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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821999/developmental-neurotoxicity-of-the-hippocampus-following-in-utero-exposure-to-methylmercury-impairment-in-cell-signaling
#1
Luana Heimfarth, Jeferson Delgado, Moara Rodrigues Mignori, Daniel Pens Gelain, José Cláudio Fonseca Moreira, Regina Pessoa-Pureur
In this study, we assessed some hippocampal signaling cascades and behavioral impairments in 30-day-old rat pups prenatally exposed to methylmercury (MeHg). Pregnant rats were exposed to 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg MeHg by gavage in alternated days from gestational day 5 until parturition. We found increased anxiety-like and decreased exploration behavior evaluated by open field test and deficit of both short- and long-term memories by novel object recognition task, respectively, in MeHg-treated pups. Downregulated PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and activated/hypophosphorylated (Ser9) GSK3β in MeHg-treated pups could be upstream of hyperphosphorylated Tau (Ser396) destabilizing microtubules and contributing to neural dysfunction in the hippocampus of these rats...
August 18, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821652/calpain-grip-signaling-in-nucleus-accumbens-core-mediates-the-reconsolidation-of-drug-reward-memory
#2
Jie Liang, Jia-Li Li, Ying Han, Yi-Xiao Luo, Yan-Xue Xue, Yàn Zhang, Yán Zhang, Li-Bo Zhang, Man-Li Chen, Lin Lu, Jie Shi
Exposure to drug-paired cues causes drug memories to be in a destabilized state, and interfering with memory reconsolidation can inhibit relapse. Calpain, a calcium-dependent neutral cysteine protease, is involved in synaptic plasticity and the formation of long-term fear memory. However, the role of calpain in the reconsolidation of drug reward memory is still unknown. In the present study, using conditioned place preference (CPP) model, we found that exposure to drug-paired contextual stimuli induced the activation of calpain and decreased the expression of glutamate receptor interacting protein 1 (GRIP1) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core but not shell of male rats...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816239/hippocampal-protein-kinase-c-signaling-mediates-the-short-term-memory-impairment-induced-by-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol
#3
Arnau Busquets-Garcia, Maria Gomis-González, Victòria Salgado-Mendialdúa, Lorena Galera-López, Emma Puighermanal, Elena Martín-García, Rafael Maldonado, Andrés Ozaita
Cannabis affects cognitive performance through the activation of the endocannabinoid system, and the molecular mechanisms involved in this process are poorly understood. Using the novel object-recognition memory test in mice, we found that the main psychoactive component of cannabis, delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), alters short-term object-recognition memory specifically involving protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent signaling. Indeed, the systemic or intra-hippocampal pre-treatment with the PKC inhibitors, prevented the short-term, but not the long-term, memory impairment induced by THC...
August 17, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801686/mir-12-and-mir-124-contribute-to-defined-early-phases-of-long-lasting-and-transient-memory
#4
Julia Michely, Susanne Kraft, Uli Müller
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important epigenetic regulators of mRNA translation implicated in long-lasting synaptic plasticity and long-term memory (LTM). Since recent findings demonstrated a role of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in early memory phases we investigated whether epigenetic regulation by miRNAs also contributes to early memory phases. We used the olfactory associative learning paradigm in honeybees and addressed the contribution of miRNAs depending on the conditioning strength. We selected miR-12, miR-124, and miR-125 that have been implicated in processes of neuronal plasticity and analysed their contribution to non-associative and associative learning using miRNA inhibitors...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801245/episodic-future-thinking-and-future-based-decision-making-in-a-case-of-retrograde-amnesia
#5
Flavia De Luca, Francesca Benuzzi, Elena Bertossi, Davide Braghittoni, Giuseppe di Pellegrino, Elisa Ciaramelli
We investigated episodic future thinking (EFT) and future-based cognition and decision-making in patient SG, who developed a dense retrograde amnesia following hypoxia due to a cardiac arrest. Despite intact general cognitive and executive functioning, SG was unable to remember events from his entire lifetime. He had, however, relatively spared anterograde memory and general semantic knowledge. Voxel-based morphometry detected a reduction of gray matter in the thalamus, cerebellum and fusiform gyrus bilaterally, and, at a reduced threshold, in several regions of the autobiographical memory network, including the hippocampi...
August 9, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797640/a-comprehensive-literature-review-of-chronic-pain-and-memory
#6
REVIEW
Stéphanie Mazza, Maud Frot, Amandine E Rey
Chronic pain patients often complain of their "poor memory" and numerous studies objectively confirmed such difficulties in reporting working memory (WM) and long-term memory (LTM) dysfunctions. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the literature on memory impairment in chronic pain (CP) patients. Twenty-four observational studies evaluating WM or/and LTM in a chronic pain group and a control group were included in this review. Results showed that studies consistently reported a moderate decline, in both WM and LTM performances in CP patients...
August 7, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790901/reversible-inactivation-of-the-higher-order-auditory-cortex-during-fear-memory-consolidation-prevents-memory-related-activity-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-during-remote-memory-retrieval
#7
Marco Cambiaghi, Annamaria Renna, Luisella Milano, Benedetto Sacchetti
Recent findings have shown that the auditory cortex, and specifically the higher order Te2 area, is necessary for the consolidation of long-term fearful memories and that it interacts with the amygdala during the retrieval of long-term fearful memories. Here, we tested whether the reversible blockade of Te2 during memory consolidation may affect the activity changes occurring in the amygdala during the retrieval of fearful memories. To address this issue, we blocked Te2 in a reversible manner during memory consolidation processes...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777061/the-nature-of-task-set-representations-in-working-memory
#8
Atsushi Kikumoto, Ulrich Mayr
Selection and preparation of action plans (task sets) is often assumed to occur in working memory (WM). Yet, the absence of consistent evidence that WM capacity and task selection efficiency is correlated raises questions about the functional relationship between these two aspects of executive control. We used the EEG-derived contralateral delay activity (CDA) to index the WM load of task sets. In Experiment 1, we found a CDA set size effect (2 vs. 4 stimulus-response [S-R] rules) for high-WM, but not for low-WM, individuals when S-R sets were novel...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777060/temporal-anticipation-based-on-memory
#9
André M Cravo, Gustavo Rohenkohl, Karin Moreira Santos, Anna C Nobre
The fundamental role that our long-term memories play in guiding perception is increasingly recognized, but the functional and neural mechanisms are just beginning to be explored. Although experimental approaches are being developed to investigate the influence of long-term memories on perception, these remain mostly static and neglect their temporal and dynamic nature. Here, we show that our long-term memories can guide attention proactively and dynamically based on learned temporal associations. Across two experiments, we found that detection and discrimination of targets appearing within previously learned contexts are enhanced when the timing of target appearance matches the learned temporal contingency...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772125/discovering-event-structure-in-continuous-narrative-perception-and-memory
#10
Christopher Baldassano, Janice Chen, Asieh Zadbood, Jonathan W Pillow, Uri Hasson, Kenneth A Norman
During realistic, continuous perception, humans automatically segment experiences into discrete events. Using a novel model of cortical event dynamics, we investigate how cortical structures generate event representations during narrative perception and how these events are stored to and retrieved from memory. Our data-driven approach allows us to detect event boundaries as shifts between stable patterns of brain activity without relying on stimulus annotations and reveals a nested hierarchy from short events in sensory regions to long events in high-order areas (including angular gyrus and posterior medial cortex), which represent abstract, multimodal situation models...
August 2, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769066/long-term-memory-requires-sequential-protein-synthesis-in-three-subsets-of-mushroom-body-output-neurons-in-drosophila
#11
Jie-Kai Wu, Chu-Yi Tai, Kuan-Lin Feng, Shiu-Ling Chen, Chun-Chao Chen, Ann-Shyn Chiang
Creating long-term memory (LTM) requires new protein synthesis to stabilize learning-induced synaptic changes in the brain. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, aversive olfactory learning forms several phases of labile memory to associate an odor with coincident punishment in the mushroom body (MB). It remains unclear how the brain consolidates early labile memory into LTM. Here, we survey 183 Gal4 lines containing almost all 21 distinct types of MB output neurons (MBONs) and show that sequential synthesis of learning-induced proteins occurs at three types of MBONs...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768856/non-encapsidated-5-copy-back-defective-interfering-genomes-produced-by-recombinant-measles-viruses-are-recognized-by-rig-i-and-lgp2-but-not-mda5
#12
Marie Mura, Chantal Combredet, Valérie Najburg, Raul Y Sanchez David, Frédéric Tangy, Anastassia V Komarova
Attenuated Measles virus (MV) is one of the most effective and safe vaccine available, making it an attractive candidate vector to prevent other infectious diseases. Yet the great capacity of this vaccine still needs to be understood at the molecular level. MV vaccine strains have different type-I interferon-inducing abilities, that partially depend on the presence of 5' copy-back defective interfering genomes (DI-RNAs). DI-RNAs are pathogen associated molecular patterns recognized by RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs: RIG-I, MDA5 and LGP2) that activate innate immune signalling and shape the adaptive immune response...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768447/neural-oscillation-correlates-chemistry-decision-making
#13
Li-Yu Huang, Hsiao-Ching She, Tzyy-Ping Jung
This study explored the electroencephalography (EEG) dynamics during a chemistry-related decision-making task and further examined whether the correctness of the decision-making performance could be reflected by EEG activity. A total of 66 undergraduate students' EEG were collected while they participated in a chemistry-related decision-making task in which they had to retrieve the relevant chemistry concepts in order to make correct decisions for each task item. The results showed that it was only in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) cluster that distinct patterns in EEG dynamics were displayed for the correct and incorrect responses...
May 7, 2017: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763009/metal-binding-properties-of-the-n-terminus-of-the-functional-amyloid-orb2
#14
Thalia H Bajakian, Silvia A Cervantes, Maria A Soria, Maïwenn Beaugrand, Ji Yun Kim, Rachel J Service, Ansgar B Siemer
The cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein (CPEB) homologue Orb2 is a functional amyloid that plays a key regulatory role for long-term memory in Drosophila. Orb2 has a glutamine, histidine-rich (Q/H-rich) domain that resembles the Q/H-rich, metal binding domain of the Hpn-like protein (Hpnl) found in Helicobacter pylori. In the present study, we used chromatography and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to show that the Q/H-rich domain of Orb2 binds Ni(2+) and other transition metals ions with μM affinity...
August 1, 2017: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757454/the-neurocognitive-consequences-of-sleep-restriction-a-meta-analytic-review
#15
REVIEW
Cassandra J Lowe, Adrian Safati, Peter A Hall
The current meta-analytic review evaluated the effects of experimentally manipulated sleep restriction on neurocognitive functioning. Random-effects models were employed to estimate the overall effect size and the differential effect size across cognitive domains. Age, time of day, age-adjusted sleep deficit, cumulative days of restricted sleep, sleep latency, subjective sleepiness, and biological sex were examined as potential moderators of the effect. Based on a sample of 61 studies, from 71 different populations, findings revealed a significant negative effect of sleep restriction on cognitive processing across cognitive domains (g=-0...
July 28, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756948/the-sleeping-infant-brain-anticipates-development
#16
Manuela Friedrich, Ines Wilhelm, Matthias Mölle, Jan Born, Angela D Friederici
From the age of 3 months, infants learn relations between objects and co-occurring words [1]. These very first representations of object-word pairings in infant memory are considered as non-symbolic proto-words comprising specific visual-auditory associations that can already be formed in the first months of life [2-5]. Genuine words that refer to semantic long-term memory have not been evidenced prior to 9 months of age [6-9]. Sleep is known to facilitate the reorganization of memories [9-14], but its impact on the perceptual-to-semantic trend in early development is unknown...
August 7, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755859/systemic-inflammation-combined-with-neonatal-cerebellar-haemorrhage-aggravates-long-term-structural-and-functional-outcomes-in-a-mouse-model
#17
Sophie Tremblay, Alex Pai, Lindsay Richter, Rod Vafaei, Praneetha Potluri, Jacob Ellegood, Jason P Lerch, Daniel Goldowitz
BACKGROUND: Despite the increased recognition of cerebellar injury in survivors of preterm birth, the neurodevelopmental consequences of isolated cerebellar injury have been largely unexplored and our current understanding of the functional deficits requires further attention in order to translate knowledge to best practices. Preterm infants are exposed to multiple stressors during their postnatal development including perinatal cerebellar haemorrhage (CBH) and postnatal infection, two major risk factors for neurodevelopmental impairments...
July 27, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752006/short-term-and-long-term-effects-of-dexamethasone-on-cognitive-dysfunction-induced-by-sevoflurane-in-adult-rats
#18
Tuğba Karaman, Serkan Karaman, Serkan Doğru, Hakan Tapar, Aynur Şahin, Mustafa Süren
OBJECTIVE: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is common after anaesthesia in elderly patients. However, it may appear in patients of all ages. The main pathogenesis of cognitive dysfunction remains unclear, although there is some evidence that brain inflammation may alter cognitive abilities. In the present study, we aim to evaluate short-term and long-term effects of dexamethasone on cognitive dysfunction induced by sevoflurane anaesthesia in adult rats. METHODS: Seven-month-old 30 male Wistar albino rats were randomised into three groups: sevoflurane group (exposure to sevoflurane), sevoflurane + dexamethasone group (exposure to sevoflurane and dexamethasone injection), and control group (exposure to 100% oxygen)...
June 2017: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750873/mnemonic-function-in-small-vessel-disease-and-associations-with-white-matter-tract-microstructure
#19
Athanasia Metoki, Rebecca L Brookes, Eva Zeestraten, Andrew J Lawrence, Robin G Morris, Thomas R Barrick, Hugh S Markus, Rebecca A Charlton
Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is associated with deficits in working memory, with a relative sparing of long-term memory; function may be influenced by white matter microstructure. Working and long-term memory were examined in 106 patients with SVD and 35 healthy controls. Microstructure was measured in the uncinate fasciculi and cingula. Working memory was more impaired than long-term memory in SVD, but both abilities were reduced compared to controls. Regression analyses found that having SVD explained the variance in memory functions, with additional variance explained by the cingula (working memory) and uncinate (long-term memory)...
July 24, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747686/memory-and-perception-based-facial-image-reconstruction
#20
Chi-Hsun Chang, Dan Nemrodov, Andy C H Lee, Adrian Nestor
Visual memory for faces has been extensively researched, especially regarding the main factors that influence face memorability. However, what we remember exactly about a face, namely, the pictorial content of visual memory, remains largely unclear. The current work aims to elucidate this issue by reconstructing face images from both perceptual and memory-based behavioural data. Specifically, our work builds upon and further validates the hypothesis that visual memory and perception share a common representational basis underlying facial identity recognition...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
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