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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455002/the-possible-neuroprotective-effect-of-ellagic-acid-on-sodium-arsenate-induced-neurotoxicity-in-rats
#1
Mehdi Goudarzi, Shivasadat Amiri, Ali Nesari, Azam Hosseinzadeh, Esrafil Mansouri, Saeed Mehrzadi
OBJECTIVE: Arsenic is a well-known environmental contaminant, causing toxicity in different organs. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible neuroprotective effect of ellagic acid (EA) on arsenic-induced neurotoxicity in rats. DESIGN: Animals were divided into five groups. The first group received normal saline (2 ml/kg) for 21 days as control group. Group 2 was orally treated with sodium arsenite (SA, 10 mg/kg) for 21 days. Groups 3 and 4 were orally treated with SA (10 mg/kg) for 7 days prior to EA (10 and 30 mg/kg respectively) treatment and continued up to 21 days simultaneously with SA administration...
February 15, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451027/a-case-of-late-onset-ocd-developing-pls-and-ftd
#2
Enrica Bersano, Maria Francesca Sarnelli, Valentina Solara, Fabiola De Marchi, Gian Mauro Sacchetti, Alessandro Stecco, Lucia Corrado, Sandra D'alfonso, Roberto Cantello, Letizia Mazzini
We describe a 64-year-old woman, suffering from late-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) from the age of 57, who developed dysarthria and dysphagia, spastic diplegic, and proximal muscles weakness. Needle electromyography showed no active denervation. Neuropsychological evaluation showed intact cognitive functioning. We diagnosed upper motor neuron disease (MND), with no known genetic correlates. Brain magnetic resonance (MRI) detected bilateral hippocampal atrophy with sclerosis of right hippocampus...
February 16, 2018: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450791/face-processing-skills-predict-faithfulness-of-portraits-drawn-by-novices
#3
Christel Devue, Gina M Grimshaw
Individuals show astonishing variability in their face recognition abilities, and the causes and consequences of this heterogeneity are unclear. Special expertise with faces, for example in portraitists, is associated with advantages on face processing tasks, especially those involving perceptual abilities. Do face processing skills improve through practice, or does drawing skill reflect pre-existing individual differences? If the latter, then the association between face processing skills and production of faithful portraits should also exist in people without practice in drawing...
February 15, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449458/a-barnes-maze-for-juvenile-rats-delineates-the-emergence-of-spatial-navigation-ability
#4
Daniel G McHail, Nazanin Valibeigi, Theodore C Dumas
The neural bases of cognition may be greatly informed by relating temporally defined developmental changes in behavior with concurrent alterations in neural function. A robust improvement in performance in spatial learning and memory tasks occurs at 3 wk of age in rodents. We reported that the developmental increase of spontaneous alternation in a Y-maze was related to changes in temporal dynamics of fast glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. We also showed that, during allothetic behaviors in the Y-maze, network oscillation power increased at frequency bands known to support spatial learning and memory in adults...
March 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449454/deleting-hdac3-rescues-long-term-memory-impairments-induced-by-disruption-of-the-neuron-specific-chromatin-remodeling-subunit-baf53b
#5
Guanhua Shu, Enikö A Kramár, Alberto J López, Grace Huynh, Marcelo A Wood, Janine L Kwapis
Multiple epigenetic mechanisms, including histone acetylation and nucleosome remodeling, are known to be involved in long-term memory formation. Enhancing histone acetylation by deleting histone deacetylases, like HDAC3, typically enhances long-term memory formation. In contrast, disrupting nucleosome remodeling by blocking the neuron-specific chromatin remodeling subunit BAF53b impairs long-term memory. Here, we show that deleting HDAC3 can ameliorate the impairments in both long-term memory and synaptic plasticity caused by BAF53b mutation...
March 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445769/prefrontal-%C3%AE-burst-stimulation-disrupts-the-organizing-influence-of-active-short-term-retrieval-on-episodic-memory
#6
Bianca M Marin, Stephen A VanHaerents, Joel L Voss, Donna J Bridge
Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is thought to organize items in working memory and this organizational role may also influence long-term memory. To causally test this hypothesized role of DLPFC in long-term memory formation, we used θ-burst noninvasive stimulation (TBS) to modulate DLPFC involvement in a memory task that assessed the influence of active short-term retrieval on later memory. Human subjects viewed three objects on a grid and then either actively retrieved or passively restudied one object's location after a brief delay...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442592/is-source-information-automatically-available-in-working-memory
#7
Hui Chen, Richard A Carlson, Brad Wyble
We often remember information without its source (e.g., word or picture format). This phenomenon has been studied extensively in long-term memory but rarely in the context of short-term working memory (WM), which leaves open the question of whether source amnesia can result from a lack of memory encoding rather than forgetting. This study provided a series of striking and novel demonstrations showing participants' inability to report the source of a color representation immediately after that color was used in a task and stored in memory...
February 1, 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441032/dissociating-long-and-short-term-memory-in-three-month-old-infants-using-the-mismatch-response-to-voice-stimuli
#8
Katharina Zinke, Leonie Thöne, Elaina M Bolinger, Jan Born
Auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) have been successfully used in adults as well as in newborns to discriminate recall of longer-term and shorter-term memories. Specifically the Mismatch Response (MMR) to deviant stimuli of an oddball paradigm is larger if the deviant stimuli are highly familiar (i.e., retrieved from long-term memory) than if they are unfamiliar, representing an immediate change to the standard stimuli kept in short-term memory. Here, we aimed to extend previous findings indicating a differential MMR to familiar and unfamiliar deviants in newborns (Beauchemin et al...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438740/adult-hippocampal-mecp2-preserves-the-genomic-responsiveness-to-learning-required-for-long-term-memory-formation
#9
Kubra Gulmez Karaca, David V C Brito, Benjamin Zeuch, Ana M M Oliveira
MeCP2 is required both during postnatal neurodevelopment and throughout the adult life for brain function. Although it is well accepted that MeCP2 in the maturing nervous system is critical for establishing normal development, the functions of MeCP2 during adulthood are poorly understood. Particularly, the requirement of hippocampal MeCP2 for cognitive abilities in the adult is not studied. To characterize the role of MeCP2 in adult neuronal function and cognition, we used a temporal and region-specific disruption of MeCP2 expression in the hippocampus of adult male mice...
February 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437980/temporal-prefrontal-cortical-network-for-discrimination-of-valuable-objects-in-long-term-memory
#10
Ali Ghazizadeh, Whitney Griggs, David A Leopold, Okihide Hikosaka
Remembering and discriminating objects based on their previously learned values are essential for goal-directed behaviors. While the cerebral cortex is known to contribute to object recognition, surprisingly little is known about its role in retaining long-term object-value associations. To address this question, we trained macaques to arbitrarily associate small or large rewards with many random fractal objects (>100) and then used fMRI to study the long-term retention of value-based response selectivity across the brain...
February 1, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432778/-looking-at-nothing-during-sequential-sensorimotor-actions-long-term-memory-based-eye-scanning-of-remembered-target-locations
#11
Rebecca M Foerster
Before acting humans saccade to a target object to extract relevant visual information. Even when acting on remembered objects, locations previously occupied by relevant objects are fixated during imagery and memory tasks - a phenomenon called "looking-at-nothing". While looking-at-nothing was robustly found in tasks encouraging declarative memory built-up, results are mixed in the case of procedural sensorimotor tasks. Eye-guidance to manual targets in complete darkness was observed in a task practiced for days beforehand, while investigations using only a single session did not find fixations to remembered action targets...
February 9, 2018: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427285/effect-of-tadalafil-on-seizure-threshold-and-activity-of-antiepileptic-drugs-in-three-acute-seizure-tests-in-mice
#12
Katarzyna Socała, Dorota Nieoczym, Mateusz Pieróg, Elżbieta Wyska, Małgorzata Szafarz, Urszula Doboszewska, Piotr Wlaź
Tadalafil, a selective phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, is a long-acting oral agent for the treatment of erectile dysfunction of multiple etiologies. Although generalized tonic-clonic seizures were reported in a healthy man after taking tadalafil, the influence of tadalafil on seizure susceptibility has not been studied so far. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of tadalafil on seizure threshold as well as on the activity of some first- and second-generation antiepileptic drugs in three acute seizure tests in mice...
February 9, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427083/fluoxetine-inhibits-natural-decay-of-long-term-memory-via-akt-gsk-3%C3%AE-signaling
#13
Jee Hyun Yi, JiaBao Zhang, Sang Yoon Ko, Huiyoung Kwon, Se Jin Jeon, Se Jin Park, Jiwook Jung, Byung C Kim, Young Choon Lee, Dong Hyun Kim, Jong Hoon Ryu
Understanding the mechanisms underlying the natural decay of long-term memory can help us find means of extending the duration of long-term memory. However, the neurobiological processes involved in the decay of long-term memory are poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the effect of acute and chronic treatment of fluoxetine on natural decay of long-term memory and the possible mechanism. Late administration of fluoxetine prolonged the persistence of long-term memory in mice, as demonstrated by object location recognition and Barnes maze tests...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423939/human-mait-cells-show-metabolic-quiescence-with-rapid-glucose-dependent-upregulation-of-granzyme-b-upon-stimulation
#14
Madeleine E Zinser, Andrew J Highton, Ayako Kurioka, Barbara Kronsteiner, Joachim Hagel, Tianqi Leng, Emanuele Marchi, Chansavath Phetsouphanh, Chris B Willberg, Susanna J Dunachie, Paul Klenerman
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a well-characterized innate-like T cell population abundant in the human liver, peripheral tissues and blood. MAIT cells serve in the first line of defense against infections, through engagement of their T cell receptor, which recognizes microbial metabolites presented on MR1, and through cytokine-mediated triggering. Typically, they show a quiescent memory phenotype but can undergo rapid up-regulation of effector functions including cytolysis upon stimulation...
February 9, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423319/improvement-of-long-term-memory-access-with-a-pro-dopamine-regulator-in-an-elderly-male-are-we-targeting-dopamine-tone
#15
Thomas McLaughlin, David Han, James Nicholson, Bruce Steinberg, Kenneth Blum, Marcelo Febo, Eric Braverman, Mona Li, Lyle Fried, Rajendra Badgaiyan
With aging, there is decline in both short-term and long-term memory. This effect is magnified by epigenetic insults on specific, dopamine- related genes (e.g., DRD2, DAT1) as well as by impaired or reduced mRNA transcription. In addition, long-term memory ability is positively correlated with dopamine function and there is evidence that aging is associated with a reduction in brain dopamine D2 receptors, with an acceleration seen in aging-induced dementia. As a result, the authors tested the acute effect of a Pro-Dopamine Regulator (KB220Z, liquid Nano variant) on an aspect of long-term memory performance in a 77-year-old, highly functional male, using the Animal Naming Test (ANT)...
May 2017: Journal of Systems and Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420805/localization-and-elimination-of-attentional-dysfunction-in-schizophrenia-during-visual-search
#16
Robert M G Reinhart, Sohee Park, Geoffrey F Woodman
Theories of the locus of visual selective attention dysfunction in schizophrenia propose that the deficits arise from either an inability to maintain working memory representations that guide attention, or difficulty focusing lower-level visual attention mechanisms. However, these theoretical accounts neglect the role of long-term memory representations in controlling attention. Here, we show that the control of visual attention is impaired in people with schizophrenia, and that this impairment is driven by an inability to shift top-down attentional control from working memory to long-term memory across practice...
February 6, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414890/who-environmental-noise-guidelines-for-the-european-region-a-systematic-review-on-environmental-noise-and-cognition
#17
REVIEW
Charlotte Clark, Katarina Paunovic
This systematic review assesses the quality of the evidence across individual studies on the effect of environmental noise (road traffic, aircraft, and train and railway noise) on cognition. Quantitative non-experimental studies of the association between environmental noise exposure on child and adult cognitive performance published up to June 2015 were reviewed: no limit was placed on the start date for the search. A total of 34 papers were identified, all of which were of child populations. 82% of the papers were of cross-sectional design, with fewer studies of longitudinal or intervention design...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414025/effects-of-testosterone-dose-on-spatial-memory-among-castrated-adult-male-rats
#18
Benjamin A Wagner, Valerie C Braddick, Christopher G Batson, Brendan H Cullen, L Erin Miller, Mark D Spritzer
Previous research on the activational effects of testosterone on spatial memory has produced mixed results, possibly because such effects are dose-dependent. We tested a wide range of testosterone doses using two spatial memory tasks: a working-reference memory version of the radial-arm maze (RAM) and an object location memory task (OLMT). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were castrated or sham-castrated and given daily injections of drug vehicle (Oil Sham and Oil GDX) or one of four doses of testosterone propionate (0...
December 29, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412137/salient-experiences-are-represented-by-unique-transcriptional-signatures-in-the-mouse-brain
#19
Diptendu Mukherjee, Bogna Marta Ignatowska-Jankowska, Eyal Itskovits, Ben Jerry Gonzales, Hagit Turm, Liz Izakson, Doron Haritan, Noa Bleistein, Chen Cohen, Ido Amit, Tal Shay, Brad Grueter, Alon Zaslaver, Ami Citri
It is well established that inducible transcription is essential for the consolidation of salient experiences into long-term memory. However, whether inducible transcription relays information about the identity and affective attributes of the experience being encoded, has not been explored. To this end, we analyzed transcription induced by a variety of rewarding and aversive experiences, across multiple brain regions. Our results describe the existence of robust transcriptional signatures uniquely representing distinct experiences, enabling near-perfect decoding of recent experiences...
February 7, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410617/long-term-potentiation-decay-and-poor-long-lasting-memory-process-in-the-wild-rodents-proechimys-from-brazil-s-amazon-rainforest
#20
Marcia J Guimarães Marques, Selvin Z Reyes-Garcia, José E Marques-Carneiro, Leonardo B Lopes-Silva, Monica L Andersen, Esper A Cavalheiro, Fulvio A Scorza, Carla A Scorza
Proechimys are small terrestrial rodents from Amazon rainforest. Each animal species is adapted to a specific environment in which the animal evolved therefore without comparative approaches unique characteristics of distinct species cannot be fully recognized. Laboratory rodents are exceedingly inbred strains dissociated from their native habitats and their fundamental ecological aspects are abstracted. Thus, the employment of exotic non-model species can be informative and complement conventional animal models...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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