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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445631/treating-prolonged-grief-disorder-a-2-year-follow-up-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Richard A Bryant, Lucy Kenny, Amy Joscelyne, Natasha Rawson, Fiona Maccallum, Catherine Cahill, Sally Hopwood, Angela Nickerson
BACKGROUND: Prolonged grief disorder (PGD) causes significant impairment in approximately 7% of bereaved people. Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been shown to effectively treat PGD, there is no evidence of long-term effects of CBT. OBJECTIVE: To determine the long-term efficacies of CBT with exposure or CBT without exposure in treating PGD by assessing outcome at 2 years. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial of PGD patients (N = 80) attending an outpatient clinic took place between September 2007 and June 2010, and a 2-year follow-up occurred between December 2009 and October 2012...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444617/computational-theory-underlying-acute-vestibulo-ocular-reflex-motor-learning-with-cerebellar-long-term-depression-and-long-term-potentiation
#2
Keiichiro Inagaki, Yutaka Hirata
The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) can be viewed as an adaptive control system that maintains compensatory eye movements during head motion. As the cerebellar flocculus is intimately involved in this adaptive motor control of the VOR, the VOR has been a popular model system for investigating cerebellar motor learning. Long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) at the parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses are considered to play major roles in cerebellar motor learning. A recent study using mutant mice demonstrated cerebellar motor learning with hampered LTD; the study concluded that the parallel fiber-Purkinje cell LTD is not essential...
April 25, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443098/the-lysine-methyltransferase-g9a-in-immune-cell-differentiation-and-function
#3
REVIEW
Sebastian Scheer, Colby Zaph
G9a (KMT1C, EHMT2) is a lysine methyltransferase (KMT) whose primary function is to di-methylate lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9me2). G9a-dependent H3K9me2 is associated with gene silencing and acts primarily through the recruitment of H3K9me2-binding proteins that prevent transcriptional activation. Gene repression via G9a-dependent H3K9me2 is critically required in embryonic stem (ES) cells for the development of cellular lineages by repressing expression of pluripotency factors. In the immune system, lymphoid cells such as T cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) can differentiate from a naïve state into one of several effector lineages that require both activating and repressive mechanisms to maintain the correct gene expression program...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443005/waking-up-buried-memories-of-old-tv-programs
#4
Christelle Larzabal, Nadège Bacon-Macé, Sophie Muratot, Simon J Thorpe
Although it has been demonstrated that visual and auditory stimuli can be recalled decades after the initial exposure, previous studies have generally not ruled out the possibility that the material may have been seen or heard during the intervening period. Evidence shows that reactivations of a long-term memory trace play a role in its update and maintenance. In the case of remote or very long-term memories, it is most likely that these reactivations are triggered by the actual re-exposure to the stimulus...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442324/the-interactive-role-of-cb1-receptors-and-l-type-calcium-channels-in-hippocampal-long-term-potentiation-in-rats
#5
Hamidreza Komaki, Fargol Saadat, Siamak Shahidi, Abdolrahman Sarihi, Parisa Hasanein, Alireza Komaki
'Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic responses is a widely researched model of synaptic plasticity that occurs during learning and memory. The cannabinoid system is an endogenous system that modulate this kind of synaptic plasticity. In addition, voltage dependent calcium channels is essential for induction of LTP at some synapses in the hippocampus. However, there is currently debate over the interaction between L-type calcium channels and cannabinoid system on the synaptic plasticity. In this study, we examined the effects of an acute administration of the cannabinoid antagonist AM251 following a chronic administration of the Ca(2+) channel blocker verapamil on LTP induction in the hippocampal dentate gyrus(DG) of rats...
April 22, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439808/timing-a-week-later-the-role-of-long-term-memory-in-temporal-preparation
#6
Rozemarijn M Mattiesing, Wouter Kruijne, Martijn Meeter, Sander A Los
Temporal preparation has been investigated extensively by manipulating the foreperiod, the interval between a warning stimulus and target stimulus requiring a speeded response. Although such research has revealed many effects of both the duration and distribution of foreperiods on reaction times, the underlying cognitive mechanism is still largely unknown. Here, we test a recent proposal that temporal preparation is driven by the retrieval of memory traces of past experiences from long-term memory rather than by knowledge about upcoming events...
April 24, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439227/requirement-of-nf-kappa-b-activation-in-different-mice-brain-areas-during-long-term-memory-consolidation-in-two-contextual-one-trial-tasks-with-opposing-valences
#7
Angeles Salles, Maria Del C Krawczyk, Mariano Blake, Arturo Romano, Mariano M Boccia, Ramiro Freudenthal
NF-kappa B is a transcription factor whose activation has been shown to be necessary for long-term memory consolidation in several species. NF-kappa B is activated and translocates to the nucleus of cells in a specific temporal window during consolidation. Our work focuses on a one trial learning tasks associated to the inhibitory avoidance (IA) setting. Mice were trained either receiving or not a footshock when entering a dark compartment (aversive vs. appetitive learning). Regardless of training condition (appetitive or aversive), latencies to step-through during testing were significantly different to those measured during training...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439016/astrocytes-locally-translate-transcripts-in-their-peripheral-processes
#8
Kristina Sakers, Allison M Lake, Rohan Khazanchi, Rebecca Ouwenga, Michael J Vasek, Adish Dani, Joseph D Dougherty
Local translation in neuronal processes is key to the alteration of synaptic strength necessary for long-term potentiation, learning, and memory. Here, we present evidence that regulated de novo protein synthesis occurs within distal, perisynaptic astrocyte processes. Astrocyte ribosomal proteins are found adjacent to synapses in vivo, and immunofluorescent detection of peptide elongation in acute slices demonstrates robust translation in distal processes. We have also developed a biochemical approach to define candidate transcripts that are locally translated in astrocyte processes...
April 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438647/effects-of-bms-902483-an-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-partial-agonist-on-cognition-and-sensory-gating-in-relation-to-receptor-occupancy-in-rodents
#9
Rick L Pieschl, Regina Miller, Kelli M Jones, Debra J Post-Munson, Ping Chen, Kimberly Newberry, Yulia Benitex, Thaddeus Molski, Daniel Morgan, Ivar M McDonald, John E Macor, Richard E Olson, Yukiko Asaka, Siva Digavalli, Amy Easton, James Herrington, Ryan S Westphal, Nicholas J Lodge, Robert Zaczek, Linda J Bristow, Yu-Wen Li
The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is thought to play an important role in human cognition. Here we describe the in vivo effects of BMS-902483, a selective potent α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, in relationship to α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor occupancy. BMS-902483 has low nanomolar affinity for rat and human α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and elicits currents in cells expressing human or rat α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors that are about 60% of the maximal acetylcholine response...
April 21, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436963/a-sting-activating-nanovaccine-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#10
Min Luo, Hua Wang, Zhaohui Wang, Haocheng Cai, Zhigang Lu, Yang Li, Mingjian Du, Gang Huang, Chensu Wang, Xiang Chen, Matthew R Porembka, Jayanthi Lea, Arthur E Frankel, Yang-Xin Fu, Zhijian J Chen, Jinming Gao
The generation of tumour-specific T cells is critically important for cancer immunotherapy. A major challenge in achieving a robust T-cell response is the spatiotemporal orchestration of antigen cross-presentation in antigen-presenting cells with innate stimulation. Here, we report a minimalist nanovaccine, comprising a simple physical mixture of an antigen and a synthetic polymeric nanoparticle, PC7A NP, which generates a strong cytotoxic T-cell response with low systemic cytokine expression. Mechanistically, the PC7A NP achieves efficient cytosolic delivery of tumour antigens to antigen-presenting cells in draining lymph nodes, leading to increased surface presentation while simultaneously activating type I interferon-stimulated genes...
April 24, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436848/challenging-the-time-complexity-of-exact-subgraph-isomorphism-for-huge-and-dense-graphs-with-vf3
#11
Vincenzo Carletti, Pasquale Foggia, Alessia Saggese, Mario Vento
Graph matching is essential in several fields that use structured information, such as biology, chemistry, social networks, knowledge management, document analysis and others. Except for special classes of graphs, graph matching has in the worst-case an exponential complexity; however, there are algorithms that show an acceptable execution time, as long as the graphs are not too large and not too dense. In this paper we introduce a novel subgraph isomorphism algorithm, VF3, particularly efficient in the challenging case of graphs with thousands of nodes and a high edge density...
April 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436061/resistance-exercise-reduces-memory-impairment-induced-by-monosodium-glutamate-in-male-and-female-rats
#12
Paulo Cesar Oliveira Araujo, Caroline Brandão Quines, Natália Silva Jardim, Marlon Regis Leite, Cristina Wayne Nogueira
NEW FINDINGS: Monosodium glutamate causes cognitive impairment. Resistance exercise is effective against monosodium glutamate induced memory impairment in male and female mice. ABSTRACT: Monosodium glutamate (MSG), a flavor enhancer in diets, causes cognitive impairment in humans. Exercise has been reported to protect against impairment of memory in humans. This study investigated if resistance exercise improves the performance of male and female rats treated with MSG in tests of memory and motor coordination...
April 23, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435973/acclimatization-to-middle-altitude-hypoxia-protects-against-developmental-and-cognitive-deficits-caused-by-acute-fetal-hypoxia-in-mice
#13
Hui-Lang Liu, Yong-Mei Sun, Chuan-Yu Li, Hai-Chen Niu, Min Su, Jing-Kun Wang
Acute fetal hypoxia (AFH) can elicit postnatal motor deficits and cognitive impairments. To test whether lifelong acclimatization to middle altitude (MA) hypoxia has protective effects on the impairments caused by AFH, ICR mice bred at 1 900 m altitude for 6-7 generations were evaluated under AFH. On gestation day 9 (GD 9), 13 (GD 13) or 17 (GD 17), pregnant mice received a single exposure to acute hypoxia (7% O2, 6 h). Physiological and neurodevelopmental behaviors, motor function (open field), spatial learning and memory (Morris water maze), and anxiety level (elevated plus maze) were examined in the offspring from neonate to adulthood...
April 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435972/-glp-1-gip-gcg-receptor-triagonist-improves-the-cognitive-behaviors-in-triple-transgenic-mice-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Juan-Juan Jiao, Christian Hölscher, Tian Li, Xue-Fan Dong, Xue-Song Qu, Yue Cao, Mei-Na Wu, Zhao-Jun Wang, Jin-Shun Qi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressively neurodegenerative disorder, which seriously affects human health but is still irreversible up to now. Recent studies indicate that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an important risk factor for AD, and the drugs used for treatment of T2DM have shown some neuroprotective effects in the treatment of AD. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)/ glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)/glucagon (Gcg) receptor Triagonist is a new monomeric polypeptide equally activating the GLP-1/GIP/Gcg receptors, which is built on the basis of GLP-1/Gcg receptor coagonist core sequence, and incorporated with partial amino acids of GIP...
April 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435022/maternal-separation-induced-hippocampal-changes-in-cadherin-1-cdh-1-mrna-and-on-recognition-memory-in-adolescent-mice
#15
Lucas Araújo de Azeredo, Luis Eduardo Wearick-Silva, Thiago Wendt Viola, Saulo Gantes Tractenberg, Anderson Centeno da Silva, Rodrigo Orso, Nadja Schröder, Timothy William Bredy, Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira
In rodents, disruption of mother-infant attachment induced by maternal separation (MS) is associated with recognition memory impairment and long-term neurobiological consequences. Particularly stress-induced modifications have been associated to disruption of cadherin (CDH) adhesion function, which plays an important role in remodeling of neuronal connection and synaptic plasticity. This study investigated the sex-dependent effect of MS on recognition memory and mRNA levels of classical type I and type II CDH and the related β -catenin (β -Cat) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of late adolescent mice...
April 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435008/cortical-and-amygdalar-neuronal-ensembles-in-alcohol-seeking-drinking-and-withdrawal
#16
REVIEW
Olivier George, Bruce T Hope
Alcohol induces many alterations in the brain that are thought to contribute to alcohol addiction. Most of the known alterations are induced in all neurons of a brain area or all neurons of a given cell type, regardless of whether they were activated during behavior. While these alterations can have important modulatory effects on behavior, they cannot explain why animals respond specifically to alcohol-paired cues as opposed to all other non-paired cues, and evoke highly specific goal-directed learned responses in models of drug craving...
April 20, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434990/role-of-circadian-rhythm-and-rem-sleep-for-memory-consolidation
#17
REVIEW
Zhengui Xia, Dan Storm
Although sleep is strongly implicated in memory consolidation, the molecular basis for the role of sleep in memory is not known. It has been established that the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memory depends on the activation of the Erk1,2 MAP kinase (MAPK) pathway which activates de novo CRE-mediated transcription and translation, two processes required for memory consolidation pathway. The activation of MAPK during memory formation and its nuclear translocation both depend upon cAMP signals generated by the calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclases, type 1 and type 8 (AC1 and AC8)...
April 20, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433953/the-ability-of-early-serial-developmental-assessment-to-predict-outcome-at-5years-following-neonatal-hypoxic-ischaemic-encephalopathy
#18
Catherine M O'Connor, C Anthony Ryan, Geraldine B Boylan, Deirdre M Murray
BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopmental difficulties in children following hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) may not emerge until school age. AIMS: To evaluate the value and stability of early serial developmental assessments in predicting long-term outcome. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study of infants with neonatal HIE and early continuous EEG at birth. SUBJECTS: Term infants with HIE were recruited at birth. Development was measured at 6, 12 and 24months using the Revised Griffiths' Scales (GMDS-R)...
April 20, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433816/l-carnitine-prevents-memory-impairment-induced-by-chronic-rem-sleep-deprivation
#19
Karem H Alzoubi, Abeer M Rababah, Amani Owaisi, Omar F Khabour
Sleep deprivation (SD) negatively impacts memory, which was related to oxidative stress induced damage. L-carnitine is a naturally occurring compound, synthesized endogenously in mammalian species and known to possess antioxidant properties. In this study, the effect of L-carnitine on learning and memory impairment induced by rapid eye movement sleep (REM-sleep) deprivation was investigated. REM-sleep deprivation was induced using modified multiple platform model (8hrs/day, for 6 weeks). Simultaneously, L-carnitine was administered (300mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally for 6 weeks...
April 19, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433649/chronic-nicotine-attenuates-behavioral-and-synaptic-plasticity-impairments-in-a-streptozotocin-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Esteves Im, Lopes-Aguiar C, Rossignoli Mt, Ruggiero Rn, Broggini Acs, Bueno-Junior Ls, Kandratavicius L, Monteiro Mr, Romcy-Pereira Rn, Leite Jp
Brain glucose metabolism is altered in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (sAD), whose pathologies are reproduced in rodents by intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of streptozotocin (STZ) in subdiabetogenic doses. The icv-STZ model also culminates in central cholinergic dysfunctions, which in turn are known to underlie both the sAD cognitive decline, and synaptic plasticity impairments. Considering the cognitive-enhancing potential of chronic nicotine (Nic), we investigated whether it attenuates icv-STZ-induced impairments in recognition memory and synaptic plasticity in a cognition-relevant substrate: the hippocampal CA1-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) pathway...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience
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