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"Long term memory"

Jingchu Hu, Wenqing Wang, Philipp Homan, Penggui Wang, Xifu Zheng, Daniela Schiller
Memory reminders can return a memory into an unstable state such that it will decay unless actively restabilized into long-term memory through reconsolidation. Exposure to a memory reminder, however, does not always lead to destabilization. The 'trace dominance' principle posits that the extent of exposure to memory reminders governs memory susceptibility to disruption. Here, we provide a first systematic investigation of reminder duration effects on threat memory modification in humans. Reminder duration was parametrically varied across 155 participants in a three-day protocol...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Wolfgang Schneider, Peter A Ornstein
Research on the development of memory has a long history and constitutes one of the most active research areas in the field of cognitive development. In this article, we first describe major historical developments in the literature on children's memory, focusing on systematic research that began in the late 1960s. We then examine new developments in the field, describing four important lines of inquiry: (a) the development of implicit memory, (b) short- and long-term memory development in infancy, (c) longitudinal research on memory strategies and metamemory, and (d) developmental cognitive neuroscience of memory...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
Michal M Milczarek, Seralynne D Vann, Frank Sengpiel
Memory relies on lasting adaptations of neuronal properties elicited by stimulus-driven plastic changes [1]. The strengthening (and weakening) of synapses results in the establishment of functional ensembles. It is presumed that such ensembles (or engrams) are activated during memory acquisition and re-activated upon memory retrieval. The retrosplenial cortex (RSC) has emerged as a key brain area supporting memory [2], including episodic and topographical memory in humans [3-5], as well as spatial memory in rodents [6, 7]...
May 30, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Magdalena Pereyra, Cynthia Katche, Ana Belén de Landeta, Jorge H Medina
Understanding how stored information emerges is a main question in the neurobiology of memory that is now increasingly gaining attention. However, molecular events underlying this memory stage, including involvement of protein synthesis, are not well defined. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a central regulator of protein synthesis, has been implicated in synaptic plasticity and is required for memory formation. Using inhibitory avoidance (IA), we evaluated the role of mTORC1 in memory retrieval...
June 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kathrin J Emmerdinger, Christof Kuhbandner
Numerous studies have shown that retrieving contents from memory in a test improves long-term retention for those contents, even when compared to restudying (i.e., the "testing effect"). The beneficial effect of retrieval practice has been demonstrated for many different types of memory representations; however, one particularly important memory system has not been addressed in previous testing effect research: autobiographical memory. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of retrieving memories for personally experienced events on long-term memory for those events...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Ayelet Ramaty, Roy Luria
Two main models have been proposed to describe how visual working memory (WM) allocates its capacity: the slot-model and the continuous resource-model. The purpose of the current study was to test a direct prediction of the resource model suggesting that WM can trade-off between the quantity and quality of the encoded information. Previous research reported equivocal results, with studies that failed to find such a trade-off and other studies that reported a trade-off. Following the design of previous studies, in Experiment 1 we replicated this trade-off, by presenting the memory array for 1200 ms...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Kendrick J Jones, Sebastian Templet, Khaled Zemoura, Bozena Kuzniewska, Franciso X Pena, Hongik Hwang, Ding J Lei, Henny Haensgen, Shannon Nguyen, Christopher Saenz, Michael Lewis, Magdalena Dziembowska, Weifeng Xu
Experience induces de novo protein synthesis in the brain and protein synthesis is required for long-term memory. It is important to define the critical temporal window of protein synthesis and identify newly synthesized proteins required for memory formation. Using a behavioral paradigm that temporally separates the contextual exposure from the association with fear, we found that protein synthesis during the transient window of context exposure is required for contextual memory formation. Among an array of putative activity-dependent translational neuronal targets tested, we identified one candidate, a schizophrenia-associated candidate mRNA, neurogranin (Ng, encoded by the Nrgn gene) responding to novel-context exposure...
June 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Nelson Cowan, Nikolay R Rachev
Early research on memory was dominated by two researchers forging different paths: Hermann Ebbinghaus, interested in principles of learning and recall, and Wilhelm Wundt, founder of the first formal laboratory of experimental psychology, who was interested in empirical evidence to interpret conscious experience. Whereas the work of Ebbinghaus is a much-heralded precursor of modern research on long-term memory, the work of Wundt appears to be a mostly-forgotten precursor to research on working memory. We show how his scientific perspective is germane to more recent investigations, with emphasis on the embedded-processes approaches of Nelson Cowan and Klaus Oberauer, and how it is in contrast with most other recent theoretical approaches...
June 4, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Phillip R Zoladz, Tessa J Duffy, Brianne E Mosley, Miranda K Fiely, Hannah E Nagle, Amanda R Scharf, Callie M Brown, McKenna B Earley, Boyd R Rorabaugh, Alison M Dailey
Certain susceptibility factors, such as genetic variants or specific physiological responses to stress, can dictate the effects of stress on learning and memory. Here, we examined the influence of the BclI polymorphism of the glucocorticoid receptor gene on the time-dependent effects of pre-learning stress on long-term memory. Healthy individuals were exposed to the socially evaluated cold pressor test or a control condition immediately or 30 min before word list learning. Participants' memory for the words was tested immediately and 24 h after learning, and saliva samples were collected to genotype participants for the BclI polymorphism and to assess cortisol responses to the stressor...
June 4, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Donal T Skelly, Éadaoin W Griffin, Carol L Murray, Sarah Harney, Conor O'Boyle, Edel Hennessy, Marc-Andre Dansereau, Arshed Nazmi, Lucas Tortorelli, J Nicholas Rawlins, David M Bannerman, Colm Cunningham
Systemic inflammation can impair cognition with relevance to dementia, delirium and post-operative cognitive dysfunction. Episodes of delirium also contribute to rates of long-term cognitive decline, implying that these acute events induce injury. Whether systemic inflammation-induced acute dysfunction and acute brain injury occur by overlapping or discrete mechanisms remains unexplored. Here we show that systemic inflammation, induced by bacterial LPS, produces both working-memory deficits and acute brain injury in the degenerating brain and that these occur by dissociable IL-1-dependent processes...
June 6, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Xiaohui Zheng, Yi Lian, Qiguang Wang
This paper applies the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method to investigate the long-range correlation of monthly mean temperatures from three typical measurement stations at Harbin, Changchun, and Shenyang in Northeast China from 1909 to 2014. The results reveal the memory characteristics of the climate system in this region. By comparing the temperatures from different time periods and investigating the variations of its scaling exponents at the three stations during these different time periods, we found that the monthly mean temperature has long-range correlation, which indicates that the temperature in Northeast China has long-term memory and good predictability...
2018: PloS One
Hianara A Bustamante, Alexis E González, Cristobal Cerda-Troncoso, Ronan Shaughnessy, Carola Otth, Andrea Soza, Patricia V Burgos
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of age-related dementia leading to severe irreversible cognitive decline and massive neurodegeneration. While therapeutic approaches for managing symptoms are available, AD currently has no cure. AD associates with a progressive decline of the two major catabolic pathways of eukaryotic cells-the autophagy-lysosomal pathway (ALP) and the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS)-that contributes to the accumulation of harmful molecules implicated in synaptic plasticity and long-term memory impairment...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
K Jonas Brännström, Sebastian Waechter
BACKGROUND: A common complaint by people with tinnitus is that they experience that the tinnitus causes attention and concentration problems. Previous studies have examined how tinnitus influences cognitive performance on short and intensive cognitive tasks but without proper control of hearing status. PURPOSE: To examine the impact tinnitus and high-frequency hearing thresholds have on reading comprehension in quiet and in background noise. RESEARCH DESIGN: A between-group design with matched control participants...
June 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
Anne Bergt, Anne E Urai, Tobias H Donner, Lars Schwabe
At any time, we are processing thousands of stimuli, but only few of them will be remembered hours or days later. Is there any way to predict which ones? Here, we tested whether the pupil response to ongoing stimuli, an indicator of physiological arousal known to be relevant for memory formation, is a reliable predictor of long-term memory for these stimuli, over at least one day. Pupil dilation was tracked while participants performed visual and auditory encoding tasks. Memory was tested immediately after encoding and 24 hours later...
June 4, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Andrea Shang, Sooraz Bylipudi, Kasia M Bieszczad
Epigenetic mechanisms are key for regulating long-term memory (LTM) and are known to exert control on memory formation in multiple systems of the adult brain, including the sensory cortex. One epigenetic mechanism is chromatin modification by histone acetylation. Blocking the action of histone de-acetylases (HDACs) that normally negatively regulate LTM by repressing transcription, has been shown to enable memory formation. Indeed, HDAC-inhibition appears to facilitate memory by altering the dynamics of gene expression events important for memory consolidation...
May 31, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Erin Glennon, Ioana Carcea, Ana Raquel O Martins, Jasmin Multani, Ina Shehu, Mario A Svirsky, Robert C Froemke
Neural representations of the external world are constructed and updated in a manner that depends on behavioral context. For neocortical networks, this contextual information is relayed by a diverse range of neuromodulatory systems, which govern attention and signal the value of internal state variables such as arousal, motivation, and stress. Neuromodulators enable cortical circuits to differentially process specific stimuli and modify synaptic strengths in order to maintain short- or long-term memory traces of significant perceptual events and behavioral episodes...
May 31, 2018: Brain Research
Elliot Dine, Agnieszka A Gil, Giselle Uribe, Clifford P Brangwynne, Jared E Toettcher
Protein/RNA clusters arise frequently in spatially regulated biological processes, from the asymmetric distribution of P granules and PAR proteins in developing embryos to localized receptor oligomers in migratory cells. This co-occurrence suggests that protein clusters might possess intrinsic properties that make them a useful substrate for spatial regulation. Here, we demonstrate that protein droplets show a robust form of spatial memory, maintaining the spatial pattern of an inhibitor of droplet formation long after it has been removed...
May 24, 2018: Cell Systems
Amber Nawaz, Zehra Batool, Sidrah Shazad, Sahar Rafiq, Asia Afzal, Saida Haider
To study the effects of stress on mental health activity is of great importance in neuropsychological studies as it may affect the lifelong performance related to brain and overall health and wellbeing of an individual. It is observed very often that exposure to stress during early life can alter the brain function which may reflect as cognitive disability. Impairment of memory is associated with increased oxidative stress which is due to enhanced production of free radicals that may lead to lipid peroxidation and disintegration of cell structure and functions...
May 28, 2018: Life Sciences
Walessa Alana Bragança Aragão, Francisco Bruno Teixeira, Nathalia Carolina Fernandes Fagundes, Rafael Monteiro Fernandes, Luanna Melo Pereira Fernandes, Márcia Cristina Freitas da Silva, Lilian Lund Amado, Fernanda Espírito Santo Sagica, Edivaldo Herculano Correa Oliveira, Maria Elena Crespo-Lopez, Cristiane Socorro Ferraz Maia, Rafael Rodrigues Lima
Mercury (Hg) is a highly toxic metal, which can be found in its inorganic form in the environment. This form presents lower liposolubility and lower absorption in the body. In order to elucidate the possible toxicity of inorganic Hg in the hippocampus, we investigated the potential of low doses of mercury chloride (HgCl2 ) to promote hippocampal dysfunction by employing a chronic exposure model. For this, 56 rats were exposed to HgCl2 (0.375 mg/kg/day) via the oral route for 45 days. After the exposure period, the animals were submitted to the cognitive test of fear memory...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Oliver Rawashdeh, Rex Parsons, Erik Maronde
Learning, memory consolidation, and retrieval are processes known to be modulated by the circadian ( circa : about; dies : day) system. The circadian regulation of memory performance is evolutionarily conserved, independent of the type and complexity of the learning paradigm tested, and not specific to crepuscular, nocturnal, or diurnal organisms. In mammals, long-term memory (LTM) formation is tightly coupled to de novo gene expression of plasticity-related proteins and posttranslational modifications and relies on intact cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA)/protein kinase C (PKC)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB) signaling...
2018: Neural Plasticity
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