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Research topic

Giancarlo Giupponi, Gloria Giordano, Ignazio Maniscalco, Denise Erbuto, Isabella Berardelli, Andreas Conca, David Lester, Paolo Girardi, Maurizio Pompili
BACKGROUND: ADHD (Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that manifests itself during childhood with various combinations of symptoms, including inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Research has shown that psychiatric comorbidities play an important role in the development of suicidal behavior and, recently, there has been a growing interest in a possible association between ADHD and suicide during both childhood and adulthood. Furthermore, some authors have shown a relationship between pharmacological treatments and suicide in patients affected by ADHD...
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Dongni Wu, Shuangying Zhang, Yuyuan Zhao, Ningjian Ao, Seeram Ramakrishna, Liumin He
RADA16-I (Ac-(RADA)4 -CONH2 ) is a widely investigated self-assembling peptide (SAP) in the biomedical field. It can undergo ordered self-assembly to form stable secondary structures, thereby further forming a nanofiber hydrogel. The modification of RADA16-I with functional peptide motifs has become a popular research topic. Researchers aim to exhibit particular biomedical signaling, and subsequently, further expand its applications. However, only a few fundamental reports are available on the influences of the peptide motifs on self-assembly mechanisms of designer functional RADA16-I SAPs...
March 16, 2018: Biomedical Materials
Rezvan Salehidoost, Asieh Mansouri, Massoud Amini, Sima Aminorroaya Yamini, Ashraf Aminorroaya
AIMS: The relationship between obesity and mortality rate among diabetic patients is a controversial topic. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between obesity and all-cause mortality risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In this retrospective database study, 2383 patients with type 2 diabetes, who had been registered in the Isfahan Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center, Iran, were enrolled between 1992 and 2010. The mean (SD) of diabetes duration and follow-up period was 15...
March 15, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
Alberto Pilotto, Raffaella Boi, Jean Petermans
Recently, the interest of industry, government agencies and healthcare professionals in technology for aging people has increased. The challenge is whether technology may play a role in enhancing independence and quality of life and in reducing individual and societal costs of caring. Information and communication technologies, i.e. tools aimed at communicating and informing, assistive technologies designed to maintain older peoples' independence and increasing safety, and human-computer interaction technologies for supporting older people with motility and cognitive impairments as humanoid robots, exoskeletons, rehabilitation robots, service robots and companion-type are interdisciplinary topics both in research and in clinical practice...
March 13, 2018: Age and Ageing
Cecilia Andersson, Sara J Bonvini, Peter Horvath, Eduardo Marquez, Imran Satia, Paul Kirkham, Florence Schleich, Marco Idzko, Reinoud Gosens, Jose Luis Lopez-Campos, Apostolos Bossios, Omar Usmani, Antonio Spanevello, Ian M Adcock, Alexander G Mathioudakis
For another year, high-quality research studies from around the world transformed the annual ERS International Congress into a vivid platform to discuss trending research topics, to produce new research questions and to further push the boundaries of respiratory medicine and science. This article reviews only some of the high-quality research studies on asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchiectasis and chronic cough that were presented during the congress through the Airway Diseases Assembly (ERS Assembly 5) and places them into the context of current knowledge and research challenges...
January 2018: ERJ Open Research
Frank Birklein, Seena K Ajit, Andreas Goebel, Roberto S G M Perez, Claudia Sommer
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a pain condition that usually affects a single limb, often following an injury. The underlying pathophysiology seems to be complex and probably varies between patients. Clinical diagnosis is based on internationally agreed-upon criteria, which consider the reported symptoms, presence of signs and exclusion of alternative causes. Research into CRPS biomarkers to support patient stratification and improve diagnostic certainty is an important scientific focus, and recent progress in this area provides an opportunity for an up-to-date topical review of measurable disease-predictive, diagnostic and prognostic parameters...
March 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neurology
Muhammad Abid, Shafaqat Ali, Lei Kang Qi, Rizwan Zahoor, Zhongwei Tian, Dong Jiang, John L Snider, Tingbo Dai
Defining the metabolic strategies used by wheat to tolerate and recover from drought events will be important for ensuring yield stability in the future, but studies addressing this critical research topic are limited. To this end, the current study quantified the physiological, biochemical, and agronomic responses of a drought tolerant and drought sensitive cultivar to periods of water deficit and recovery. Drought stress caused a reversible decline in leaf water relations, membrane stability, and photosynthetic activity, leading to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lipid peroxidation and membrane injury...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alice Huertas, Christophe Guignabert
The European Respiratory Society (ERS) Research Seminar entitled " Pulmonary Vascular Endothelium: Orchestra Conductor in Respiratory Diseases - Highlights from Basic Research to Therapy " brought together international experts of dysfunctional pulmonary endothelium, from basic science to translational medicine, to discuss several important aspects in acute and chronic lung diseases. This review will briefly sum up the different topics of discussion of this meeting held in Paris (France) on October 27th and 28th, 2016...
March 15, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Aileen V Ireland, Jennifer Finnegan-John, Gill Hubbard, Karen Scanlon, Richard G Kyle
Walking is widely accepted as a safe and effective method of promoting rehabilitation and a return to physical activity after a cancer diagnosis. Little research has considered the therapeutic qualities of landscape in relation to understanding women's recovery from breast cancer, and no study has considered the supportive and therapeutic benefits that walking groups might contribute to their wellbeing. Through a study of a volunteer-led walking group intervention for women living with and beyond breast cancer (Best Foot Forward) we address this gap...
March 8, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Sara Moccia, Elena De Momi, Sara El Hadji, Leonardo S Mattos
BACKGROUND: Blood vessel segmentation is a topic of high interest in medical image analysis since the analysis of vessels is crucial for diagnosis, treatment planning and execution, and evaluation of clinical outcomes in different fields, including laryngology, neurosurgery and ophthalmology. Automatic or semi-automatic vessel segmentation can support clinicians in performing these tasks. Different medical imaging techniques are currently used in clinical practice and an appropriate choice of the segmentation algorithm is mandatory to deal with the adopted imaging technique characteristics (e...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Inger Sundström-Poromaa
From a psychological perspective, the menstrual cycle has been a research topic for more than 50 years. The most recent menstrual cycle research has been driven by an increased interest in sex differences in neuroscience, and the urge to understand sex disparities in prevalence, clinical presentation, and treatment response in psychiatric or neurologic disorders. Indeed, the menstrual cycle is an excellent model of ovarian steroid influence on emotion, behavior, and cognition. This review summarizes the emotion-related and cognitive findings of methodologically sound menstrual cycle studies...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Alberto Gómez, Manuel Nieto-Díaz, Ángela Del Águila, Enrique Arias
Transparency in science is increasingly a hot topic. Scientists are required to show not only results but also evidence of how they have achieved these results. In experimental studies of spinal cord injury, there are a number of standardized tests, such as the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotor rating scale for rats and Basso Mouse Scale for mice, which researchers use to study the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury and to evaluate the effects of experimental therapies. Although the standardized data from the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotor rating scale and the Basso Mouse Scale are particularly suited for storage and sharing in databases, systems of data acquisition and repositories are still lacking...
March 2, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Ahmed M Megreya, Markus Bindemann
Identity comparisons of photographs of unfamiliar faces are prone to error but important for applied settings, such as person identification at passport control. Finding techniques to improve face-matching accuracy is therefore an important contemporary research topic. This study investigated whether matching accuracy can be improved by instruction to attend to specific facial features. Experiment 1 showed that instruction to attend to the eyebrows enhanced matching accuracy for optimized same-day same-race face pairs but not for other-race faces...
2018: PloS One
Kateřina Štulíková, Marcel Karabín, Jakub Nešpor, Pavel Dostálek
Hop ( Humulus lupulus L.), as a key ingredient for beer brewing, is also a source of many biologically active molecules. A notable compound, 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN), structurally belonging to the group of prenylated flavonoids, was shown to be a potent phytoestrogen, and thus, became the topic of active research. Here, we overview the pharmacological properties of 8-PN and its therapeutic opportunities. Due to its estrogenic effects, administration of 8-PN represents a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of menopausal and post-menopausal symptoms that occur as a consequence of a progressive decline in hormone levels in women...
March 15, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Mitko Kocarev, Fouzia Khalid, Fatima Khatoon, Roshan Fernando
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuraxial labor analgesia remains the most effective and one of the most commonly utilized methods for pain relief during labor. This narrative review article is a summary of the literature published in 2017 on neuraxial analgesia for labor. RECENT FINDINGS: From a total of 41 identified articles, 13 were included in the review. The topics have been structured into three categories: initiation of neuraxial analgesia, maintenance of neuraxial analgesia, and neuraxial analgesia and obstetric outcomes...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Amy E Vinson, Gail Randel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Peer support, a method of providing for the well being of healthcare providers following adverse or stressful events, is garnering increased attention in light of the increased prevalence and awareness of burnout, depression and suicidality in physicians. In this review, we will summarize the evolution of the 'second victim,' explore methods of support and examine how new regulatory requirements are changing the peer support landscape. RECENT FINDINGS: As peer support and the second victim are investigated more, themes are emerging regarding the natural history of recovery...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Matthew D Rocklage, Derek D Rucker, Loran F Nordgren
Persuasion is a foundational topic within psychology, in which researchers have long investigated effective versus ineffective means to change other people's minds. Yet little is known about how individuals' communications are shaped by the intent to persuade others. This research examined the possibility that people possess a learned association between emotion and persuasion that spontaneously shifts their language toward more emotional appeals, even when such appeals may be suboptimal. We used a novel quantitative linguistic approach in conjunction with controlled laboratory experiments and real-world data...
March 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Sarah P Carter, Laura J Osborne, Keith D Renshaw, Elizabeth S Allen, Benjamin A Loew, Howard J Markman, Scott M Stanley
Long-distance communication has been frequently identified as essential to military couples trying to maintain their relationship during a deployment. Little quantitative research, however, has assessed the types of topics discussed during such communication and how those topics relate to overall relationship satisfaction. The current study draws on a sample of 56 Army couples who provided data through online surveys while the service member was actively deployed. These couples provided information on current marital satisfaction, topics discussed during deployment (problem talk, friendship talk, love talk), and how they communicated via synchronous media (e...
February 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Michael W Deem, Melia Elizabeth Bonomo
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) constitute a multi-functional, constantly evolving immune system in bacteria and archaea cells. A heritable, molecular memory is generated of phage, plasmids, or other mobile genetic elements that attempt to attack the cell. This memory is used to recognize and interfere with subsequent invasions from the same genetic elements. This versatile prokaryotic tool has also been used to advance applications in biotechnology...
March 15, 2018: Physical Biology
Derek A Kreager, Candace Kruttschnitt
Inmate social organization was once a central area within criminology that stalled just as incarceration rates dramatically climbed. In this review, we return to seminal works on this topic before summarizing the changes that mass incarceration wrought in correctional contexts and the potential impacts of these changes for inmate society. We then review the few recent studies that document contemporary inmate social life and call for increased researcher-practitioner partnerships that embed criminologists within carceral settings...
2018: Annu Rev Criminol
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