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V M Kovalev, I G Savenko
We study the pseudo-spin density response of a disordered two-dimensional spin-polarized Bose gas to weak alternating magnetic field, assuming that one of the spin states of the doublet is macroscopically occupied and Bose-condensed while the occupation of the other state remains much smaller. We calculate spatial and temporal dispersions of spin susceptibility of the gas taking into account spin-flip processes due to the transverse-longitudinal splitting, considering microcavity exciton polaritons as a testbed...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Sang Yeon Lee, Jinseo Kim, Ayoung Park, Jucheol Park, Hyungtak Seo
The tuning of electrical properties in oxides via surface and interfacial two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) channels is of great interest, as they reveal the extraordinary transition from insulating or semiconducting characteristics to metallic conduction or superconductivity enabled by the ballistic transport of spatially confined electrons. However, realizing the practical aspects of this exotic phenomenon toward short-range ordered and air-stable 2DEG channels remains a great challenge. At the heterointerface formed after deposition of an Al2O3 layer on a nanocrystalline In2O3 layer, a dramatic improvement in carrier conduction equivalent to metallic conduction is obtained...
May 22, 2017: ACS Nano
Roman Anufriev, Aymeric Ramiere, Jeremie Maire, Masahiro Nomura
Unlike classical heat diffusion at macroscale, nanoscale heat conduction can occur without energy dissipation because phonons can ballistically travel in straight lines for hundreds of nanometres. Nevertheless, despite recent experimental evidence of such ballistic phonon transport, control over its directionality, and thus its practical use, remains a challenge, as the directions of individual phonons are chaotic. Here, we show a method to control the directionality of ballistic phonon transport using silicon membranes with arrays of holes...
May 18, 2017: Nature Communications
Jooneon Park, Marc D Porter, Michael C Granger
Magnetic particles are widely used as labels in magnetoresistive (MR) sensors. To use magnetic particles as labels, several important characteristics should be considered, such as superparamagnetism, a high magnetic moment per particle (m), facile surface functionalization and biomolecule immobilization, colloidal stability, and analyte specificity. Described in this paper is the preparation of magnetic labels with a high m using colloidal assemblies of superparamagnetic zinc ferrite nanoparticles (ZFNPs, ~9 nm)...
May 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
V Popkov, G M Schütz
Using Lindblad dynamics we study quantum spin systems with dissipative boundary dynamics that generate a stationary nonequilibrium state with a nonvanishing spin current that is locally conserved except at the boundaries. We demonstrate that with suitably chosen boundary target states one can solve the many-body Lindblad equation exactly in any dimension. As solution we obtain pure states at any finite value of the dissipation strength and any system size. They are characterized by a helical stationary magnetization profile and a ballistic spin current which is independent of system size, even when the quantum spin system is not integrable...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
Günter Rettinger
The 80 Joule or 58 ft-lb injury criterion first mentioned by Rohne was read in his textbook and analyzed in detail. Additional review of early literature to this topic was performed. Neither Rohne nor ballisticians ten years later gave an indication how the 8mkg value validates immobilization and how immobilization was defined. The penetration performance of the bullet M/88 was successfully demonstrated in the 80 Joule status when fired in the 100m/s domain from the Gewehr 88. The bullets were fired into ballistic soap under laboratory firing conditions of today...
May 1, 2017: Forensic Science International
Arthur W Barnard, Alex Hughes, Aaron L Sharpe, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, David Goldhaber-Gordon
Ballistic electrons in solids can have mean free paths far larger than the smallest features patterned by lithography. This has allowed development and study of solid-state electron-optical devices such as beam splitters and quantum point contacts, which have informed our understanding of electron flow and interactions. Recently, high-mobility graphene has emerged as an ideal two-dimensional semimetal that hosts unique chiral electron-optical effects due to its honeycomb crystalline lattice. However, this chiral transport prevents the simple use of electrostatic gates to define electron-optical devices in graphene...
May 15, 2017: Nature Communications
April E Mendoza, Christopher A Wybourn, Anthony G Charles, Andre Campbell, Bruce A Cairns, Margaret M Knudson
BACKGROUND: Patients with penetrating trauma who cannot be stabilized undergo operative intervention without preoperative imaging. In such cases, post-operative imaging may reveal additional injuries not identified during the initial operative exploration. The purpose of this study is to explore the utility of post-operative CT imaging in the setting of penetrating trauma. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of patients with penetrating trauma treated at an urban level 1 trauma center between 2010-2015...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
A Bracq, G Haugou, R Delille, F Lauro, S Roth, O Mauzac
The mechanical characterization of a polymer gel used as reference backing material for blunt ballistic impact interpretation is performed at room temperature from quasi-static (0.002s(-1)) up to high strain rates (1500s(-1)). As very high strain tensile tests (350%) are conducted, an appropriate gripping device and particular strain measurement techniques are used, as well as high strain compressive tests (80%) based on retro lighting imaging. One major challenge is to carry out reliable compressive tests at high strain rates with polymeric split Hopkinson pressure bars using high-speed imaging and specific signal processing software...
April 29, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Alejandro Pérez-Castilla, Slobodan Jaric, Belén Feriche, Paulino Padial, Amador García-Ramos
Recent research has revealed that the force-velocity relationship obtained from the 'two-load method' (i.e., functional movements tested against just 2 external loads) could be a feasible method for the selective assessment of muscle force, velocity, and power-producing capacities. The study investigated the reliability and concurrent validity of the outcomes of the two-load method observed from (1) farther vs. closer data points (20-70%1RM, 30-60%1RM, and 40-50%1RM), and (2) force-biased (50-70%1RM) vs. velocity-biased (20-40%1RM) data points...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Jiarul Midya, Subir K Das
The kinetics of the separation between low and high density phases in a single component Lennard-Jones model is studied via molecular dynamics simulations, at very low temperatures, in the space dimension d=2. For densities close to the vapor branch of the coexistence curve, disconnected nanoscale clusters of the high density phase exhibit essentially ballistic motion. Starting from nearly circular shapes, at the time of nucleation, these clusters grow via sticky collisions, gaining filamentlike nonequilibrium structure at a later time, with a very low fractal dimensionality...
April 21, 2017: Physical Review Letters
G Nanda, J L Aguilera-Servin, P Rakyta, A Kormányos, R Kleiner, D Koelle, K Watanabe, T Taniguchi, L M K Vandersypen, S Goswami
The current-phase relation (CPR) of a Josephson junction (JJ) determines how the supercurrent evolves with the superconducting phase difference across the junction. Knowledge of the CPR is essential in order to understand the response of a JJ to various external parameters. Despite the rising interest in ultraclean encapsulated graphene JJs, the CPR of such junctions remains unknown. Here, we use a fully gate-tunable graphene superconducting quantum intereference device (SQUID) to determine the CPR of ballistic graphene JJs...
May 11, 2017: Nano Letters
Ingmar Visser, Rens Poessé
The linear ballistic accumulator (LBA) model (Brown & Heathcote, , Cogn. Psychol., 57, 153) is increasingly popular in modelling response times from experimental data. An R package, glba, has been developed to fit the LBA model using maximum likelihood estimation which is validated by means of a parameter recovery study. At sufficient sample sizes parameter recovery is good, whereas at smaller sample sizes there can be large bias in parameters. In a second simulation study, two methods for computing parameter standard errors are compared...
May 2017: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Ali Kandemir, Ayberk Ozden, Tahir Cagin, Cem Sevik
Various theoretical and experimental methods are utilized to investigate the thermal conductivity of nanostructured materials; this is a critical parameter to increase performance of thermoelectric devices. Among these methods, equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) is an accurate technique to predict lattice thermal conductivity. In this study, by means of systematic EMD simulations, thermal conductivity of bulk Si-Ge structures (pristine, alloy and superlattice) and their nanostructured one dimensional forms with square and circular cross-section geometries (asymmetric and symmetric) are calculated for different crystallographic directions...
2017: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Sarvnaz Sepehripour, Vikki Coulthard, George Filobbos
Ballistic trauma caused by bullets can be fatal or cause serious injury. Despite the abundance in literature in management of bullet injuries, there is paucity in describing how the operating surgeon should handle the bullet intra operatively. Bullets are important pieces of evidence and evidence preservation becomes the responsibility of the surgeon. We suggest a novel technique in handling bullets intraoperatively which, to the best of our knowledge, has not been published before. We also suggest general recommendations in handling bullets intraoperatively...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
H Ness, L Stella, C D Lorenz, L Kantorovich
We use a generalised Langevin equation scheme to study the thermal transport of low dimensional systems. In this approach, the central classical region is connected to two realistic thermal baths kept at two different temperatures [H. Ness et al., Phys. Rev. B 93, 174303 (2016)]. We consider model Al systems, i.e., one-dimensional atomic chains connected to three-dimensional baths. The thermal transport properties are studied as a function of the chain length N and the temperature difference ΔT between the baths...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Nathan J Evans, Scott D Brown
Evidence accumulation models of decision-making have led to advances in several different areas of psychology. These models provide a way to integrate response time and accuracy data, and to describe performance in terms of latent cognitive processes. Testing important psychological hypotheses using cognitive models requires a method to make inferences about different versions of the models which assume different parameters to cause observed effects. The task of model-based inference using noisy data is difficult, and has proven especially problematic with current model selection methods based on parameter estimation...
April 28, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
David Johnson, Casandra M Cartagena, Frank C Tortella, Jitendra R Dave, Kara E Schmid, Angela M Boutté
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small stable RNAs that regulate translational degradation or repression of genes involved in brain trauma-mediated inflammation. More recently, miRNAs have emerged as potential novel TBI biomarkers. The aim of this study was to determine if a select set of miRNAs (miR-21, Let-7i, miR-124a, miR-146a, miR-107) that were previously associated with TBI models and clinical studies would be dysregulated and correlated to inflammatory cytokine abundance in the rat penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) model...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Xi-Chun M Lu, Ying Cao, Andrea Mountney, Zhilin Liao, Deborah A Shear, Frank C Tortella
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic seizures are a medical problem affecting patients with traumatic brain injury. Yet effective treatment is lacking owing to the limitations of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) applicable to these patients. METHOD: In this study, we evaluated the dose-response efficacy of levetiracetam (12.5-100.0mg/kg) and gabapentin (1.25-25.0mg/kg) administered either individually or in pairs at fixed-dose ratios as a combination in mitigating post-traumatic nonconvulsive seizures induced by severe penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) in rats...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Jared Maxson, David Cesar, Giacomo Calmasini, Alexander Ody, Pietro Musumeci, David Alesini
Ultralow emittance (≤20  nm, normalized) electron beams with 10^{5} electrons per bunch are obtained by tightly focusing an ultrafast (∼100  fs) laser pulse on the cathode of a 1.6 cell radio frequency photoinjector. Taking advantage of the small initial longitudinal emittance, a downstream velocity bunching cavity is used to compress the beam to <10  fs rms bunch length. The measurement is performed using a thick high-voltage deflecting cavity which is shown to be well suited to measure ultrashort durations of bunching beams, provided that the beam reaches a ballistic longitudinal focus at the cavity center...
April 14, 2017: Physical Review Letters
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