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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526279/an-emerging-role-for-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-schizophrenia
#1
REVIEW
Kyle H Flippo, Stefan Strack
Abnormal brain development has long been thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Impaired dendritic arborization, synaptogenesis, and long term potentiation and memory have been demonstrated in animal models of schizophrenia. In addition to aberrant nervous system development, altered brain metabolism and mitochondrial function has long been observed in schizophrenic patients. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the mitochondrial genome as well as impaired mitochondrial function have both been associated with increased risk for developing schizophrenia...
May 16, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525754/regulated-intron-removal-integrates-motivational-state-and-experience
#2
Jason Gill, Younshim Park, J P McGinnis, Consuelo Perez-Sanchez, Marco Blanchette, Kausik Si
Myriad experiences produce transient memory, yet, contingent on the internal state of the organism and the saliency of the experience, only some memories persist over time. How experience and internal state influence the duration of memory at the molecular level remains unknown. A self-assembled aggregated state of Drosophila Orb2A protein is required specifically for long-lasting memory. We report that in the adult fly brain the mRNA encoding Orb2A protein exists in an unspliced non-protein-coding form. The convergence of experience and internal drive transiently increases the spliced protein-coding Orb2A mRNA...
May 18, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525629/the-association-of-perceived-memory-loss-with-osteoarthritis-and-related-joint-pain-in-a-large-appalachian-population
#3
Kim E Innes, Usha Sambamoorthi
Objective. : Previous studies have documented memory impairment in several chronic pain syndromes. However, the potential link between memory loss and osteoarthritis (OA), the second most common cause of chronic pain, remains little explored. In this cross-sectional study, we examine the association of perceived memory loss to OA and assess the potential mediating influence of sleep and mood disturbance in a large Appalachian population. Design.:  Cross-sectional...
May 19, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524123/-a-clinical-and-neuropsychological-study-of-patients-before-and-after-resection-of-third-ventricle-colloid-cysts
#4
S B Buklina, A N Konovalov, D I Pitskhelauri, M A Shkarubo, A A Poddubskaya, M V Kolycheva
The literature lacks studies of cognitive impairments in large groups of patients after resection of third ventricle colloid cysts. AIM: To evaluate cognitive impairments in patients before and after resection of third ventricle colloid cysts. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a clinical and neuropsychological study of 52 patients with third ventricle colloid cysts using the Luria method (1962). Forty three patients were examined before and after cyst resection in the early postoperative period (three patients in this group were also examined in a long-term period of 3-7 months after surgery)...
2017: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523466/recognition-induced-forgetting-does-not-occur-for-temporally-grouped-objects-unless-they-are-semantically-related
#5
Ashleigh M Maxcey, Hannah Glenn, Elisabeth Stansberry
Recent evidence has shown that practice recognizing certain objects hurts memories of objects from the same category, a phenomenon called recognition-induced forgetting. In all previous studies of this effect, the objects have been related by semantic category (e.g., instances of vases). However, the relationship between objects in many real-world visual situations stresses temporal grouping rather than semantic relations (e.g., a weapon and getaway car at a crime scene), and temporal grouping is thought to cluster items in models of long-term memory...
May 18, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521778/cortical-kainate-receptors-and-behavioral-anxiety
#6
REVIEW
Min Zhuo
The study of glutamatergic synapses mainly focuses on the memory-related hippocampus. Recent studies in the cortical areas such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) show that excitatory synapses can undergo long-term plastic changes in adult animals. Long-term potentiation (LTP) of cortical synapses may play important roles in chronic pain and anxiety. In addition to NMDA and AMPA receptors, kainate (KA) receptors have been found to play roles in synaptic transmission, regulation and presynaptic forms of LTP...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521247/cognitive-performance-of-juvenile-monkeys-after-chronic-fluoxetine-treatment
#7
Mari S Golub, Edward P Hackett, Casey E Hogrefe, Csaba Leranth, John D Elsworth, Robert H Roth
Potential long term effects on brain development are a concern when drugs are used to treat depression and anxiety in childhood. In this study, male juvenile rhesus monkeys (three-four years of age) were dosed with fluoxetine or vehicle (N=16/group) for two years. Histomorphometric examination of cortical dendritic spines conducted after euthanasia at one year postdosing (N=8/group) suggested a trend toward greater dendritic spine synapse density in prefrontal cortex of the fluoxetine-treated monkeys. During dosing, subjects were trained for automated cognitive testing, and evaluated with a test of sustained attention...
May 1, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521127/synaptic-plasticity-engrams-and-network-oscillations-in-amygdala-circuits-for-storage-and-retrieval-of-emotional-memories
#8
REVIEW
Marco Bocchio, Sadegh Nabavi, Marco Capogna
The neuronal circuits of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) are crucial for acquisition, consolidation, retrieval, and extinction of associative emotional memories. Synaptic plasticity in BLA neurons is essential for associative emotional learning and is a candidate mechanism through which subsets of BLA neurons (commonly termed "engram") are recruited during learning and reactivated during memory retrieval. In parallel, synchronous oscillations in the theta and gamma bands between the BLA and interconnected structures have been shown to occur during consolidation and retrieval of emotional memories...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520937/atypical-endocannabinoid-signaling-initiates-a-new-form-of-memory-related-plasticity-at-a-cortical-input-to-hippocampus
#9
Weisheng Wang, Yousheng Jia, Danielle T Pham, Linda C Palmer, Kwang-Mook Jung, Conor D Cox, Gavin Rumbaugh, Daniele Piomelli, Christine M Gall, Gary Lynch
Endocannabinoids (ECBs) depress transmitter release at sites throughout the brain. Here, we describe another form of ECB signaling that triggers a novel form of long-term potentiation (LTP) localized to the lateral perforant path (LPP) which conveys semantic information from cortex to hippocampus. Two cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) signaling cascades were identified in hippocampus. The first is pregnenolone sensitive, targets vesicular protein Munc18-1 and depresses transmitter release; this cascade is engaged by CB1Rs in Schaffer-Commissural afferents to CA1 but not in the LPP, and it does not contribute to LTP...
May 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520620/-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-ameliorates-memory-impairment-and-rescues-the-abnormal-synaptic-protein-levels-in-the-frontal-cortex-and-hippocampus-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Yufang Guo, Yan Zhao, Ying Nan, Xiang Wang, Yulong Chen, Shuang Wang
(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant polyphenolic extract in green tea and it has attracted increasing attention for its multiple bioactive effects. However, the mechanisms by which EGCG exerts its neuroprotective actions in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are presently lacking. In the present study, a sporadic AD transgenic mouse model known as senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) was used to investigate whether oral administration of EGCG could improve recognition and memory function through reduction of amyloid β (Aβ) and tau hyperphosphorylation...
May 17, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515768/effect-of-acute-and-long-term-potassium-bromide-administration-on-spatial-working-memory-in-rat
#11
Faezeh Safdari, Mohammad Rabbani, Ali Hosseini-Sharifabad
Potassium bromide (KBr), an old antiepileptic agent, is illegally used in pharmaceutical or food industries to improve the product appearance. KBr has been proven to influence several pathways which are important in memory formation. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of KBr on spatial working memory using object recognition task (ORT). Rats received a single dose of KBr (50, 100 or 150 mg/kg), per oral, in acute treatment. KBr long term effects were also studied in animals receiving 50 mg/kg/day of KBr for 28 consecutive days...
April 2017: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515681/the-activity-induced-long-non-coding-rna-meg3-modulates-ampa-receptor-surface-expression-in-primary-cortical-neurons
#12
Men C Tan, Jocelyn Widagdo, Yu Q Chau, Tianyi Zhu, Justin J-L Wong, Allen Cheung, Victor Anggono
Transcription of new RNA is crucial for maintaining synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. Although the importance of synaptic plasticity-related messenger RNAs (mRNAs) is well established, the role of a large group of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in long-term potentiation (LTP) is not known. In this study, we demonstrated the expression of a lncRNA cluster, namely maternally expressed gene 3 (Meg3), retrotransposon-like gene 1-anti-sense (Rtl1-AS), Meg8 and Meg9, which is located in the maternally imprinted Dlk1-Dio3 region on mouse chromosome 12qF1, in primary cortical neurons following glycine stimulation in an N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent manner...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515306/intermediate-term-memory-as-a-bridge-between-working-and-long-term-memory
#13
Jan Kamiński
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514064/brain-inspired-photonic-neuromorphic-devices-using-photodynamic-amorphous-oxide-semiconductors-and-their-persistent-photoconductivity
#14
Minkyung Lee, Woobin Lee, Seungbeom Choi, Jeong-Wan Jo, Jaekyun Kim, Sung Kyu Park, Yong-Hoon Kim
The combination of a neuromorphic architecture and photonic computing may open up a new era for computational systems owing to the possibility of attaining high bandwidths and the low-computation-power requirements. Here, the demonstration of photonic neuromorphic devices based on amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOSs) that mimic major synaptic functions, such as short-term memory/long-term memory, spike-timing-dependent plasticity, and neural facilitation, is reported. The synaptic functions are successfully emulated using the inherent persistent photoconductivity (PPC) characteristic of AOSs...
May 17, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513594/regionally-compartmentalized-resident-memory-t-cells-mediate-naturally-acquired-protection-against-pneumococcal-pneumonia
#15
N Ms Smith, G A Wasserman, F T Coleman, K L Hilliard, K Yamamoto, E Lipsitz, R Malley, H Dooms, M R Jones, L J Quinton, J P Mizgerd
As children age, they become less susceptible to the diverse microbes causing pneumonia. These microbes are pathobionts that infect the respiratory tract multiple times during childhood, generating immunological memory. To elucidate mechanisms of such naturally acquired immune protection against pneumonia, we modeled a relevant immunological history in mice by infecting their airways with mismatched serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus). Previous pneumococcal infections provided protection against a heterotypic, highly virulent pneumococcus, as evidenced by reduced bacterial burdens and long-term sterilizing immunity...
May 17, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512443/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-for-post-concussion-syndrome-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-crossover-trial
#16
Robson Luis Oliveira de Amorim, André Russowsky Brunoni, Mirian Akiko Furutani de Oliveira, Ana Luiza Costa Zaninotto, Marcia Mitie Nagumo, Vinícius Monteiro de Paula Guirado, Iuri Santana Neville, Gláucia Rosana Guerra Benute, Mara Cristina Souza de Lucia, Wellingson Silva Paiva, Almir Ferreira de Andrade, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira
BACKGROUND: Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) represents 70-80% of all treated brain injuries. A considerable proportion of MTBI patients experience post-concussion symptoms for a prolonged period after MTBI, and these symptoms are diagnosed as persistent post-concussion syndrome (PPCS). PPCS is defined as a range of physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms. However, memory and executive dysfunction seems to be one of the most debilitating symptoms. Recently, non-invasive brain stimulation has been studied as a potential treatment method for traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511173/is-occupational-complexity-associated-with-cognitive-performance-or-decline-results-from-the-australian-longitudinal-study-of-ageing
#17
Anna P Lane, Tim D Windsor, Ross Andel, Mary A Luszcz
BACKGROUND: Long-term protective associations proposed between previous complex occupational tasks and cognitive functioning in later life point to work roles contributing to cognitive reserve. OBJECTIVE: To examine occupational complexity involving data, people, and things in relation to the level of, and rate of change in, cognitive functioning. METHODS: Participants were 1,290 members of the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing and initially aged 65-102 years (mean = 79)...
May 17, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510578/neurofeedback-as-a-form-of-cognitive-rehabilitation-therapy-following-stroke-a-systematic-review
#18
Tian Renton, Alana Tibbles, Jane Topolovec-Vranic
Neurofeedback therapy (NFT) has been used within a number of populations however it has not been applied or thoroughly examined as a form of cognitive rehabilitation within a stroke population. Objectives for this systematic review included: i) identifying how NFT is utilized to treat cognitive deficits following stroke, ii) examining the strength and quality of evidence to support the use of NFT as a form of cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CRT) and iii) providing recommendations for future investigations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510313/categorization-and-theoretical-comparison-of-quantitative-methods-for-assessing-qt-rr-hysteresis
#19
REVIEW
Hugo Gravel, Daniel Curnier, Nagib Dahdah, Vincent Jacquemet
BACKGROUND: In the human electrocardiogram, there is a lag of adaptation of the QT interval to heart rate changes, usually termed QT/RR hysteresis (QT-hys). Subject-specific quantifiers of QT-hys have been proposed as potential biomarkers, but there is no consensus on the choice of the quantifier. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify original articles reporting quantifiers of repolarization hysteresis from the surface ECG in humans...
May 16, 2017: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508995/l-carnitine-and-acetyl-l-carnitine-roles-and-neuroprotection-in-developing-brain
#20
Gustavo C Ferreira, Mary C McKenna
L-Carnitine functions to transport long chain fatty acyl-CoAs into the mitochondria for degradation by β-oxidation. Treatment with L-carnitine can ameliorate metabolic imbalances in many inborn errors of metabolism. In recent years there has been considerable interest in the therapeutic potential of L-carnitine and its acetylated derivative acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) for neuroprotection in a number of disorders including hypoxia-ischemia, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease and in conditions leading to central or peripheral nervous system injury...
May 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
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