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Peter F Mahoney, Debra J Carr, David Miller, Michael Teagle
The aim of this work was to simulate an overmatch ballistic event against a head wearing a helmet. The experiments were designed to understand how layers of bone (or synthetic bone), synthetic skin and currently used helmet materials influence the behaviour of full metal jacket mild steel core (FMJ MSC) 7.62 × 39 mm bullets, impacting on targets with a mean velocity of 650 m/s. Bullet behaviour within 10% (by mass) gelatine blocks was assessed by measurements made of the temporary cavity within the blocks using high-speed video and of the permanent cavity by dissecting blocks post firing...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Matthew M Reiner, Wissam E Khoury, Audley Mackel, Duane J Ehredt, Mark C Razzante
Reports of ballistic injures to the extremities typically include those involving gunshot wounds. However, high-pressure washer injuries frequently lead to equally damaging injuries. These injuries should not be overlooked, because they can result in high morbidity and complication rates. Similar to the open fracture protocol, these injuries require prompt debridement and irrigation with administration of antibiotics to avoid limb loss. The present case report identified a delay in the treatment protocol that left limited options for the patient...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Clevin Handschin, Péter Makk, Peter Rickhaus, Romain Maurand, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Klaus Richter, Ming-Hao Liu, Christian Schönenberger
At high magnetic fields the conductance of graphene is governed by the half-integer quantum Hall effect. By local electrostatic gating a p-n junction perpendicular to the graphene edges can be formed, along which quantum Hall channels copropagate. It has been predicted by Tworzidło and co-workers that if only the lowest Landau level is filled on both sides of the junction, the conductance is determined by the valley (isospin) polarization at the edges and by the width of the flake. This effect remained hidden so far due to scattering between the channels copropagating along the p-n interface (equilibration)...
August 17, 2017: Nano Letters
Huaiying Zhang, Chanat Aonbangkhen, Ekaterina V Tarasovetc, Edward R Ballister, David M Chenoweth, Michael A Lampson
Kinetochores act as hubs for multiple activities during cell division, including microtubule interactions and spindle checkpoint signaling. Each kinetochore can act autonomously, and activities change rapidly as proteins are recruited to, or removed from, kinetochores. Understanding this dynamic system requires tools that can manipulate kinetochores on biologically relevant temporal and spatial scales. Optogenetic approaches have the potential to provide temporal and spatial control with molecular specificity...
August 14, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
Kaveh Delfanazari, Reuben K Puddy, Pengcheng Ma, Teng Yi, Moda Cao, Yilmaz Gul, Ian Farrer, David A Ritchie, Hannah J Joyce, Michael J Kelly, Charles G Smith
A superconducting hard gap in hybrid superconductor-semiconductor devices has been found to be necessary to access topological superconductivity that hosts Majorana modes (non-Abelian excitation). This requires the formation of homogeneous and barrier-free interfaces between the superconductor and semiconductor. Here, a new platform is reported for topological superconductivity based on hybrid Nb-In0.75 Ga0.25 As-quantum-well-Nb that results in hard superconducting gap detection in symmetric, planar, and ballistic Josephson junctions...
August 14, 2017: Advanced Materials
Aniket Singha, Bhaskaran Muralidharan
Investigating in detail the physics of energy filtering through a single planar energy barrier in nanostructured thermoelectric generators, we reinforce the non-trivial result that the anticipated enhancement in generated power at a given efficiency via energy filtering is a characteristic of systems dominated by incoherent scattering and is absent in ballistic devices. In such cases, assuming an energy dependent relaxation time τ(E) = kE (r) , we show that there exists a minimum value r min beyond which generation can be enhanced by embedding nanobarriers...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Keitaro Kubo, Tomonobu Ishigaki, Toshihiro Ikebukuro
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of plyometric and isometric training on tendon properties during ramp and ballistic contractions and muscle stiffness under passive and active conditions. Eleven subjects completed 12 weeks (3 days/week) of a unilateral training program for the plantar flexors. They performed plyometric training on one side (PLY) and isometric training on the other side (ISO). Active muscle stiffness in the medial gastrocnemius muscle was calculated according to changes in estimated muscle force and fascicle length during fast stretching after submaximal isometric contractions...
August 2017: Physiological Reports
Errol R Hoffmann, Alan H S Chan, P T Heung
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to measure head rotation movement times in a Fitts' paradigm and to investigate the transition region from ballistic movements to visually controlled movements as the task index of difficulty (ID) increases. BACKGROUND: For head rotation, there are gaps in the knowledge of the effects of movement amplitude and task difficulty around the critical transition region from ballistic movements to visually controlled movements. METHOD: Under the conditions of 11 ID values (from 1...
September 2017: Human Factors
S M Corrêa, D F S Ferreira, M R S Siqueira, J C Reis-Silva, J F P Leal, C A B da Silva, J Del Nero
In the present work we propose a novel treatment to investigate ballistic electron transport under mechanical strain in a 1-D molecular bridge composed of alternating simple and triple bonds (polyyne) connected between two Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube (SWCNT) electrodes. Calculations with the DFT-NEGF methodology were performed in order to analyze this system at low values of mechanical strain (compression and distension) and at equilibrium length in the presence of bias voltages applied along the longitudinal direction...
August 10, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yong Xu, Salah Uddin, Jun Wang, Jiansheng Wu, Jun-Feng Liu
We have studied numerically the penetration depth of quantum spin hall edge states in chiral honeycomb nanoribbons based on the Green's function method. The changing of edge orientation from armchair to zigzag direction decreases the penetration depth drastically. The penetration depth is used to estimate the gap opened for the finite-size effect. Beside this, we also proposed a nonlocal transistor based on the zigzag-like chiral ribbons in which the current is carried at one edge and the manipulation is by the edge magnetization at the other edge...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Anne-Sophie Wozny, Marie-Thérèse Aloy, Gersende Alphonse, Nicolas Magné, Marc Janier, Olivier Tillement, François Lux, Michael Beuve, Claire Rodriguez-Lafrasse
Hadrontherapy presents the major advantage of improving tumor sterilization while sparing surrounding healthy tissues because of the particular ballistic (Bragg peak) of carbon ions. However, its efficacy is still limited in the most resistant cancers, such as grade III-IV head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), in which the association of carbon ions with gadolinium-based nanoparticles (AGuIX®) could be used as a Trojan horse. We report for the first time the radioenhancing effect of AGuIX® when combined with carbon ion irradiation in human tumor cells...
August 2, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Taewung Kim, Dipan Bose, Jon Foster, Varun Bollapragada, Jeff R Crandall, Mark Clauser, Jason R Kerrigan
This study aimed to identify common patterns of pre-ballistic vehicle kinematics and roadway characteristics of real-world rollover crashes. Rollover crashes that were enrolled in the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) between the years 2000 and 2010 were analyzed. A descriptive analysis was performed to understand the characteristics of the pre-ballistic phase. Also, a frequency based pattern analysis was performed using a selection of NASS-CDS variables describing the pre-ballistic vehicle kinematics and roadway characteristics to rank common pathways of rollover crashes...
August 1, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Emanuele Panizon, Roberto Guerra, Erio Tosatti
The textbook thermophoretic force which acts on a body in a fluid is proportional to the local temperature gradient. The same is expected to hold for the macroscopic drift behavior of a diffusive cluster or molecule physisorbed on a solid surface. The question we explore here is whether that is still valid on a 2D membrane such as graphene at short sheet length. By means of a nonequilibrium molecular dynamics study of a test system-a gold nanocluster adsorbed on free-standing graphene clamped between two temperatures [Formula: see text] apart-we find a phoretic force which for submicron sheet lengths is parallel to, but basically independent of, the local gradient magnitude...
August 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Pardhasaradhi Sudharshan Phani, Warren Carl Oliver
Strain rate dependence of indentation hardness has been widely used to study time-dependent plasticity. However, the currently available techniques limit the range of strain rates that can be achieved during indentation testing. Recent advances in electronics have enabled nanomechanical measurements with very low noise levels (sub nanometer) at fast time constants (20 µs) and high data acquisition rates (100 KHz). These capabilities open the doors for a wide range of ultra-fast nanomechanical testing, for instance, indentation testing at very high strain rates...
June 17, 2017: Materials
Yu Zhou, Guoju Li, Qunbo Fan, Yangwei Wang, Haiyang Zheng, Lin Tan, Xuan Xu
The penetration of a 30CrMnMo ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene armor by a high-speed fragment was investigated via experiments and simulations. Analysis of the projectile revealed that the nose (of the projectile) is in the non-equilibrium state at the initial stage of penetration, and the low-speed regions undergo plastic deformation. Subsequently, the nose-tail velocities of the projectile were virtually identical and fluctuated together. In addition, the effective combination of the steel plate and polyethylene (PE) laminate resulted in energy absorption by the PE just before the projectile nose impacts the laminate...
April 12, 2017: Materials
S V Leonov, P V Pinchuk, S V Rasnyuk
The objective of the present study was to obtain the ballistic characteristics of the igniting primer (electrical ignitor) for the 18×45T cartridges of the 'Osa' pistol produced by different manufacturers. The experiments included a series of shots fired from the 'Osa' pistol with the use of cartridges having an energy of 85 Joules ('Novye oruzheinye tekhnologii', Ltd., Sergiev Posad) and 88 Joules ('A+A', Ltd, Tula). The shooting distance varied from the point blank range to 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 cm. The targets were either the femoral soft tissue of the cut-off human lower extremity, white cotton fabric, and the 1-5 cm high gelatin cylinder 25 cm in diameter...
2017: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
Michael L Rossetti, Shawn N Munford, Brandon W Snyder, Shala E Davis, Gavin L Moir
PURPOSE: The mechanical responses to two non-ballistic squat and two ballistic jump squat protocols performed over multiple sets were investigated. One protocol from each of the two non-ballistic and ballistic conditions incorporated a pause between the eccentric and concentric phases of the movements in order to determine the influence of the coupling time on the mechanical variables and post-activation potentiation (PAP). METHODS: Eleven men (age: 21.9 ± 1.8 years; height: 1...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Abhishek Kumar, Yuto Tanaka, Anastasios Grigoriadis, Joannis Grigoriadis, Mats Trulsson, Peter Svensson
The study investigated the dynamic changes in accuracy and precision during a simple oral and digital motor task involving a controlled and a ballistic force. Eighteen healthy participants participated in four experimental sessions during which they performed one hundred trials of targeting a controlled (low/high hold force) and a ballistic force during an oral and a digital motor task (OMT and DMT). Accuracy and precision across one hundred trials were calculated and subjected to segmented linear regression analysis...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
Janghee Lee, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Hu-Jong Lee
Bilayer graphene (BLG) gapped by a vertical electric field represents a valley-symmetry-protected topological insulating state. Emergence of a new topological zero-energy mode has been proposed in BLG at a boundary between regions of inverted band gaps induced by two oppositely polarized vertical electric fields. However, its realisation has been challenged by the enormous difficulty in arranging two pairs of accurately aligned split gates on the top and bottom surfaces of clean BLG. Here we report realisation of the topological zero-energy mode in ballistic BLG, with zero-bias differential conductance close to the ideal value of 4 e (2)/h (e is the electron charge and h is Planck's constant) along a boundary channel between a pair of gate-defined inverted band gaps...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
L Tuchtan, G Gorincour, M Kolopp, P Massiani, G Léonetti, M-D Piercecchi-Marti, C Bartoli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 21, 2017: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging
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