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Lai Yee Leung, Ying Deng-Bryant, Katherine Cardiff, Megan Winter, Frank Tortella, Deborah Shear
BACKGROUND: Energy metabolic dysfunction is a key determinant of cellular damage following traumatic brain injury and may be worsened by additional insults. This study evaluated the acute/subacute effects of combined hypoxemia (HX) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) on cerebral interstitial levels of glucose, lactate, and pyruvate in a rat model of penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI). METHODS: Rats were randomly assigned into the sham control, PBBI, and combined injury (P + HH) groups...
November 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Jae W Chung, Edward Ofori, Gaurav Misra, Christopher W Hess, David E Vaillancourt
: Accurate motor performance may depend on the scaling of distinct oscillatory activity within the motor cortex and effective neural communication between the motor cortex and other brain areas. Oscillatory activity within the beta-band (13-30Hz) has been suggested to provide distinct functional roles for attention and sensorimotor control, yet it remains unclear how beta-band and other oscillatory activity within and between cortical regions is coordinated to enhance motor performance...
October 13, 2016: NeuroImage
V Sterzik, B P Kneubuehl, M Bohnert, F Riva, M Glardon
In medico-legal literature, only a small number of publications deal with lethal injuries caused by shots with modified guns. This might lead to the conclusion that such cases are extremely rare. However, there are cases again and yet again. During the investigation process, the modified gun is of particular importance since it can show an unusual ballistic behaviour. The present paper reports on a suicide of a 60-year-old man, committed with a modified revolver and a lead bullet. The man had a single gunshot wound with entrance at the right temporal bone...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Lisa Falland-Cheung, J Neil Waddell, Milad Soltanipour Lazarjan, Mark C Jermy, Taylor Winter, Darryl Tong, Paul A Brunton
The suitability of agar/glycerol/water and agar/glycerol mixtures as brain simulants was investigated. Test specimens (n=15) (50x27×37mm) were fabricated for these different mixtures and conditioned to 12°C, 22°C, and 26°C prior to testing. For comparison, fresh deer brain specimens (n=20) were sourced and prepared to the same dimensions as the agar/glycerol(/water) mixtures and conditioned to 12°C and 37°C. High impact tests were carried out with a 0.22-caliber air rifle pellet and a high-speed camera was used to record the projectile as it passed through the specimens, allowing for energy loss and vertical displacement velocity calculation...
September 28, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
N Bergeard, M Hehn, S Mangin, G Lengaigne, F Montaigne, M L M Lalieu, B Koopmans, G Malinowski
Using specially engineered structures to tailor the optical absorption in a metallic multilayer, we analyze the magnetization dynamics of a Co/Pt multilayer buried below a thick Cu layer. We demonstrate that hot electrons alone can very efficiently induce ultrafast demagnetization. Simulations based on hot electron ballistic transport implemented within a microscopic model that accounts for local dissipation of angular momentum nicely reproduce the experimental results, ruling out contribution of pure thermal transport...
September 30, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Gert Ulrich, Mario Parstorfer
PURPOSE: There is limited data on postactivation potentiation (PAP) effects following plyometric conditioning contractions (CC), especially in the upper body. Therefore, the study compared plyometric CC with concentric-eccentric and eccentric CC aiming to improve upper body power performance due to a PAP-effect. METHODS: Sixteen resistance-trained males completed three experimental trials in a randomized order which composed of either a plyometric (PLY), a concentric-eccentric (CON) or an eccentric-only (ECC) CC...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Jason P Stopyra, William P Bozeman, David W Callaway, James Winslow, Henderson D McGinnis, Justin Sempsrott, Lisa Evans-Taylor, Roy L Alson
There is some controversy about whether ballistic protective equipment (body armor) is required for medical responders who may be called to respond to active shooter mass casualty incidents. In this article, we describe the ongoing evolution of recommendations to optimize medical care to injured victims at such an incident. We propose that body armor is not mandatory for medical responders participating in a rapid-response capacity, in keeping with the Hartford Consensus and Arlington Rescue Task Force models...
2016: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Shiteng Zhao, Bimal Kad, Bruce A Remington, Jerry C LaSalvia, Christopher E Wehrenberg, Kristopher D Behler, Marc A Meyers
Solid-state shock-wave propagation is strongly nonequilibrium in nature and hence rate dependent. Using high-power pulsed-laser-driven shock compression, unprecedented high strain rates can be achieved; here we report the directional amorphization in boron carbide polycrystals. At a shock pressure of 45∼50 GPa, multiple planar faults, slightly deviated from maximum shear direction, occur a few hundred nanometers below the shock surface. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals that these planar faults are precursors of directional amorphization...
October 12, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
S M Balaji
Ballistic injuries of oral and maxillofacial region are usually fatal due to close propinquity with the vital structures. The severity of injury depends on the caliber of the weapon used and distance from which the patient is shot. The preliminary care of facial ballistic wounds strictly adheres to the basics of trauma resuscitation. Early and appropriate surgical management has proved to be influential on the final outcome and esthetic result. Treatment of facial gunshot wounds should be planned and carried out carefully to avoid esthetic complications...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
Vitaly V Chaban, Eudes Eterno Fileti
A nanofluid (NF) is composed of a base liquid and suspended nanoparticles (NPs). High-performance NFs exhibit significantly better heat conductivities, as compared to their base liquids. In the present work, we applied all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to characterize diffusive and ballistic energy transfer mechanisms within nanodiamonds (NDs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and N-butylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid (IL). We showed that heat transfer within both NDs and CNTs is orders of magnitude faster than that in the surrounding IL, whereas diffusion of all particles in the considered NF is similar...
September 29, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Menyoung Lee, John R Wallbank, Patrick Gallagher, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Vladimir I Fal'ko, David Goldhaber-Gordon
Rational design of long-period artificial lattices yields effects unavailable in simple solids. The moiré pattern in highly aligned graphene/hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) heterostructures is a lateral superlattice with high electron mobility and an unusual electronic dispersion whose miniband edges and saddle points can be reached by electrostatic gating. We investigated the dynamics of electrons in moiré minibands by measuring ballistic transport between adjacent local contacts in a magnetic field, known as the transverse electron focusing effect...
September 30, 2016: Science
Shaowen Chen, Zheng Han, Mirza M Elahi, K M Masum Habib, Lei Wang, Bo Wen, Yuanda Gao, Takashi Taniguchi, Kenji Watanabe, James Hone, Avik W Ghosh, Cory R Dean
Electrons transmitted across a ballistic semiconductor junction are expected to undergo refraction, analogous to light rays across an optical boundary. In graphene, the linear dispersion and zero-gap band structure admit highly transparent p-n junctions by simple electrostatic gating. Here, we employ transverse magnetic focusing to probe the propagation of carriers across an electrostatically defined graphene junction. We find agreement with the predicted Snell's law for electrons, including the observation of both positive and negative refraction...
September 30, 2016: Science
Joseph Dufouleur, Louis Veyrat, Bastien Dassonneville, Christian Nowka, Silke Hampel, Pavel Leksin, Barbara Eichler, Oliver G Schmidt, Bernd Buechner, Romain Giraud
The transport length ltr and the mean free path le are determined for bulk and surface states in a Bi2Se3 nanoribbon by quantum transport and transconductance measurements. We show that the anisotropic scattering of spin-helical Dirac fermions results in a strong enhancement of ltr (≈ 200 nm) and of the related mobility μtr (≈ 4000 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1)), which confirms theoretical predictions. Despite strong disorder, the long-range nature of the scattering potential gives a large ratio ltr/le ≈ 8, likely limited by bulk/surface coupling...
October 6, 2016: Nano Letters
Minkyung Jung, Peter Rickhaus, Simon Zihlmann, Peter Makk, Christian Schönenberger
We explore the potential of bilayer graphene as cryogenic microwave photodetector by studying the microwave absorption in fully suspended clean bilayer graphene p-n junctions in the frequency range of 1 - 5 GHz at a temperature of 8 K. We observe a distinct photocurrent signal if the device is gated into the p-n regime, while there is almost no signal for unipolar doping in either the n-n or p-p regimes. Most surprisingly, the photocurrent strongly peaks when one side of the junction is gated to the Dirac point (charge-neutrality point CNP), while the other remains in a highly doped state...
October 5, 2016: Nano Letters
Florian Monjo, Nicolas Forestier
Muscle fatigue modifies the gain between motor command magnitude and the mechanical muscular response. In other words, post-fatigue, central drives to the muscles must increase to maintain a particular submaximum mechanical output. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that this modified gain can be predicted by the central nervous system (CNS) during discrete ballistic movements. In two separate experiments, subjects were required to perform shoulder flexions in standing and sitting positions at submaximum target peak accelerations...
September 30, 2016: Neuroscience
Benjamin Lee, Stuart McGill
Ballistic limb motion is enabled by proximal "core" stiffness. However, controversy exists regarding the best method of training this characteristic. This study sought to determine the most effective core training method to enhance distal limb athleticism. A total of 12 participants (24 ± 3 years, 1.8 ± 0.05 m, 76.8 ± 9.7 kg) consisting of Muay Thai athletes performed a core training protocol (Isometric vs. Dynamic, with Control) for 6 weeks, using a repeated measures design to assess performance (peak strike velocity, peak impact force, muscular activation) in various strikes...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Surya Gayet, Leendert van Maanen, Micha Heilbron, Chris L E Paffen, Stefan Van der Stigchel
The content of visual working memory (VWM) affects the processing of concurrent visual input. Recently, it has been demonstrated that stimuli are released from interocular suppression faster when they match rather than mismatch a color that is memorized for subsequent recall. In order to investigate the nature of the interaction between visual representations elicited by VWM and visual representations elicited by retinal input, we modeled the perceptual processes leading up to this difference in suppression durations...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
Guy Satat, Barmak Heshmat, Dan Raviv, Ramesh Raskar
Imaging through thick highly scattering media (sample thickness ≫ mean free path) can realize broad applications in biomedical and industrial imaging as well as remote sensing. Here we propose a computational "All Photons Imaging" (API) framework that utilizes time-resolved measurement for imaging through thick volumetric scattering by using both early arrived (non-scattered) and diffused photons. As opposed to other methods which aim to lock on specific photons (coherent, ballistic, acoustically modulated, etc...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
K R Rusimova, N Bannister, P Harrison, D Lock, S Crampin, R E Palmer, P A Sloan
The tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope is an atomic-scale source of electrons and holes. As the injected charge spreads out, it can induce adsorbed molecules to react. By comparing large-scale 'before' and 'after' images of an adsorbate covered surface, the spatial extent of the nonlocal manipulation is revealed. Here, we measure the nonlocal manipulation of toluene molecules on the Si(111)-7 × 7 surface at room temperature. Both the range and probability of nonlocal manipulation have a voltage dependence...
2016: Nature Communications
Koffi Benjamin Manou, Ndoula Espérance Kounkou, Romaric Toe, Awo Dorcas Akadje, Cisse Ali, Amonso Daniel Alloh, Manse Béatrice Nandjui
OBJECTIVE: The quality of the residual limb of the amputations in the consequences of a ballistic trauma often was compromised and limits the success of a good equipment for a satisfactory locomotive function. The objective of the study is to describe the various anomalies of the residual limb and their difficulty of equipment of the traumatic amputations by bal PATIENTS AND METHODS: A descriptive retrospective study concerned patients amputated of lower limbs in the consequences of a ballistic trauma during the military crisis in Ivory Coast from 2010 to 2012 and dealt in the center of equipment "Vivre Debout" in the Teacher Hospital of Yopougon...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
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