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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915360/patient-safety-organizations-and-emergency-medical-services
#1
William J Leggio, Lee Varner, Kathryn Wire
Providing safe and error-free patient care should resonate well with all healthcare providers including emergency medical technicians. The environments and circumstances in which emergency medical services (EMS) provide patient care inevitably create risks to both the provider and patient. This article explores the concepts of patient safety, errors, near misses, adverse events, and Just Culture. Literature raises concerns about the lack of data collection on both patient and provider safety and research on these safety topics in EMS...
2016: Journal of Allied Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915308/self-directed-learning-readiness-of-asian-students-students-perspective-on-a-hybrid-problem-based-learning-curriculum
#2
Lukas D Leatemia, Astrid P Susilo, Henk van Berkel
Objectives: To identify the student's readiness to perform self-directed learning and the underlying factors influencing it on the hybrid problem based learning curriculum. Methods: A combination of quantitative and qualitative studies was conducted in five medical schools in Indonesia. In the quantitative study, the Self Directed Learning Readiness Scale was distributed to all students in all batches, who had experience with the hybrid problem based curriculum...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915104/petroclival-meningiomas-remaining-controversies-in-light-of-minimally-invasive-approaches
#3
REVIEW
Sâmia Yasin Wayhs, Guilherme Alves Lepski, Leonardo Frighetto, Gustavo Rassier Isolan
Surgical resection of petroclival meningiomas remains challenging due to their deep location and relationship to vital neurovascular structures. Although the natural history of these tumors involves a slow course, the incidence of cranial nerve deficits and the extent of tumor resection vary widely in the literature. Some reviews on this topic have been conducted, but data remain fragmentary and based on retrospective case series, which hinders attempts at meta-analysis. Within this context, research into the use of minimally invasive approaches, including in neuroendoscopy, continues to emerge...
November 29, 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914879/what-can-animal-research-tell-us-about-the-link-between-androgens-and-social-competition-in-humans
#4
REVIEW
Matthew J Fuxjager, Brian C Trainor, Catherine A Marler
The relationship between androgenic hormones, like testosterone (T), and aggression is extensively studied in human populations. Yet, while this work has illuminated a variety of principals regarding the behavioral and phenotypic effects of T, it is also hindered by inherent limitations of performing research on people. In these instances, animal research can be used to gain further insight into the complex mechanisms by which T influences aggression. Here, we explore recent studies on T and aggression in numerous vertebrate species, although we focus primarily on males and on a New World rodent called the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus)...
November 30, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914771/overview-of-electronic-nicotine-delivery-systems-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Allison M Glasser, Lauren Collins, Jennifer L Pearson, Haneen Abudayyeh, Raymond S Niaura, David B Abrams, Andrea C Villanti
CONTEXT: Rapid developments in e-cigarettes, or electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), and the evolution of the overall tobacco product marketplace warrant frequent evaluation of the published literature. The purpose of this article is to report updated findings from a comprehensive review of the published scientific literature on ENDS. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The authors conducted a systematic review of published empirical research literature on ENDS through May 31, 2016, using a detailed search strategy in the PubMed electronic database, expert review, and additional targeted searches...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913871/n2o-emission-characteristics-and-its-affecting-factors-in-rain-fed-potato-fields-in-wuchuan-county-china
#6
Liwei Wang, Cheng Wang, Zhihua Pan, Hui Xu, Lin Gao, Peiyi Zhao, Zhiqiang Dong, Jingting Zhang, Guohui Cui, Sen Wang, Guolin Han, Hui Zhao
Representing an important greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from cultivated land is a hot topic in current climate change research. This study examined the influences of nitrogen fertilisation, temperature and soil moisture on the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene copy numbers and N2O emission characteristics. The experimental observation of N2O fluxes was based on the static chamber-gas chromatographic method. The ammonia-oxidising bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidising archaea (AOA) gene copy numbers in different periods were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913659/formative-research-using-a-community-based-participatory-research-approach-to-develop-an-oral-health-intervention-for-migrant-mexican-families
#7
Tracy L Finlayson, Padideh Asgari, Lisa Hoffman, Ana Palomo-Zerfas, Martha Gonzalez, Nannette Stamm, Maria-Isabel Rocha, Arcela Nunez-Alvarez
Oral health is a leading unmet health need among migrant families. This article describes the 1-year, community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach employed to plan and develop a Líder Communitario (lay community health worker)-led educational intervention for Mexican migrant adult caregivers and their families in three underserved, remote communities in North San Diego County, California. Four partner organizations collaborated, reviewed existing oral health curricula, and sought extensive input on educational topics and research design from key informants, migrant caregivers, and Líderes Communitarios...
December 1, 2016: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913594/highlights-in-bioethics-through-40%C3%A2-years-a-quantitative-analysis-of-top-cited-journal-articles
#8
Pingyue Jin, Mark Hakkarinen
BACKGROUND: The field of bioethics is constantly evolving. To investigate trends in the field of bioethics, we conducted a quantitative analysis of the top-cited articles in bioethical journals over the past 40 years. METHODS: Retrospective quantitative study of the 20 most cited bioethics articles published each year from 1975 to 2014 were conducted. Article samples were selected from a list of the most relevant 100 journals in the field of bioethics. RESULTS: In total, 800 top-cited articles between 1975 and 2014 in the domain of bioethics were retrieved and analysed...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913556/how-does-age-related-macular-degeneration-affect-real-world-visual-ability-and-quality-of-life-a-systematic-review
#9
Deanna J Taylor, Angharad E Hobby, Alison M Binns, David P Crabb
OBJECTIVES: To review systematically the evidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) affecting real-world visual ability and quality of life (QoL). To explore trends in specific topics within this body of the literature. DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: A systematic literature search was carried out using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PsychARTICLES and Health and Psychosocial Instruments for articles published up to January 2015 for studies including people diagnosed with AMD, assessing real-world visual ability or QoL as an outcome...
December 2, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913272/the-northeast-regional-sps-meeting-update-safety-pharmacology-innovations-and-applications
#10
REVIEW
Malar Pannirselvam, Tiffini Brabham, Alfred W Botchway, Donald B Hodges, Martin Traebert, Michael K Pugsley
The Safety Pharmacology Society (SPS) held a Northeast (NE) regional meeting in Boston, MA on May 13, 2016 at the Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated site. There were 103 attendees from the pharmaceutical industry, contract research organizations (CROs), academia, and global regulatory agencies. An assortment of scientific topics were presented by 7 speakers that included broad topics in the cardiovascular (organ on chip, statistical power and translation of rat cardiovascular telemetry data and dual inhibition of IKr and IKs on QT interval prolongation) and central nervous system (in vitro platform for neurotoxicity, an integrated risk assessment of suicidal ideation and behavior, and EEG advances in safety pharmacology) and a novel topic discussing preclinical challenges faced in the development of a novel gene therapy...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910817/on-the-molecular-interaction-between-femoral-heads-and-polyethylene-liners-in-artificial-hip-joints-phenomenology-and-molecular-scale-phenomena
#11
Giuseppe Pezzotti, B Sonny Bal, Elisa Casagrande, Nobuhiko Sugano, Bryan J McEntire, Wenliang Zhu, Leonardo Puppulin
The chemical interaction of femoral heads with polyethylene liners is an important new area of research in total hip arthroplasty (THA) as a consequence of an unabating quest for elongated artificial joint lifetimes. It is a topic that goes beyond simple mechanical behavior or wear. It seeks to describe the prosthetic device as a whole by adding chemical considerations to mechanics and abrasion. One of the poorly understood chemical interactions is oxygen affinity of the femoral heads. While oxygen unavoidably diffuses into the non-crystalline enclaves of the polyethylene liner as a result of its contact with the tribolayer, a ceramic femoral head can either attract or release oxygen due to its tribochemical interactions...
December 2, 2016: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909915/a-systematic-review-of-leptospirosis-on-dogs-pigs-and-horses-in-latin-america
#12
REVIEW
Priscila S Pinto, Hugo Libonati, Walter Lilenbaum
Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis which can affect many species. Control programs need accurate diagnosis to be successful, and currently, diagnosis relies on serology. It presents three main issues: the sampling, the antigen panel, and the cutoff point. Herein, we propose a systematic review on leptospirosis among dogs, pigs, and horses in Latin America in order to improve the understanding of the seroepidemiology of leptospirosis in these species in the region as well as the temporal development of the research on this topic and, consequently, improve the chances of success on control programs...
December 1, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909415/imagining-change-an-integrative-approach-toward-explaining-the-motivational-role-of-mental-imagery-in-pro-environmental-behavior
#13
Christine Boomsma, Sabine Pahl, Jackie Andrade
Climate change and other long-term environmental issues are often perceived as abstract and difficult to imagine. The images a person associates with environmental change, i.e., a person's environmental mental images, can be influenced by the visual information they come across in the public domain. This paper reviews the literature on this topic across social, environmental, and cognitive psychology, and the wider social sciences; thereby responding to a call for more critical investigations into people's responses to visual information...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909196/recommendation-for-severity-assessment-following-liver-resection-and-liver-transplantation-in-rats-part-i
#14
S Kanzler, A Rix, Z Czigany, H Tanaka, K Fukushima, B Kögel, K Pawlowsky, R H Tolba
Score sheets were first introduced 30 years ago to assess pain, distress and suffering in animals. To date, however, there is still no general agreement on their use in research practice, and only a few publications can be found on this topic. In the present work, we demonstrate the use of a special score sheet for severity assessment in the first three postoperative days in two showcased studies performed on Wistar and Lewis rats undergoing liver resection or orthotopic liver transplantation, respectively...
December 2016: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909040/association-between-organisational-and-workplace-cultures-and-patient-outcomes-systematic-review-protocol
#15
J Braithwaite, J Herkes, K Ludlow, G Lamprell, L Testa
INTRODUCTION: Despite widespread interest in the topic, no current synthesis of research is available analysing the linkages between organisational or workplace cultures on the one hand, and patient outcomes on the other. This protocol proposes a systematic review to analyse and synthesise the literature to date on this topic. The resulting review will discuss characteristics of included studies in terms of the type of healthcare settings researched, the measurements of organisational and workplace culture, patient outcomes measured and the influence of these cultures on patient outcomes...
December 1, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909035/randomised-controlled-pilot-study-to-investigate-the-effectiveness-of-thoracic-epidural-and-paravertebral-blockade-in-reducing-chronic-post-thoracotomy-pain-topic-feasibility-study-protocol
#16
Joyce Yeung, Teresa Melody, Amy Kerr, Babu Naidu, Lee Middleton, Kostas Tryposkiadis, Jane Daniels, Fang Gao
INTRODUCTION: Open chest surgery (thoracotomy) is considered the most painful of surgical procedures. Forceful wound retraction, costochondral dislocation, posterior costovertebral ligament disruption, intercostal nerve trauma and wound movement during respiration combine to produce an acute, severe postoperative pain insult and persistent chronic pain many months after surgery is common. Three recent systematic reviews conclude that unilateral continuous paravertebral blockade (PVB) provides analgesia at least equivalent to thoracic epidural blockade (TEB) in the postoperative period, has a lower failure rate, and symptom relief that lasted months...
December 1, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908624/a-review-of-biomass-burning-emissions-and-impacts-on-air-quality-health-and-climate-in-china
#17
REVIEW
Jianmin Chen, Chunlin Li, Zoran Ristovski, Andelija Milic, Yuantong Gu, Mohammad S Islam, Shuxiao Wang, Jiming Hao, Hefeng Zhang, Congrong He, Hai Guo, Hongbo Fu, Branka Miljevic, Lidia Morawska, Phong Thai, Yun Fat Lam, Gavin Pereira, Aijun Ding, Xin Huang, Umesh C Dumka
Biomass burning (BB) is a significant air pollution source, with global, regional and local impacts on air quality, public health and climate. Worldwide an extensive range of studies has been conducted on almost all the aspects of BB, including its specific types, on quantification of emissions and on assessing its various impacts. China is one of the countries where the significance of BB has been recognized, and a lot of research efforts devoted to investigate it, however, so far no systematic reviews were conducted to synthesize the information which has been emerging...
November 28, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908033/an-axisymmetric-time-domain-spectral-element-method-for-full-wave-simulations-application-to-ocean-acoustics
#18
Alexis Bottero, Paul Cristini, Dimitri Komatitsch, Mark Asch
The numerical simulation of acoustic waves in complex three-dimensional (3D) media is a key topic in many branches of science, from exploration geophysics to non-destructive testing and medical imaging. With the drastic increase in computing capabilities this field has dramatically grown in the last 20 years. However many 3D computations, especially at high frequency and/or long range, are still far beyond current reach and force researchers to resort to approximations, for example, by working in two dimensions (plane strain) or by using a paraxial approximation...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908023/introduction-collective-dynamics-of-mechanical-oscillators-and-beyond
#19
Igor V Belykh, Maurizio Porfiri
This focus issue presents a collection of research papers from a broad spectrum of topics related to the modeling, analysis, and control of mechanical oscillators and beyond. Examples covered in this focus issue range from bridges and mechanical pendula to self-organizing networks of dynamic agents, with application to robotics and animal grouping. This focus issue brings together applied mathematicians, physicists, and engineers to address open questions on various theoretical and experimental aspects of collective dynamics phenomena and their control...
November 2016: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907984/transnational-collaboration-for-faculty-development-in-health-professions-education-in-mongolia
#20
Hyun Bae Yoon, Jwa-Seop Shin, Seung-Hee Lee, Do-Hwan Kim, Minsun Sung, Nomin Amgalan, Tselmuun Chinzorig
PURPOSE: The Mongolian National University of Medical Sciences is the only national university in Mongolia and has produced more than 90% of health professionals in the country. Experts from Mongolia and Korea embarked on a collaborative effort to develop educational programs for faculty development based on the personal and professional needs of faculty members. This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of those educational programs to determine whether this transnational collaboration was successful...
December 2016: Korean Journal of Medical Education
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