkable levels of consistency for this inter-item variability across observers, suggesting that memorability can be considered an intrinsic image property. The current study replicated and extended previous results, while adopting a more traditional visual long-term memory task with retention intervals of 20 min, one day, and one week, as opposed to the previously used repeat-detection task, which typically relied on short retention intervals (5 min)...
October 3, 2017: Memory
Marilda P Lisboa, Naeem Khan, Christopher Martin, Fei-Fei Xu, Katrin Reppe, Andreas Geissner, Subramanian Govindan, Martin Witzenrath, Claney L Pereira, Peter H Seeberger
Glycoconjugate vaccines based on isolated capsular polysaccharide (CPS) save millions of lives annually by preventing invasive pneumococcal disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae Some components of the S. pneumoniae glycoconjugate vaccine Prevnar13 that contains CPS antigens from 13 serotypes undergo modifications or degradation during isolation and conjugation, resulting in production problems and lower efficacy. We illustrate how stable, synthetic oligosaccharide analogs of labile CPS induce a specific protective immune response against native CPS using S...
October 2, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Xu-Feng Xu, Xu Jing, Hui-Xian Ma, Rong-Rong Yuan, Qing Dong, Jun-Lu Dong, Xiao-Fei Han, Zhe-Yu Chen, Xiang-Zhi Li, Yue Wang
Long-term memory formation has been proven to require gene expression and new protein synthesis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), as an endogenous small non-coding RNAs, inhibit the expression of their mRNA targets, through which involve in new memory formation. In this study, elevated miR-181a levels were found to be responsible for hippocampal contextual fear memory consolidation. Using a luciferase reporter assay, we indicated that miR-181a targets 2 upstream molecules of mTOR pathway, namely, PRKAA1 and REDD1. Upregulated miR-181a can downregulate the PRKAA1 and REDD1 protein levels and promote mTOR activity to facilitate hippocampal fear memory consolidation...
August 22, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
Maya L Rosen, Chantal E Stern, Kathryn J Devaney, David C Somers
Long-term memory (LTM) helps to efficiently direct and deploy the scarce resources of the attentional system; however, the neural substrates that support LTM-guidance of visual attention are not well understood. Here, we present results from fMRI experiments that demonstrate that cortical and subcortical regions of a network defined by resting-state functional connectivity are selectively recruited for LTM-guided attention, relative to a similarly demanding stimulus-guided attention paradigm that lacks memory retrieval and relative to a memory retrieval paradigm that lacks covert deployment of attention...
July 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
Kenneth Blum, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Georgia M Dunston, David Baron, Edward J Modestino, Thomas McLaughlin, Bruce Steinberg, Mark S Gold, Marjorie C Gondré-Lewis
Alzheimer's disease is an irreversible, progressive brain disorder that slowly destroys cognitive skills and the ability to perform the simplest tasks. More than 5 million Americans are afflicted with Alzheimer's; a disorder which ranks third, just behind heart disease and cancer, as a cause of death for older people. With no real cure and in spite of enormous efforts worldwide, the disease remains a mystery in terms of treatment. Importantly, African-Americans are two times as likely as Whites to develop late-onset Alzheimer's disease and less likely to receive timely diagnosis and treatment...
September 30, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
Pablo Rodríguez-Gómez, Natalia Martínez-García, Miguel A Pozo, José A Hinojosa, Eva M Moreno
Inference generation is a crucial skill in language comprehension. Recent research suggests that readers use both the contents from prior written text and their background knowledge, stored in long-term memory, to generate predictive inferences about what will come up next in a sentence. We recorded Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) to examine the reader's ability to make online inferences even in the presence of pseudowords (orthographically legal, but meaningless letter strings), that is, in the presence of referents with no a priori match to vocabulary stored knowledge...
September 28, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Chong Zhang, Lindsay M Lueptow, Han-Ting Zhang, James M O'Donnell, Ying Xu
Cyclic nucleotide PDEs are a super-family of enzymes responsible for regulating intracellular levels of the second messengers cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). Through their catalysis, PDEs are able to exert tight regulation over these important intracellular signaling cascades. Previously, PDEs have been implicated in learning and memory, as well as in mood disorders, such as anxiety and depression. PDE2 is of special interest due to its high level of expression in the forebrain, specifically in the isocortex, entorhinal cortex, striatum, hippocampus, amygdala, and medial habenula...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
Simon Ruch, Elizabeth Herbert, Katharina Henke
Common wisdom and scientific evidence suggest that good decisions require conscious deliberation. But growing evidence demonstrates that not only conscious but also unconscious thoughts influence decision-making. Here, we hypothesize that both consciously and unconsciously acquired memories guide decisions. Our experiment measured the influence of subliminally and supraliminally presented information on delayed (30-40 min) decision-making. Participants were presented with subliminal pairs of faces and written occupations for unconscious encoding...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Hiroshi Sunada, Yuki Totani, Ryota Nakamura, Manabu Sakakibara, Ken Lukowiak, Etsuro Ito
The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis learns and forms long-term memory (LTM) following both operant conditioning of aerial respiratory behavior and classical conditioning of taste aversive behavior. In the present study, we examined whether there are interstrain differences in the ability to form LTM following these two types of conditioning. A strain of Lymnaea (TC1) collected in Alberta, Canada exhibits superior memory-forming ability following aerial respiratory operant conditioning compared to a laboratory-reared strain of Lymnaea from Netherlands known as the Dutch strain...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Lis de Weerd, Petra M Hermann, Willem C Wildering
Organisms live on a budget; hence they cannot maximize all their activities at the same time. Instead, they must prioritize how they spend limiting resources on the many processes they rely on in their lives. Amongst others, they are thought to skimp on the maintenance and repair processes required for survival in favour of maximizing reproduction, with aging as a consequence. We investigate the biological mechanisms of neuronal aging. Using Lymnaea stagnalis, we previously described various aspects of age-associated neuronal decline and appetitive long-term memory (LTM) failure...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Sven Schubert, Günter Radons
We study the response of Preisach models of hysteresis to stochastically fluctuating external fields. We perform numerical simulations, which indicate that analytical expressions derived previously for the autocorrelation functions and power spectral densities of the Preisach model with uncorrelated input, hold asymptotically also if the external field shows exponentially decaying correlations. As a consequence, the mechanisms causing long-term memory and 1/f noise in Preisach models with uncorrelated inputs still apply in the presence of fast decaying input correlations...
August 2017: Physical Review. E
Ivanka Stamova, Gani Stamov
In this paper, we propose a fractional-order neural network system with time-varying delays and reaction-diffusion terms. We first develop a new Mittag-Leffler synchronization strategy for the controlled nodes via impulsive controllers. Using the fractional Lyapunov method sufficient conditions are given. We also study the global Mittag-Leffler synchronization of two identical fractional impulsive reaction-diffusion neural networks using linear controllers, which was an open problem even for integer-order models...
September 8, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Seyedeh Masoumeh Seyedhosseini Tamijani, Elmira Beirami, Abolhassan Ahmadiani, Leila Dargahi
Neurocognitive impairment in response to methamphetamine (MA) has been proven in a variety of experimental and clinical studies. Elucidation of the underlying mechanisms of MA-induced cognitive deficits and finding preventive/therapeutic approaches need best-suited animal models. In modeling repeated MA exposure, while some believes that escalating doses simulate drug abuse conditions, others believe this regimen confers a preconditioning protection. The present study aimed to compare the effects of three different regimens of repeated MA administration on memory and cognitive function of adult rats...
September 25, 2017: Cognitive Processing
Siqi Guo, Yu Jing, Niculina I Burcus, Brittany P Lassiter, Royena Tanaz, Richard Heller, Stephen J Beebe
Nano-pulse stimulation (NPS) as a developing technology has been studied for minimally invasive, nonthermal local cancer elimination for more than a decade. Here we show that a single NPS treatment results in complete regression of the poorly immunogenic, metastatic 4T1-Luc mouse mammary carcinoma. Impressively, spontaneous distant organ metastases were largely prevented, even in those animals with incomplete tumor regression. All tumor-free mice were protected from secondary tumor cell challenge, demonstrating a vaccine-like effect...
September 25, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
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