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"Long term memory"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641287/chrysophanol-suppressed-glutamate-induced-hippocampal-neuronal-cell-death-via-regulation-of-dynamin-related-protein-1-dependent-mitochondrial-fission
#1
Unbin Chae, Ju-Sik Min, Hyun Hee Leem, Hyun-Shik Lee, Hong Jun Lee, Sang-Rae Lee, Dong-Seok Lee
Chrysophanic acid, or chrysophanol, is an anthraquinone found in Rheum palmatum, which was used in the preparation of oriental medicine in ancient China. The hippocampus plays a major role in controlling the activities of the short- and long-term memory. It is one of the major regions affected by excessive cell death in Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, neuronal cell-death modulation in the hippocampus is important for maintaining neuronal function. We investigated chrysophanol's effects on glutamate-induced hippocampal neuronal cell death...
June 23, 2017: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637174/effect-of-prenatal-exposure-to-waterpipe-tobacco-smoke-on-learning-and-memory-of-adult-offspring-rats
#2
Nour Al-Sawalha, Karem Alzoubi, Omar Khabour, Weam Alyacoub, Yehya Almahmmod, Thomas Eissenberg
Introduction: Waterpipe tobacco smoking has increased in prevalence worldwide, including among pregnant women. In this study, we investigated the effect of prenatal maternal waterpipe tobacco smoke (WTS) exposure during different stages of pregnancy on learning and memory of adult offspring rats. Methods: Pregnant rats received either fresh air or mainstream WTS (two hours daily) during early, mid, late, or whole gestational period. Male offspring rats were followed through 20 weeks...
June 20, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634548/decline-in-memory-visuospatial-ability-and-crystalized-cognitive-abilities-in-older-adults-normative-aging-or-terminal-decline
#3
R Bendayan, A M Piccinin, S M Hofer, D Cadar, B Johansson, G Muniz-Terrera
The aim of this study is to explore the pattern of change in multiple measures of cognitive abilities in a sample of oldest-old adults, comparing two different time metrics (chronological age and time to death) and therefore examining both underlying conceptual assumptions (age-related change and terminal decline). Moreover, the association with individual characteristics as sex, education, and dementia diagnosis was also examined. Measures of cognitive status (Mini-Mental State Examination and the Swedish Clock Test) and tests of crystallized (knowledge and synonyms), memory (verbal memory, nonverbal long-term memory, recognition and correspondence, and short-term memory), and visuospatial ability were included...
2017: Journal of Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634074/distinct-regulation-of-activity-dependent-transcription-of-immediate-early-genes-in-cultured-rat-cortical-neurons
#4
Mamoru Fukuchi, Tomofumi Sanabe, Toshifumi Watanabe, Takane Kubota, Akiko Tabuchi, Masaaki Tsuda
The activity-regulated expression of immediate early genes (IEGs) contributes to long-lasting neuronal functions underlying long-term memory. However, their response properties following neuronal activity are unique and remain poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, here we further investigated the response properties of two representative IEGs, c-fos and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf). Treatment of cultured cortical cells with KCl produces a depolarization process that results in the increase of intracellular calcium concentration in a KCl concentration-dependent manner...
June 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631100/co-modulation-of-an-allosteric-modulator-of-nicotinic-receptor-cholinesterase-inhibitor-galantamine-and-a-5-ht4-receptor-agonist-rs-67333-effect-on-scopolamine-induced-memory-deficit-in-the-mouse
#5
Thomas Freret, Véronique Lelong-Boulouard, Pierre Lecouflet, Katia Hamidouche, François Dauphin, Michel Boulouard
AIM: It is widely assumed that the upcoming therapeutics for Alzheimer's disease will require to act on more than one target to be effective. We investigated here whether a combination of the nicotinic receptor allosteric modulator/cholinesterase inhibitor galantamine can act synergistically with the type 4 serotonin receptor (5-HT4R) partial agonist, RS-67333, to counterbalance deficits in short- and long-term memory. To select sub-efficacious doses of both drugs, dose-response studies were first performed on the scopolamine-induced deficits of spontaneous alternation in the Y-maze task and of acquisition and retrieval processes in a passive avoidance task...
June 19, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627465/differential-proteome-analysis-of-hippocampus-and-temporal-cortex-using-label-free-based-2d-lc-ms-ms
#6
Xiaoyan Liu, Zhengguang Guo, Wei Liu, Wei Sun, Chao Ma
Hippocampus and temporal cortex are important brain regions, which play distinct, but complimentary roles in mediating learning and memory. Herein, we utilized label-free differential proteome strategy to explore function of normal human hippocampus and temporal cortex in learning and memory. As a result, a total of 5529 and 5702 proteins were identified in hippocampus and temporal cortex, respectively, 516 of which were significantly differential expressed, with abundance span 5 orders of magnitudes. Pathways analysis showed that temporal cortex was involved in growth of axons growth and synapse density regulation, through which could regulate long-term potentiation and long-term retention of trace memory...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627292/mood-dependent-retrieval-in-visual-long-term-memory-dissociable-effects-on-retrieval-probability-and-mnemonic-precision
#7
Weizhen Xie, Weiwei Zhang
Although memories are more retrievable if observers' emotional states are consistent between encoding and retrieval, it is unclear whether the consistency of emotional states increases the likelihood of successful memory retrieval, the precision of retrieved memories, or both. The present study tested visual long-term memory for everyday objects while consistent or inconsistent emotional contexts between encoding and retrieval were induced using background grey-scale images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS)...
June 18, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623151/cognitive-performance-across-3-frailty-phenotypes-toledo-study-for-healthy-aging
#8
Cristina Rosado-Artalejo, Jose Antonio Carnicero, Jose Losa-Reyna, Amelia Guadalupe-Grau, Carmen Castillo-Gallego, Gonzalo Gutierrez-Avila, Ana Alfaro-Acha, Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo, Leocadio Rodríguez-Mañas, Francisco José García-García
INTRODUCTION: Frailty is a strong predictor of adverse health events, but its impact on cognitive function is poorly understood. AIM: To assess cognitive performance in frailty and to identify the frailty stage where cognitive impairment begins. METHODS: Data were taken from 2044 people aged ≥65 years without cognitive impairment selected from the Toledo Study for Healthy Aging, a population-based cohort of older adults. Frailty status was assessed by 3 different scales: Frailty Phenotype (FP), Frailty Trait Scale (FTS), and Frailty Index (FI)...
June 13, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620076/superior-long-term-synaptic-memory-induced-by-combining-dual-pharmacological-activation-of-pka-and-erk-with-an-enhanced-training-protocol
#9
Rong-Yu Liu, Curtis Neveu, Paul Smolen, Leonard J Cleary, John H Byrne
Developing treatment strategies to enhance memory is an important goal of neuroscience research. Activation of multiple biochemical signaling cascades, such as the protein kinase A (PKA) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways, is necessary to induce long-term synaptic facilitation (LTF), a correlate of long-term memory (LTM). Previously, a computational model was developed which correctly predicted a novel enhanced training protocol that augmented LTF by searching for the protocol with maximal overlap of PKA and ERK activation...
July 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618306/effects-of-acute-exercise-on-fear-extinction-in-rats-and-exposure-therapy-in-humans-null-findings-from-five-experiments
#10
Jolene Jacquart, Rheall F Roquet, Santiago Papini, Mark B Powers, David Rosenfield, Jasper A J Smits, Marie-H Monfils
BACKGROUND: Exposure therapy is an established learning-based intervention for the treatment of anxiety disorders with an average response rate of nearly 50%, leaving room for improvement. Emerging strategies to enhance exposure therapy in humans and fear extinction retention in animal models are primarily pharmacological. These approaches are limited as many patients report preferring non-pharmacological approaches in therapy. With general cognitive enhancement effects, exercise has emerged as a plausible non-pharmacological augmentation strategy...
June 4, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615475/infantile-amnesia-a-critical-period-of-learning-to-learn-and-remember
#11
Cristina M Alberini, Alessio Travaglia
Infantile amnesia, the inability of adults to recollect early episodic memories, is associated with the rapid forgetting that occurs in childhood. It has been suggested that infantile amnesia is due to the underdevelopment of the infant brain, which would preclude memory consolidation, or to deficits in memory retrieval. Although early memories are inaccessible to adults, early-life events, such as neglect or aversive experiences, can greatly impact adult behavior and may predispose individuals to various psychopathologies...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615081/clinical-variables-related-to-the-diagnostic-stability-of-demential-syndromes
#12
Fabiano Moulin de Moraes, Paulo Henrique Ferreira Bertolucci
BACKGROUND: Assigning a diagnosis to a patient with dementia is important for the present treatment of the patient and caregivers, and scientific research. Nowadays, the dementia diagnostic criteria are based on clinical information regarding medical, history, physical examination, neuropsychological tests, and supplementary exams and, therefore, subject to variability through time. METHODS: A retrospective observational study to evaluate variables related to clinical diagnostic stability in dementia syndromes in at least one year follow up...
June 15, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612047/wortmannin-attenuates-seizure-induced-hyperactive-pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-impaired-memory-and-spine-dysmorphology-in-rats
#13
Angela N Carter, Heather A Born, Amber T Levine, An T Dao, Amanda J Zhao, Wai L Lee, Anne E Anderson
Numerous studies have shown epilepsy-associated cognitive deficits, but less is known about the effects of one single generalized seizure. Recent studies demonstrate that a single, self-limited seizure can result in memory deficits and induces hyperactive phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt (protein kinase B)/mechanistic target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) signaling. However, the effect of a single seizure on subcellular structures such as dendritic spines and the role of aberrant PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling in these seizure-induced changes are unclear...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605393/drosophila-courtship-conditioning-as-a-measure-of-learning-and-memory
#14
Tom S Koemans, Cornelia Oppitz, Rogier A T Donders, Hans van Bokhoven, Annette Schenck, Krystyna Keleman, Jamie M Kramer
Many insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying learning and memory have been elucidated through the use of simple behavioral assays in model organisms such as the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila is useful for understanding the basic neurobiology underlying cognitive deficits resulting from mutations in genes associated with human cognitive disorders, such as intellectual disability (ID) and autism. This work describes a methodology for testing learning and memory using a classic paradigm in Drosophila known as courtship conditioning...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604030/chatting-in-the-face-of-the-eyewitness-the-impact-of-extraneous-cell-phone-conversation-on-memory-for-a-perpetrator
#15
John E Marsh, Krupali Patel, Katherine Labonté, Emma Threadgold, Faye C Skelton, Cristina Fodarella, Rachel Thorley, Kirsty L Battersby, Charlie D Frowd, Linden J Ball, François Vachon
Cell-phone conversation is ubiquitous within public spaces. The current study investigates whether ignored cell-phone conversation impairs eyewitness memory for a perpetrator. Participants viewed a video of a staged crime in the presence of 1 side of a comprehensible cell-phone conversation (meaningful halfalogue), 2 sides of a comprehensible cell-phone conversation (meaningful dialogue), 1 side of an incomprehensible cell-phone conversation (meaningless halfalogue), or quiet. Between 24 and 28 hr later, participants freely described the perpetrator's face, constructed a single composite image of the perpetrator from memory, and attempted to identify the perpetrator from a sequential lineup...
June 12, 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600714/the-importance-of-age-related-differences-in-prospective-memory-evidence-from-diffusion-model-analyses
#16
B Hunter Ball, Andrew J Aschenbrenner
Event-based prospective memory (PM) refers to relying on environmental cues to trigger retrieval of a deferred action plan from long-term memory. Considerable research has demonstrated PM declines with increased age. Despite efforts to better characterize the attentional processes that underlie these decrements, the majority of research has relied on measures of central tendency to inform theoretical accounts of PM that may not entirely capture the underlying dynamics involved in allocating attention to intention-relevant information...
June 9, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599071/predator-odor-evokes-sex-independent-stress-responses-in-male-and-female-wistar-rats-and-reduces-phosphorylation-of-cyclic-adenosine-monophosphate-response-element-binding-protein-creb-in-the-male-but-not-the-female-hippocampus
#17
Damek Homiack, Emma O'Cinneide, Sema Hajmurad, Brett Barrileaux, Mary Stanley, Michael R Kreutz, Laura Schrader
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by memory disturbances following trauma. Acute predator threat has emerged as an ethological model of PTSD, yet the effects of predator odor on signaling cascades associated with long-term memory remain poorly understood. In this study, we exposed male and female Wistar rats to the synthetic predator odor 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT) to assess behavioral and physiological responses as well as rapid modulation of signal transduction cascades associated with learning and memory in the male and female hippocampus...
June 9, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597477/effective-expression-of-drebrin-in-hippocampus-improves-cognitive-function-and-alleviates-lesions-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-app-swe-ps1-%C3%AE-e9-mice
#18
Yan Liu, Yan-Feng Xu, Ling Zhang, Lan Huang, Pin Yu, Hua Zhu, Wei Deng, Chuan Qin
AIMS: Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive development dementia, is increasingly impacting patients' living conditions worldwide. Despite medical care and funding support, there are still no highly individualized drugs and practical strategies for clinical prevention and treatment. Developmentally regulated brain protein (abbreviated as Drebrin or Dbn, also known as Dbn1 in mouse) exists in neurons, especially in dendrites, and is an actin-binding protein that modulates synaptic morphology and long-term memory...
July 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597131/applied-problem-solving-in-children-with-adhd-the-mediating-roles-of-working-memory-and-mathematical-calculation
#19
Lauren M Friedman, Mark D Rapport, Sarah A Orban, Samuel J Eckrich, Catrina A Calub
The difficulties children with ADHD experience solving applied math problems are well documented; however, the independent and/or interactive contributions of cognitive processes underlying these difficulties are not fully understood and warrant scrutiny. The current study examines two primary cognitive processes integral to children's ability to solve applied math problems: working memory (WM) and math calculation skills (i.e., the ability to utilize specific facts, skills, or processes related to basic math operations stored in long-term memory)...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595141/the-interplay-of-language-and-visual-perception-in-working-memory
#20
Alessandra S Souza, Zuzanna Skóra
How do perception and language interact to form the representations that guide our thoughts and actions over the short-term? Here, we provide a first examination of this question by investigating the role of verbal labels in a continuous visual working memory (WM) task. Across four experiments, participants retained in memory the continuous color of a set of dots which were presented sequentially (Experiments 1-3) or simultaneously (Experiment 4). At test, they reproduced the colors of all dots using a color wheel...
June 5, 2017: Cognition
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