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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208482/aging-underdamped-scaled-brownian-motion-ensemble-and-time-averaged-particle-displacements-nonergodicity-and-the-failure-of-the-overdamping-approximation
#1
Hadiseh Safdari, Andrey G Cherstvy, Aleksei V Chechkin, Anna Bodrova, Ralf Metzler
We investigate both analytically and by computer simulations the ensemble- and time-averaged, nonergodic, and aging properties of massive particles diffusing in a medium with a time dependent diffusivity. We call this stochastic diffusion process the (aging) underdamped scaled Brownian motion (UDSBM). We demonstrate how the mean squared displacement (MSD) and the time-averaged MSD of UDSBM are affected by the inertial term in the Langevin equation, both at short, intermediate, and even long diffusion times...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208409/thermal-transport-in-dimerized-harmonic-lattices-exact-solution-crossover-behavior-and-extended-reservoirs
#2
Chih-Chun Chien, Said Kouachi, Kirill A Velizhanin, Yonatan Dubi, Michael Zwolak
We present a method for calculating analytically the thermal conductance of a classical harmonic lattice with both alternating masses and nearest-neighbor couplings when placed between individual Langevin reservoirs at different temperatures. The method utilizes recent advances in analytic diagonalization techniques for certain classes of tridiagonal matrices. It recovers the results from a previous method that was applicable for alternating on-site parameters only, and extends the applicability to realistic systems in which masses and couplings alternate simultaneously...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203631/a-different-kind-of-weapon-focus-simulated-training-with-ballistic-weapons-reduces-change-blindness
#3
J Eric T Taylor, Jessica K Witt, Jay Pratt
Attentional allocation is flexibly altered by action-related priorities. Given that tools - and specifically weapons - can affect attentional allocation, we asked whether training with a weapon or holding a weapon during search would affect change detection. In three experiments, participants searched for changes to agents, shootable objects, or environments in the popular flicker paradigm. Participants trained with a simulated weapon or watched a video from the same training perspective and then searched for changes while holding a weapon or a control object...
2017: Cogn Res Princ Implic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199220/critical-analysis-of-soft-point-contact-andreev-reflection-spectra-between-superconducting-films-and-pressed-in
#4
Pradnya Parab, Prashant Chauhan, H Muthurajan, Sangita Bose
We present a critical analysis of an alternative technique of point contact Andreev reflection (PCAR) spectroscopy used to extract energy resolved information of superconductors which is based on making 'soft-contacts' between superconductors and indium. This technique is not sensitive to mechanical vibrations and hence can be used in a cryogen free platform increasing its accessibility to users having no access to cryogenic liquids. Through our experiments on large number of superconducting films we show that the PCAR spectra below the T c of In show sub-harmonic gap structures consistent with the theory of multiple Andreev reflection (MAR) and a zero bias conductance (ZBC) anomaly associated with the Josephson supercurrent...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198471/machine-learned-approximations-to-density-functional-theory-hamiltonians
#5
Ganesh Hegde, R Chris Bowen
Large scale Density Functional Theory (DFT) based electronic structure calculations are highly time consuming and scale poorly with system size. While semi-empirical approximations to DFT result in a reduction in computational time versus ab initio DFT, creating such approximations involves significant manual intervention and is highly inefficient for high-throughput electronic structure screening calculations. In this letter, we propose the use of machine-learning for prediction of DFT Hamiltonians. Using suitable representations of atomic neighborhoods and Kernel Ridge Regression, we show that an accurate and transferable prediction of DFT Hamiltonians for a variety of material environments can be achieved...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193507/identification-of-organ-tissue-types-and-skin-from-forensic-samples-by-microrna-expression-analysis
#6
Eva Sauer, Antje Extra, Philipp Cachée, Cornelius Courts
The identification of organ tissues in traces recovered from scenes and objects with regard to violent crimes involving serious injuries can be of considerable relevance in forensic investigations. Molecular genetic approaches are provably superior to histological and immunological assays in characterizing organ tissues, and micro-RNAs (miRNAs), due to their cell type specific expression patterns and stability against degradation, emerged as a promising molecular species for forensic analyses, with a range of tried and tested indicative markers...
February 5, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188854/the-effects-of-a-single-bout-of-exercise-on-motor-memory-interference-in-the-trained-and-untrained-hemisphere
#7
Benedikt Lauber, Steffen Franke, Wolfgang Taube, Albert Gollhofer
Increasing evidence suggests that cardiovascular exercise has positive effects on motor memory consolidation. In this study, we investigated whether a single session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) mitigates the effects of practicing an interfering motor task. Furthermore, learning and interference effects were assessed in the actively trained and untrained limb as it is known that unilateral motor learning can cause bilateral adaptations. Subjects performed a ballistic training and then the HIIT either before (HIIT_before) or after (HIIT_after) practicing an interfering accuracy task (AT)...
February 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188471/visualization-of-vascular-injuries-in-extremity-trauma
#8
Kwitae Chong, Chenfanfu Jiang, Daniel Ram, Anand Santhanam, Demetri Terzopoulos, Peyman Benharash, Erik Dutson, Joseph Teran, Jeff D Eldredge
A tandem of particle-based computational methods is adapted to simulate injury and hemorrhage in the human body. In order to ensure anatomical fidelity, a three-dimensional model of a targeted portion of the human body is reconstructed from a dense sequence of CT scans of an anonymized patient. Skin, bone and muscular tissue are distinguished in the imaging data and assigned with their respective material properties. An injury geometry is then generated by simulating the mechanics of a ballistic projectile passing through the anatomical model with the material point method...
February 11, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176992/measuring-the-surface-diffusivity-of-argon-in-nanoporous-carbon
#9
Xi Mi, Yunfeng Shi
Gas diffusion in porous media consists of surface hopping and non-surface ballistic/bulk diffusion. Unfortunately, only the overall diffusivity is usually measured, without being separated into various diffusion modes. Here, we report a numerical method to differentiate contributions from surface diffusion and non-surface diffusion for argon diffusion in nanoporous carbon using molecular dynamics simulations. The key is to truncate the argon trajectories based on the adsorption/desorption state, and thus attribute mass fluxes according to specific mechanisms during diffusion...
February 8, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166187/evaluating-upper-body-strength-and-power-from-a-single-test-the-ballistic-push-up
#10
Ran Wang, Jay R Hoffman, Eliahu Sadres, Sandro Bartolomei, Tyler W D Muddle, David H Fukuda, Jeffrey R Stout
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of the ballistic push-up (BPU) exercise, and to develop a prediction model for both maximal strength (1RM) in the bench press exercise and upper body power. METHODS: Sixty recreationally-active men completed a 1RM bench press and two BPU assessments in three separate testing sessions. Peak and mean force, peak and mean rate of force development, net impulse, peak velocity, flight time, and peak and mean power were determined...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164862/anomalous-transport-effects-on-switching-currents-of-graphene-based-josephson-junctions
#11
Claudio Guarcello, Davide Valenti, Bernardo Spagnolo, Vincenzo Pierro, Giovanni Filatrella
We explore the effect of noise on the ballistic graphene-based small Josephson junctions. We do so in the framework of the resistively and capacitively shunted model including the non-sinusoidal current-phase relation specific for graphene layers partially covered by superconducting electrodes. The noise induced escapes from the metastable states, when the external bias current is ramped, give the switching current distribution, i.e. the probability distribution of the passages to finite voltage from the superconducting state as a function of the bias current, that is the information more promptly available in the experiments...
February 6, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158146/ballistic-targets-micro-motion-and-geometrical-shape-parameters-estimation-from-sparse-decomposition-representation-of-infrared-signatures
#12
Junliang Liu, Shangfeng Chen, Huanzhang Lu, Bendong Zhao
Micro-motion dynamics and geometrical shape are considered to be essential evidence for infrared (IR) ballistic target recognition. However, it is usually hard or even impossible to describe the geometrical shape of an unknown target with a finite number of parameters, which results in a very difficult task to estimate target micro-motion parameters from the IR signals. Considering the shapes of ballistic targets are relatively simple, this paper explores a joint optimization technique to estimate micro-motion and dominant geometrical shape parameters from sparse decomposition representation of IR irradiance intensity signatures...
February 1, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157362/chiral-second-sound-collective-modes-at-the-edge-of-2d-systems-with-a-nontrivial-berry-curvature
#13
Alessandro Principi, Mikhail I Katsnelson, Alex Levchenko
We study the thermal transport in two-dimensional systems with a nontrivial Berry curvature texture. The physical realizations are many; for the sake of definiteness, we consider undoped graphene gapped by the presence of an aligned hexagonal-boron-nitride substrate. The same phenomenology applies, i.e., to surface states of 3D topological insulators in the presence of a uniform magnetization. We find that chiral valley-polarized second-sound collective modes propagate along the edges of the system. The localization length of the edge modes has a topological origin stemming from the anomalous velocity term in the quasiparticle current...
January 20, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157348/conformal-invariance-in-driven-diffusive-systems-at-high-currents
#14
D Karevski, G M Schütz
We consider space-time correlations in driven diffusive systems which undergo a fluctuation into a regime with an atypically large current or dynamical activity. For a single conserved mass we show that the spatiotemporal density correlations in one space dimension are fully determined by conformal field theory with central charge c=1, corresponding to a ballistic universality class with dynamical exponent z=1. The full phase diagram for general atypical behavior exhibits the conformally invariant regime and, for atypically low current or activity, a region of phase separation...
January 20, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155852/electron-transport-in-ultra-thin-films-and-ballistic-electron-emission-microscopy
#15
Y Claveau, S Di Matteo, P L de Andres, F Flores
We have developed a calculation scheme for the elastic electron current in ultra-thin epitaxial heterostructures. Our model uses a Keldysh's non-equilibrium Green's function formalism and a layer-by-layer construction of the epitaxial film. Such an approach is appropriate to describe the current in a ballistic electron emission microscope (BEEM) where the metal base layer is ultra-thin and generalizes a previous one based on a decimation technique appropriated for thick slabs. This formalism allows a full quantum mechanical description of the transmission across the epitaxial heterostructure interface, including multiple scattering via the Dyson equation, which is deemed a crucial ingredient to describe interfaces of ultra-thin layers properly in the future...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154150/structural-and-functional-cortical-connectivity-mediating-cross-education-of-motor-function
#16
Kathy L Ruddy, Alexander Leemans, Daniel G Woolley, Nicole Wenderoth, Richard G Carson
: Cross Education is the process whereby training with one limb leads to subsequent improvement in performance by the opposite untrained limb. We used multimodal neuroimaging in humans to investigate the mediating neural mechanisms by relating quantitative estimates of functional and structural cortical connectivity to individual levels of interlimb transfer. Resting-state (rs)-fMRI and Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) scans were undertaken prior to unilateral ballistic wrist flexion training...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154074/imaging-rotational-dynamics-of-nanoparticles-in-liquid-by-4d-electron-microscopy
#17
Xuewen Fu, Bin Chen, Jau Tang, Mohammed Th Hassan, Ahmed H Zewail
In real time and space, four-dimensional electron microscopy (4D EM) has enabled observation of transient structures and morphologies of inorganic and organic materials. We have extended 4D EM to include liquid cells without the time resolution being limited by the response of the detector. Our approach permits the imaging of the motion and morphological dynamics of a single, same particle on nanometer and ultrashort time scales. As a first application, we studied the rotational dynamics of gold nanoparticles in aqueous solution...
February 3, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153179/virtual-surgical-planning-and-intraoperative-imaging-in-management-of-ballistic-facial-and-mandibular-condylar-injuries
#18
REVIEW
Philipp Kupfer, Allen Cheng, Ashish Patel, Melissa Amundson, Eric J Dierks, R Bryan Bell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Atlas of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150724/ballistic-thermal-transport-in-silicon-nanowires
#19
Jeremie Maire, Roman Anufriev, Masahiro Nomura
We have experimentally investigated the impact of dimensions and temperature on the thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires fabricated using a top-down approach. Both the width and temperature dependences of thermal conductivity agree with those in the existing literature. The length dependence of thermal conductivity exhibits a transition from semi-ballistic thermal phonon transport at 4 K to fully diffusive transport at room temperature. We additionally calculated the phonon dispersion in these structures in the framework of the theory of elasticity and showed that the thermal conductance increases with width...
February 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149763/statistical-control-process-to-compare-and-rank-treatment-plans-in-radiation-oncology-impact-of-heterogeneity-correction-on-treatment-planning-in-lung-cancer
#20
Abdulhamid Chaikh, Jacques Balosso
BACKGROUND: This study proposes a statistical process to compare different treatment plans issued from different irradiation techniques or different treatment phases. This approach aims to provide arguments for discussion about the impact on clinical results of any condition able to significantly alter dosimetric or ballistic related data. METHODS: The principles of the statistical investigation are presented in the framework of a clinical example based on 40 fields of radiotherapy for lung cancers...
December 2016: Translational Lung Cancer Research
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