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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087940/the-memory-immune-response-to-tuberculosis
#1
Joanna R Kirman, Marcela I Henao-Tamayo, Else Marie Agger
Immunological memory is a central feature of the adaptive immune system and a prerequisite for generating effective vaccines. Understanding long-term memory responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis will thus provide us with valuable insights that can guide us in the search for a novel vaccine against tuberculosis (TB). For many years, triggering CD4 T cells and, in particular, those secreting interferon-γ has been the goal of most TB vaccine research, and numerous data from animals and humans support the key role of this subset in protective immunity...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087764/accumulation-of-polyribosomes-in-dendritic-spine-heads-but-not-bases-and-necks-during-memory-consolidation-depends-on-cap-dependent-translation-initiation
#2
Linnaea E Ostroff, Benjamin Botsford, Sofya Gindina, Kiriana K Cowansage, Joseph E LeDoux, Eric Klann, Charles Hoeffer
: Translation in dendrites is believed to support synaptic changes during memory consolidation. Although translational control mechanisms are fundamental mediators of memory, little is known about their role in local translation. We previously found that polyribosomes accumulate in dendritic spines of the adult rat lateral amygdala (LA) during consolidation of aversive Pavlovian conditioning, and that this memory requires cap-dependent initiation, a primary point of translational control in eukaryotic cells...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078614/resistance-exercise-reduces-seizure-occurrence-attenuates-memory-deficits-and-restores-bdnf-signaling-in-rats-with-chronic-epilepsy
#3
Alexandre Aparecido de Almeida, Sérgio Gomes da Silva, Glauber Menezes Lopim, Diego Vannucci Campos, Jansen Fernandes, Francisco Romero Cabral, Ricardo Mario Arida
Epilepsy is a disease characterized by recurrent, unprovoked seizures. Cognitive impairment is an important comorbidity of chronic epilepsy. Human and animal model studies of epilepsy have shown that aerobic exercise induces beneficial structural and functional changes and reduces the number of seizures. However, little is yet understood about the effects of resistance exercise on epilepsy. We evaluated the effects of a resistance exercise program on the number of seizures, long-term memory and expression/activation of signaling proteins in rats with epilepsy...
January 11, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077709/semantic-congruence-accelerates-the-onset-of-the-neural-signals-of-successful-memory-encoding
#4
Pau A Packard, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells, Nico Bunzeck, Berta Nicolás, Ruth de Diego-Balaguer, Lluís Fuentemilla
: As the stream of experience unfolds, our memory system rapidly transforms current inputs into long-lasting meaningful memories. A putative neural mechanism that strongly influences how input elements are transformed into meaningful memory codes relies on the ability to integrate them with existing structures of knowledge or schemas. However, it is not yet clear whether schema-related integration neural mechanisms occur during online encoding. In the current investigation, we examined the encoding-dependent nature of this phenomenon in humans...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067617/role-of-protein-synthesis-and-dna-methylation-in-the-consolidation-and-maintenance-of-long-term-memory-in-aplysia
#5
Kaycey Pearce, Diancai Cai, Adam C Roberts, David L Glanzman
Previously, we reported that long-term memory (LTM) in Aplysia can be reinstated by truncated (partial) training following its disruption by reconsolidation blockade and inhibition of PKM (Chen et al., 2014). Here, we report thatLTM can be induced by partial training after disruption of original consolidation by protein synthesis inhibition (PSI) begun shortly after training. But when PSI occurs during training, partial training cannot subsequently establish LTM. Furthermore, we find that inhibition of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT), whether during training or shortly afterwards, blocks consolidation of LTM and prevents its subsequent induction by truncated training; moreover, later inhibition of DNMT eliminates consolidated LTM...
January 9, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065806/-tagging-along-memories-in-aging-synaptic-tagging-and-capture-mechanisms-in-the-aged-hippocampus
#6
REVIEW
Mahesh Shivarama Shetty, Sreedharan Sajikumar
Aging is accompanied by a general decline in the physiological functions of the body with the deteriorating organ systems. Brain is no exception to this and deficits in cognitive functions are quite common in advanced aging. Though a variety of age-related alterations are observed in the structure and function throughout the brain, certain regions show selective vulnerability. Medial temporal lobe, especially the hippocampus, is one such preferentially vulnerable region and is a crucial structure involved in the learning and long-term memory functions...
January 5, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057539/effects-of-ibuprofen-on-cognition-and-nmda-receptor-subunit-expression-across-aging
#7
Alejandra Márquez Loza, Valerie Elias, Carmen P Wong, Emily Ho, Michelle Bermudez, Kathy R Magnusson
Age-related declines in long- and short-term memory show relationships to decreases in N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor expression, which may involve inflammation. This study was designed to determine effects of an anti-inflammatory drug, ibuprofen, on cognitive function and NMDA receptor expression across aging. Male C57BL/6 mice (ages 5, 14, 20, and 26months) were fed ibuprofen (375ppm) in NIH31 diet or diet alone for 6weeks prior to testing. Behavioral testing using the Morris water maze showed that older mice performed significantly worse than younger in spatial long-term memory, reversal, and short-term memory tasks...
January 3, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051768/creb-overexpression-in-dorsal-ca1-ameliorates-long-term-memory-deficits-in-aged-rats
#8
Xiao-Wen Yu, Daniel M Curlik, M Matthew Oh, Jerry Cp Yin, John F Disterhoft
The molecular mechanisms underlying age-related cognitive deficits are not yet fully elucidated. In aged animals, a decrease in the intrinsic excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons is believed to contribute to age-related cognitive impairments. Increasing activity of the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in young adult rodents facilitates cognition, and increases intrinsic excitability. However, it has yet to be tested if increasing CREB expression also ameliorates age-related behavioral and biophysical deficits...
January 4, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049401/alzheimer-s-disease-and-natural-products-future-regimens-emerging-from-nature
#9
Md Asiful Islam, Shahad Saif Khandker, Fahmida Alam, Md Ibrahim Khalil, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Siew Hua Gan
Alzheimer's disease (AD), which largely affects the elderly, has become a global burden. Patients with AD have both short- and long-term memory impairments. The neuronal loss in AD occurs due to abnormally folded amyloid beta proteins and aggregation of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins in the brain. Eventually, amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are formed, which subsequently disintegrate the neuronal transport system. There are several factors which are involved in AD pathogenesis, including oxidative stress, inflammation and the presence of metal ions...
January 3, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043955/structural-cerebellar-correlates-of-cognitive-and-motor-dysfunctions-in-cerebellar-degeneration
#10
Kalyani Kansal, Zhen Yang, Ann M Fishman, Haris I Sair, Sarah H Ying, Bruno M Jedynak, Jerry L Prince, Chiadi U Onyike
Detailed mapping of clinical dysfunctions to the cerebellar lobules in disease populations is necessary to establish the functional significance of lobules implicated in cognitive and motor functions in normal subjects. This study constitutes the first quantitative examination of the lobular correlates of a broad range of cognitive and motor phenomena in cerebellar disease. We analysed cross-sectional data from 72 cases with cerebellar disease and 36 controls without cerebellar disease. Cerebellar lobule volumes were derived from a graph-cut based segmentation algorithm...
January 2, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040019/relative-salience-of-spectral-and-temporal-features-in-auditory-long-term-memory
#11
Pingbo Yin, Shihab A Shamma, Jonathan B Fritz
In order to explore the representation of sound features in auditory long-term memory, two groups of ferrets were trained on Go vs Nogo, 3-zone classification tasks. The sound stimuli differed primarily along the spectral and temporal dimensions. In Group 1, two ferrets were trained to (i) classify tones based on their frequency (Tone-task), and subsequently learned to (ii) classify white noise based on its amplitude modulation rate (AM-task). In Group 2, two ferrets were trained to classify tones based on correlated combinations of their frequency and AM rate (AM-Tone task)...
December 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039088/microrna-335-5p-modulates-spatial-memory-and-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity
#12
F Capitano, J Camon, V Licursi, V Ferretti, L Maggi, M Scianni, G Del Vecchio, A Rinaldi, C Mannironi, C Limatola, C Presutti, A Mele
MicroRNAs are endogenous, noncoding RNAs crucial for the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-335-5p in spatial learning and synaptic plasticity. To this end we first showed spatial learning induced down-regulation of miR-335-5p. Next we found impairment in long-term memory and reduction in hippocampal long-term potentiation by exogenous administration of the miRNA. These findings demonstrate that miR-335-5p is a key coordinator of the intracellular pathways that mediate experience-dependent changes in the brain...
December 27, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039086/camkii-requirement-for-the-persistence-of-in-vivo-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-synaptic-plasticity-and-structural-reorganization
#13
Yectivani Juárez-Muñoz, Alejandro Rivera-Olvera, Laura E Ramos-Languren, Martha L Escobar
CaMKII has been proposed as a molecular substrate for long-term memory storage due to its capacity to maintain an active autophosporylated state even after the decay of the external stimuli. The hippocampal mossy fiber-CA3 pathway (MF-CA3) is considered as a relevant area for acquisition and storage of different learning tasks. MF-CA3 pathway exhibits a form of LTP characterized by a slow initial increase in the EPSP slope that is independent of NMDA receptors activation. Our previous studies show that application of high frequency stimulation sufficient to elicit MF-CA3 LTP produces structural reorganization, in a manner independent of LTP induction, at the stratum oriens of hippocampal CA3 area 7days after stimulation...
December 27, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034784/altered-ampa-receptor-expression-plays-an-important-role-in-inducing-bidirectional-synaptic-plasticity-during-contextual-fear-memory-reconsolidation
#14
Subhrajit Bhattacharya, Whitney Kimble, Manal Buabeid, Dwipayan Bhattacharya, Jenna Bloemer, Ahmad Alhowail, Miranda Reed, Muralikrishnan Dhanasekaran, Martha Escobar, Vishnu Suppiramaniam
Retrieval of a memory appears to render it unstable until the memory is once again re-stabilized or reconsolidated. Although the occurrence and consequences of reconsolidation have received much attention in recent years, the specific mechanisms that underlie the process of reconsolidation have not been fully described. Here, we present the first electrophysiological model of the synaptic plasticity changes underlying the different stages of reconsolidation of a conditioned fear memory. In this model, retrieval of a fear memory results in immediate but transient alterations in synaptic plasticity, mediated by modified expression of the glutamate receptor subunits GluA1 and GluA2 in the hippocampus of rodents...
December 27, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032677/hippocampus-duality-memory-and-novelty-detection-are-subserved-by-distinct-mechanisms
#15
Emmanuel J Barbeau, Patrick Chauvel, Christopher J A Moulin, Jean Regis, Catherine Liégeois-Chauvel
The hippocampus plays a pivotal role both in novelty detection and in long-term memory. The physiological mechanisms underlying these behaviors have yet to be understood in humans. We recorded intracerebral evoked potentials within the hippocampus of epileptic patients (n=10) during both memory and novelty detection tasks (targets in oddball tasks). We found that memory and detection tasks elicited late local field potentials in the hippocampus during the same period (∼260-600 ms post stimulus onset, p < 0...
December 29, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032672/hippocampal-damage-and-memory-impairment-in-congenital-cyanotic-heart-disease
#16
Mónica Muñoz-López, Aparna Hoskote, Martin J Chadwick, Anna M Dzieciol, David G Gadian, Kling Chong, Tina Banks, Michelle de Haan, Torsten Baldeweg, Mortimer Mishkin, Faraneh Vargha-Khadem
Neonatal hypoxia can lead to hippocampal atrophy, which can lead, in turn, to memory impairment. To test the generalisability of this causal sequence, we examined a cohort of 41 children aged 8-16, who, having received the arterial switch operation to correct for transposition of the great arteries, had sustained significant neonatal cyanosis but were otherwise neurodevelopmentally normal. As predicted, the cohort had significant bilateral reduction of hippocampal volumes relative to the volumes of 64 normal controls...
December 29, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032454/who-s-my-little-monkey-effects-of-infant-directed-speech-on-visual-retention-in-infant-rhesus-macaques
#17
Emily M Slonecker, Elizabeth A Simpson, Stephen J Suomi, Annika Paukner
Both human and nonhuman primate adults use infant-directed facial and vocal expressions across many contexts when interacting with infants (e.g., feeding, playing). This infant-oriented style of communication, known as infant-directed speech (IDS), seems to benefit human infants in numerous ways, including facilitating language acquisition. Given the variety of contexts in which adults use IDS, we hypothesized that IDS supports learning beyond the linguistic domain and that these benefits may extend to nonhuman primates...
December 29, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032373/meaningful-memory-in-acute-anorexia-nervosa-patients-comparing-recall-learning-and-recognition-of-semantically-related-and-semantically-unrelated-word-stimuli
#18
Valentin Terhoeven, Ursula Kallen, Katrin Ingenerf, Steffen Aschenbrenner, Matthias Weisbrod, Wolfgang Herzog, Timo Brockmeyer, Hans-Christoph Friederich, Christoph Nikendei
OBJECTIVE: It is unclear whether observed memory impairment in anorexia nervosa (AN) depends on the semantic structure (categorized words) of material to be encoded. We aimed to investigate the processing of semantically related information in AN. METHOD: Memory performance was assessed in a recall, learning, and recognition test in 27 adult women with AN (19 restricting, 8 binge-eating/purging subtype; average disease duration: 9.32 years) and 30 healthy controls using an extended version of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, applying semantically related and unrelated word stimuli...
December 29, 2016: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025812/the-anatomy-and-physiology-of-eyeblink-classical-conditioning
#19
Kaori Takehara-Nishiuchi
This chapter reviews the past research toward identifying the brain circuit and its computation underlying the associative memory in eyeblink classical conditioning. In the standard delay eyeblink conditioning paradigm, the conditioned stimulus (CS) and eyeblink-eliciting unconditioned stimulus (US) converge in the cerebellar cortex and interpositus nucleus (IPN) through the pontine nuclei and inferior olivary nucleus. Repeated pairings of CS and US modify synaptic weights in the cerebellar cortex and IPN, enabling IPN neurons to activate the red nucleus and generate the conditioned response (CR)...
December 27, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025069/does-reactivation-trigger-episodic-memory-change-a-meta-analysis
#20
Iiona D Scully, Lucy E Napper, Almut Hupbach
According to the reconsolidation hypothesis, long-term memories return to a plastic state upon their reactivation, leaving them vulnerable to interference effects and requiring re-storage processes or else these memories might be permanently lost. The present study used a meta-analytic approach to critically evaluate the evidence for reactivation-induced changes in human episodic memory. Results indicated that reactivation makes episodic memories susceptible to physiological and behavioral interference. When applied shortly after reactivation, interference manipulations altered the amount of information that could be retrieved from the original learning event...
December 23, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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