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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690543/memory-function-in-feeding-habit-transformation-of-mandarin-fish-siniperca-chuatsi
#1
Yaqi Dou, Shan He, Xu-Fang Liang, Wenjing Cai, Jie Wang, Linjie Shi, Jiao Li
Mandarin fish refuse dead prey fish or artificial diets and can be trained to transform their inborn feeding habit. To investigate the effect of memory on feeding habit transformation, we compared the reaction time to dead prey fish and the success rate of feeding habit transformation to dead prey fish with training of mandarin fish in the 1st experimental group (trained once) and the 2nd experimental group (trained twice). The mandarin fish in the 2nd group had higher success rate of feeding habit transformation (100%) than those in the 1st group (67%), and shorter reaction time to dead prey fish (<1 s) than those in the 1st group (>1 s)...
April 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687712/chitosan-based-polysaccharide-gated-flexible-indium-tin-oxide-synaptic-transistor-with-learning-abilities
#2
Fei Yu, Li Qiang Zhu, Wan Tian Gao, Yang Ming Fu, Hui Xiao, Jian Tao, Ju Mei Zhou
Recently, surrounding friendly electronic devices are attracting increasing interests. "Green" artificial synapses with learning abilities are also interesting for neuromorphic platforms. Here, solution processed chitosan-based polysaccharide electrolyte gated indium tin oxide (ITO) synaptic transistors are fabricated on PET substrate. Good transistor performances against mechanical stress are observed. Short-term synaptic plasticities are mimicked on the proposed ITO synaptic transistor. When applying pre-synaptic and post-synaptic spikes on gate electrode and drain electrode respectively, spiking timing dependent plasticity function is mimicked on the synaptic transistor...
April 24, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687357/visual-memory-the-long-and-the-short-of-it-a-review-of-visual-working-memory-and-long-term-memory
#3
REVIEW
Mark W Schurgin
The majority of research on visual memory has taken a compartmentalized approach, focusing exclusively on memory over shorter or longer durations, that is, visual working memory (VWM) or visual episodic long-term memory (VLTM), respectively. This tutorial provides a review spanning the two areas, with readers in mind who may only be familiar with one or the other. The review is divided into six sections. It starts by distinguishing VWM and VLTM from one another, in terms of how they are generally defined and their relative functions...
April 23, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685000/thymoquinone-protects-against-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-role-of-antioxidant-and-anti-inflammatory-activities
#4
D Guan, Y Li, X Peng, H Zhao, Y Mao, Y Cui
Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is a leading cause of progressive decline of cognition and a major risk factor for stroke. Thymoquinone (TQ) is the major biological component of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) and its extracts. We explored the possible protective effect of TQ against CSVD in strokeprone spontaneously hypertensive SHRsp rats. Morris water maze and novel object recognition tests were conducted to evaluate memory and cognitive function. mRNA expression of inflammatory factors were determined and oxidative stress was evaluated...
March 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680772/%C3%AE-adrenergic-signaling-is-required-for-the-induction-of-a-labile-state-during-memory-reconsolidation
#5
Chae-Seok Lim, Jae-Ick Kim, Chuljung Kwak, Jaehyun Lee, Eun Hae Jang, Jihae Oh, Bong-Kiun Kaang
Memory reconsolidation is the process by which previously consolidated memories reenter a labile state through reactivation of the memory trace and are actively consolidated through de novo protein synthesis. Although extensive studies have shown that β-adrenergic signaling plays a critical role in the restabilization of reactivated memory, its role in the destabilization of long-term memory is not well-studied. In this study, we found that membrane excitability increased in hippocampal CA1 neurons immediately after the retrieval of contextual fear memory...
April 19, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678590/comparlow-arsenic-concentrations-impair-memory-in-rat-offpring-exposed-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-role-of-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-receptor-glutamate-and-oxidative-stress
#6
Nina María Mónaco, Mariana Bartos, Sergio Dominguez, Cristina Gallegos, Cristina Bras, María Del Carmen Esandi, Cecilia Bouzat, Leda Giannuzzi, Alejandra Minetti, Fernanda Gumilar
Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is an important natural pollutant. Millions of individuals worldwide drink water with high levels of iAs. Arsenic exposure has been associated to cognitive deficits. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In the present work we investigated in female adult offspring the effect of the exposure to low arsenite sodium levels through drinking water during pregnancy and lactation on short- and long-term memory. We also considered a possible underlying neurotoxic mechanism. Pregnant rats were exposed during pregnancy and lactation to environmentally relevant iAs concentrations (0...
April 17, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673482/dunce-phosphodiesterase-acts-as-a-checkpoint-for-drosophila-long-term-memory-in-a-pair-of-serotonergic-neurons
#7
Lisa Scheunemann, Pierre-Yves Plaçais, Yann Dromard, Martin Schwärzel, Thomas Preat
A key function of the brain is to filter essential information and store it in the form of stable, long-term memory (LTM). We demonstrate here that the Dunce (Dnc) phosphodiesterase, an important enzyme that degrades cAMP, acts as a molecular switch that controls LTM formation in Drosophila. We show that, during LTM formation, Dnc is inhibited in the SPN, a pair of newly characterized serotonergic neurons, which stimulates the cAMP/PKA pathway. As a consequence, the SPN activates downstream dopaminergic neurons, opening the gate for LTM formation in the olfactory memory center, the mushroom body...
April 18, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669243/bach2-an-instrument-of-heterogeneity-for-long-term-protection
#8
Qiutong Huang, Gabrielle T Belz
Generation of functionally diverse effector and memory killer T cells is essential for immediate and long-term protective immunity. Herndler-Brandstetter et al. (2018) report that Bach2 promotes functional plasticity of effector T cells and the transition into the long-term memory compartment by regulating the expression of the inhibitory receptor KLRG1.
April 17, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669029/retrospective-attention-in-short-term-memory-has-a-lasting-effect-on-long-term-memory-across-age
#9
Jonathan Strunk, Lauren Morgan, Sarah Reaves, Paul Verhaeghen, Audrey Duarte
Objectives: Declines in both short- and long-term memory are typical of healthy aging. Recent findings suggest that retrodictive attentional cues ("retro-cues") that indicate the location of to-be-probed items in short-term memory (STM) have a lasting impact on long-term memory (LTM) performance in young adults. Whether older adults can also use retro-cues to facilitate both STM and LTM is unknown. Method: Young and older adults performed a visual STM task in which spatially informative retro-cues or non-informative neutral-cues were presented during STM maintenance of real-world objects...
April 13, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666597/a-computational-model-of-working-memory-integrating-time-based-decay-and-interference
#10
Benoît Lemaire, Sophie Portrat
There is still a strong debate in the working memory literature about the cause of forgetting, with many articles providing evidence for the existence of temporal decay and as many publications providing evidence compatible with interference being the only mechanism involved in forgetting. In order to reconcile the two views, this article describes TBRS∗ -I (for Time-Based Resource-Sharing∗ -Interference), a computational model of working memory which incorporates an interference-based mechanism to the decay-based implementation TBRS∗ within the TBRS theoretical framework...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661836/fear-memory-consolidation-in-sleep-requires-protein-kinase-a
#11
Jiyeon Cho, Krzysztof A Sypniewski, Shoko Arai, Kazuo Yamada, Sonoko Ogawa, Constantine Pavlides
It is well established that protein kinase A (PKA) is involved in hippocampal dependent memory consolidation. Sleep is also known to play an important role in this process. However, whether sleep-dependent memory consolidation involves PKA activation has not been clearly determined. Using behavioral observation, animals were categorized into sleep and awake groups. We show that intrahippocampal injections of the PKA inhibitor Rp-cAMPs in post-contextual fear conditioning sleep produced a suppression of long-term fear memory, while injections of Rp-cAMPs during an awake state, at a similar time point, had no effect...
May 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658746/older-adults-show-impaired-modulation-of-attentional-alpha-oscillations-evidence-from-dichotic-listening
#12
Chad S Rogers, Lisa Payne, Sujala Maharjan, Arthur Wingfield, Robert Sekuler
Auditory attention is critical for selectively listening to speech from a single talker in a multitalker environment (e.g., Cherry, 1953). Listening in such situations is notoriously more difficult and more poorly encoded to long-term memory in older than in young adults (Tun, O'Kane, & Wingfield, 2002). Recent work by Payne, Rogers, Wingfield, and Sekuler (2017) in young adults demonstrated a neural correlate of auditory attention in the directed dichotic listening task (DDLT), where listeners attend to one ear while ignoring the other...
March 2018: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656905/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-improves-long-term-memory-deficits-in-an-animal-model-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-modulates-oxidative-and-inflammatory-parameters
#13
Douglas Teixeira Leffa, Bruna Bellaver, Artur Alban Salvi, Carla de Oliveira, Wolnei Caumo, Eugenio Horacio Grevet, Felipe Fregni, André Quincozes-Santos, Luis Augusto Rohde, Iraci L S Torres
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a technique that modulates neuronal activity and has been proposed as a potential therapeutic tool for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Although pilot studies have shown evidence of efficacy, its mechanism of action remains unclear. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We evaluated the effects of tDCS on behavioral (working and long-term memory) and neurochemical (oxidative and inflammatory parameters) outcomes related to ADHD pathophysiology...
April 5, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656871/activation-of-g-%C3%AE-q-signaling-enhances-memory-consolidation-and-slows-cognitive-decline
#14
Rachel N Arey, Geneva M Stein, Rachel Kaletsky, Amanda Kauffman, Coleen T Murphy
Perhaps the most devastating decline with age is the loss of memory. Therefore, identifying mechanisms to restore memory function with age is critical. Using C. elegans associative learning and memory assays, we identified a gain-of-function Gαq signaling pathway mutant that forms a long-term (cAMP response element binding protein [CREB]-dependent) memory following one conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus (CS-US) pairing, which usually requires seven CS-US pairings. Increased CREB activity in AIM interneurons reduces the threshold for memory consolidation through transcription of a set of previously identified "long-term memory" genes...
April 6, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653413/influence-of-propafenone-on-the-anticonvulsant-activity-of-various-novel-antiepileptic-drugs-in-the-mouse-maximal-electroshock-model
#15
Kinga K Borowicz-Reutt, Monika Popławska, Monika Banach, Dorota Wróblewska
BACKGROUND: The main mechanism of action of propafenone (antiarrhythmic drug) involves the inhibition of the fast inward sodium current during phase 0 of the action potential. Sodium channel-blocking activity is also characteristic for some antiepileptic drugs. Therefore, it could be assumed that propafenone may also affect seizures. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of propafenone on the protective effect of oxcarbazepine, lamotrigine, topiramate and pregabalin against the maximal electroshock-induced seizures in mice...
November 23, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651249/ontogenetic-and-experience-dependent-changes-in-defensive-behavior-in-captive-bred-hawaiian-bobtail-squid-euprymna-scolopes
#16
Kia Seehafer, Samantha Brophy, Sara R Tom, Robyn J Crook
Cephalopod molluscs are known for their extensive behavioral repertoire and their impressive learning abilities. Their primary defensive behaviors, such as camouflage, have received detailed study, but knowledge is limited to intensive study of relatively few species. A considerable challenge facing cephalopod research is the need to establish new models that can be captive bred, are tractable for range of different experimental procedures, and that will address broad questions in biological research. The Hawaiian Bobtail Squid ( Euprymna scolopes ) is a small, tropical cephalopod that has a long history of research in the field of microbial symbiosis, but offers great promise as a novel behavioral and neurobiological model...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648869/the-role-of-semantic-representations-in-verbal-working-memory
#17
Vanessa M Loaiza, Valérie Camos
Two main mechanisms, articulatory rehearsal and attentional refreshing, are argued to be involved in the maintenance of verbal information in working memory (WM). Whereas converging research has suggested that rehearsal promotes the phonological representations of memoranda in working memory, little is known about the representations that refreshing may promote. Not only would examining this question address this gap in the literature, but the investigation has profound implications for different theoretical proposals of how refreshing functions and on the relationships between WM and long-term memory (LTM)...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627578/selective-alteration-of-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-impaired-spatial-pattern-separation-performance-in-the-rsk2-deficient-mouse-model-of-coffin-lowry-syndrome
#18
Charlotte Castillon, Steeve Lunion, Nathalie Desvignes, André Hanauer, Serge Laroche, Roseline Poirier
Adult neurogenesis is involved in certain hippocampus-dependent cognitive functions and is linked to psychiatric diseases including intellectual disabilities. The Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is a developmental disorder caused by mutations in the Rsk2 gene and characterized by intellectual disabilities associated with growth retardation. How RSK2-deficiency leads to cognitive dysfunctions in CLS is however poorly understood. Here, using Rsk2 Knock-Out mice, we characterized the impact of RSK2 deficiency on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo...
April 5, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626564/dorsal-ca1-interneurons-contribute-to-acute-stress-induced-spatial-memory-deficits
#19
Jing-Ying Yu, Ping Fang, Chi Wang, Xing-Xing Wang, Kun Li, Qian Gong, Ben-Yan Luo, Xiao-Dong Wang
Exposure to severely stressful experiences disrupts the activity of neuronal circuits and impairs declarative memory. GABAergic interneurons coordinate neuronal network activity, but their involvement in stress-evoked memory loss remains to be elucidated. Here, we provide evidence that interneurons in area CA1 of the dorsal hippocampus partially modulate acute stress-induced memory deficits. In adult male mice, both acute forced swim stress and restraint stress impaired hippocampus-dependent spatial memory and increased the density of c-fos-positive interneurons in the dorsal CA1...
April 4, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624596/embodied-pain-in-fibromyalgia-disturbed-somatorepresentations-and-increased-plasticity-of-the-body-schema
#20
Endika Martínez, Zigor Aira, Itsaso Buesa, Ibane Aizpurua, Diego Rada, Jon Jatsu Azkue
Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a highly prevalent, chronic musculoskeletal condition characterized by widespread pain and evoked pain at tender points. This study evaluated various aspects of body awareness in a sample of 14 women with FMS and 13 healthy controls, such as plasticity of the body schema, body esteem, and interoceptive awareness. To this end, the Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI), the Body Esteem Scale (BES), and the Body Perception Questionnaire (BPQ) were used, respectively. Consistent with increased plasticity of the body schema, FMS patients scored higher, with large or very large effect sizes, across all three domains evaluated in the RHI paradigm, namely proprioceptive drift and perceived ownership and motor control over the rubber hand...
2018: PloS One
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