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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635151/propagation-of-gaussian-and-laguerre-gaussian-vortex-beams-through-mouse-brain-tissue
#1
Lingyan Shi, Lukas Lindwasser, Wubao Wang, Robert Alfano, Adrián Rodríguez-Contreras
Light transmission of Gaussian (G) and Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) vortex beams in mouse brain tissue is investigated. Transmittance is measured with different orbital angular momentums (OAM) at various tissue thicknesses. In both ballistic and diffusive regions, transmittances of G and LG beams show no significant difference. The transition point from ballistic to diffusive region for the mouse brain tissue is determined at about 480 μm. The observed transmittances of the G and LG beams show independence on OAM modes, which may be attributed to poorly understood interference effects from brain tissue...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632056/reliability-of-power-and-velocity-variables-collected-during-the-traditional-and-ballistic-bench-press-exercise
#2
Amador García-Ramos, G Gregory Haff, Paulino Padial, Belén Feriche
This study aimed to examine the reliability of different power and velocity variables during the Smith machine bench press (BP) and bench press throw (BPT) exercises. Twenty-two healthy men conducted four testing sessions after a preliminary BP one-repetition maximum (1RM) test. In a counterbalanced order, participants performed two sessions of BP in one week and two sessions of BPT in another week. Mean propulsive power, peak power, mean propulsive velocity, and peak velocity at each tenth percentile (20-70% of 1RM) were recorded by a linear transducer...
February 28, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628600/alterations-in-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-protein-levels-after-penetrating-ballistic-like-brain-injury-in-rats
#3
Sindhu K Madathil, Ying Deng-Bryant, Bernard S Wilfred, Lai Yee Leung, Janice S Gilsdorf, Deborah A Shear
BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are essential for neuroplasticity and neuronal survival. Despite the importance of these endogenous factors in mediating posttraumatic recovery, little is known about their response after penetrating type traumatic brain injury. The objective of this study was to quantify the expression levels BDNF and IGF-1, two well-known neuroplasticity mediators, after penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI)...
July 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623269/theory-of-inverse-edelstein-effect-of-the-surface-states-of-a-topological-insulator
#4
H Geng, W Luo, W Y Deng, L Sheng, R Shen, D Y Xing
The surface states of three-dimensional topological insulators possess the unique property of spin-momentum interlocking. This property gives rise to the interesting inverse Edelstein effect (IEE), in which an applied spin bias μ is converted to a measurable charge voltage difference V. We develop a semiclassical theory for the IEE of the surface states of Bi2Se3 thin films, which is applicable from the ballistic regime to diffusive regime. We find that the efficiency of the spin-charge conversion, defined as γ = V/μ, exhibits a universal dependence on the ratio between sample size and electron mean free path...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618554/memory-induced-diffusive-superdiffusive-transition-ensemble-and-time-averaged-observables
#5
Adrián A Budini
The ensemble properties and time-averaged observables of a memory-induced diffusive-superdiffusive transition are studied. The model consists in a random walker whose transitions in a given direction depend on a weighted linear combination of the number of both right and left previous transitions. The diffusion process is nonstationary, and its probability develops the phenomenon of aging. Depending on the characteristic memory parameters, the ensemble behavior may be normal, superdiffusive, or ballistic. In contrast, the time-averaged mean squared displacement is equal to that of a normal undriven random walk, which renders the process nonergodic...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617339/development-of-a-stereovision-based-technique-to-measure-the-spread-patterns-of-granular-fertilizer-spreaders
#6
Simon R Cool, Jan G Pieters, Dejan Seatovic, Koen C Mertens, David Nuyttens, Tim C Van De Gucht, Jürgen Vangeyte
Centrifugal fertilizer spreaders are by far the most commonly used granular fertilizer spreader type in Europe. Their spread pattern however is error-prone, potentially leading to an undesired distribution of particles in the field and losses out of the field, which is often caused by poor calibration of the spreader for the specific fertilizer used. Due to the large environmental impact of fertilizer use, it is important to optimize the spreading process and minimize these errors. Spreader calibrations can be performed by using collection trays to determine the (field) spread pattern, but this is very time-consuming and expensive for the farmer and hence not common practice...
June 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616691/the-influence-of-the-counterfort-while-ballistic-testing-using-gelatine-blocks
#7
C Schyma, N Herr, J Brünig, E Brenčičová, R Müller
In wound ballistic research, gelatine blocks of various dimensions are used depending on the simulated anatomical region. When relatively small blocks are used as substitute for a head, problems with regard to the expansion of the gelatine block could arise. The study was conducted to analyse the influence of the material the gelatine block is placed upon. Thirty-six shots were performed on 12 cm gelatine cubes doped with thin foil bags containing acrylic paint. Eighteen blocks each were placed on a rigid table or on a synthetic sponge of 5 cm height...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614337/dual-axis-optical-coherence-tomography-for-deep-tissue-imaging
#8
Yang Zhao, Will J Eldridge, Jason R Maher, Sanghoon Kim, Michael Crose, Mohamed Ibrahim, Howard Levinson, Adam Wax
We have developed dual-axis optical coherence tomography (DA-OCT) which enables deep tissue imaging by using a novel off-axis illumination/detection configuration. DA-OCT offers a 100-fold speed increase compared with its predecessor, multispectral multiple-scattering low coherence interferometry (ms2/LCI), by using a new beam scanning mechanism based on a microelectro-mechanical system (MEMS) mirror. The data acquisition scheme was altered to take advantage of this scanning speed, producing tomographic images at a rate of 4 frames (B-scans) per second...
June 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608192/stone-technology-intracorporeal-lithotripters
#9
Kymora B Scotland, Tadeusz Kroczak, Kenneth T Pace, Ben H Chew
PURPOSE: Intracorporeal lithotripsy is becoming the most commonly used surgical method of stone treatment in Urology. The five major types of intracorporeal lithotripters are ultrasonic, ballistic, and combination lithotripters as well as laser and electrohydraulic lithotripters. The advantages and disadvantages of choosing each of these treatment modalities are reviewed. METHODS: Extensive review of literature was performed to identify the types of intracorporeal lithotripters...
June 12, 2017: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605252/a-simple-method-for-assessing-upper-limb-force-velocity-profile-in-bench-press
#10
Abderrahmane Rahmani, Pierre Samozino, Jean-Benoit Morin, Baptiste Morel
PURPOSE: 1) to analyze the reliability and validity of a field computation method based on easy-to-measure data to assess the mean force (F̄) and velocity (v̄) produced during a ballistic bench press movement; and 2) to verify that the force-velocity profile (F-v) obtained with multiple loaded trials is accurately described. METHODS: Twelve participants performed ballistic bench press against various lifted mass from 30 to 70% of their body mass. For each trial, F̄ and v̄ were determined from an accelerometer (sampling rate: 500Hz; reference method) and a simple computation method based on upper limb mass, barbell flight height and push-off distance...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598653/macroscopic-two-dimensional-polariton-condensates
#11
Dario Ballarini, Davide Caputo, Carlos Sánchez Muñoz, Milena De Giorgi, Lorenzo Dominici, Marzena H Szymańska, Kenneth West, Loren N Pfeiffer, Giuseppe Gigli, Fabrice P Laussy, Daniele Sanvitto
We report a record-size, two-dimensional polariton condensate of a fraction of a millimeter radius free from the presence of an exciton reservoir. This macroscopically occupied state is formed by the ballistically expanding polariton flow that relaxes and condenses over a large area outside of the excitation spot. The density of this trap-free condensate is <1  polariton/μm^{2}, reducing the phase noise induced by the interaction energy. Moreover, the backflow effect, recently predicted for the nonparabolic polariton dispersion, is observed here for the first time in the fast-expanding wave packet...
May 26, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598421/a-two-dimensional-dirac-fermion-microscope
#12
Peter Bøggild, José M Caridad, Christoph Stampfer, Gaetano Calogero, Nick Rübner Papior, Mads Brandbyge
The electron microscope has been a powerful, highly versatile workhorse in the fields of material and surface science, micro and nanotechnology, biology and geology, for nearly 80 years. The advent of two-dimensional materials opens new possibilities for realizing an analogy to electron microscopy in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons...
June 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586506/second-trimester-uterine-model-for-teaching-ultrasound-guided-obstetric-procedures
#13
Susan E Dalton, Anthony R Gregg, Monique Ho
The declining number of ultrasound-guided obstetric procedures in clinical practice mandates a shift toward simulation-based teaching. Current uterine simulation aids are animal tissue-sourced or expensive, and improvement is needed. We describe a low-cost reusable uterine model with "fetus," cord and skin, constructed from synthetic gel and silicone rubber. Ultrasound appearance and tactile feedback approximate clinical use, and all parts of the model are portable, durable, and shelf-stable. Those made of ballistics gel can be recycled numerous times without noticeable effect...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582392/mechanical-characterization-of-human-brain-tumors-from-patients-and-comparison-to-potential-surgical-phantoms
#14
Daniel C Stewart, Andrés Rubiano, Kyle Dyson, Chelsey S Simmons
While mechanical properties of the brain have been investigated thoroughly, the mechanical properties of human brain tumors rarely have been directly quantified due to the complexities of acquiring human tissue. Quantifying the mechanical properties of brain tumors is a necessary prerequisite, though, to identify appropriate materials for surgical tool testing and to define target parameters for cell biology and tissue engineering applications. Since characterization methods vary widely for soft biological and synthetic materials, here, we have developed a characterization method compatible with abnormally shaped human brain tumors, mouse tumors, animal tissue and common hydrogels, which enables direct comparison among samples...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567155/ballistic-trauma-of-limbs
#15
Léopold Lamah, Damany Keita, Ibrahima Marie Camara, Mohamed Lamine Bah, Sidimé Sory, Mamadou Moustapha Diallo
The objective of our study was to report the management and follow-up of a particular case of ballistic trauma and to do the literature review. OBSERVATION: A 35-year-old patient, a trader who was the victim of a firearm accident under not very clear circumstances. He was admitted to the emergency department after 3 hours. Clinically, the patient had significant bleeding in the arm and was in a state of clouding of consciousness. We could notice on the right arm, a posterior large transfixing wound of 1 cm and a 6 cm one on the antero-internal side...
2017: Open Orthopaedics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561024/giant-electron-hole-transport-asymmetry-in-ultra-short-quantum-transistors
#16
A C McRae, V Tayari, J M Porter, A R Champagne
Making use of bipolar transport in single-wall carbon nanotube quantum transistors would permit a single device to operate as both a quantum dot and a ballistic conductor or as two quantum dots with different charging energies. Here we report ultra-clean 10 to 100 nm scale suspended nanotube transistors with a large electron-hole transport asymmetry. The devices consist of naked nanotube channels contacted with sections of tube under annealed gold. The annealed gold acts as an n-doping top gate, allowing coherent quantum transport, and can create nanometre-sharp barriers...
May 31, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558314/flexion-synergy-overshadows-flexor-spasticity-during-reaching-in-chronic-moderate-to-severe-hemiparetic-stroke
#17
Michael D Ellis, Ingrid Schut, Julius P A Dewald
OBJECTIVE: Pharmaceutical intervention targets arm flexor spasticity with an often-unsuccessful goal of improving function. Flexion synergy is a related motor impairment that may be inadvertently neglected. Here, flexor spasticity and flexion synergy are disentangled to determine their contributions to reaching dysfunction. METHODS: Twenty-six individuals participated. A robotic device systematically modulated shoulder abduction loading during ballistic reaching...
July 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546049/gunshot-induced-injuries-in-orthopaedic-trauma-research-a-bibliometric-analysis-of-the-most-influential-literature
#18
REVIEW
M Held, E Engelmann, R Dunn, S S Ahmad, M Laubscher, M J B Keel, S Maqungo, S Hoppe
A growing burden of gunshot injuries demands evidence-based ballistic trauma management. No comprehensive systematic overview of the current knowledge is available to date. This study aims to identify and analyze the most influential publications in the field of orthopedic ballistic trauma research. All databases available in the Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge were searched to conduct this bibliometrical study. The most cited orthopedic ballistic trauma articles published between 1950 and 2015 were identified by use of a multi-step approach...
May 22, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543610/metallic-nanoparticles-irradiated-by-low-energy-protons-for-radiation-therapy-are-there-significant-physical-effects-to-enhance-the-dose-delivery
#19
Anne-Catherine Heuskin, Bernard Gallez, Olivier Feron, Philippe Martinive, Carine Michiels, Stéphane Lucas
PURPOSE: To identify which physical properties of nanoparticles are correlated to the survival fraction of cells exposed in vitro to low energy protons in combination with nanoparticles. METHODS: The Geant4 simulation toolkit (version 10.3) was used to model nanoparticles of different sizes (5 to 50 nm) and materials (Ti, Zr, Hf, Ta, Au, Pt), with or without an organic capping ensuring biocompatibility and to irradiate them with 1.3 or 4 MeV protons and 5.3 MeV alpha particles...
May 23, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539144/cirrus-airframe-parachute-system-and-odds-of-a-fatal-accident-in-cirrus-aircraft-crashes
#20
Mustafa Alaziz, Adrienne Stolfi, Dean M Olson
INTRODUCTION: General aviation (GA) accidents have continued to demonstrate high fatality rates. Recently, ballistic parachute recovery systems (BPRS) have been introduced as a safety feature in some GA aircraft. This study evaluates the effectiveness and associated factors of the Cirrus Airframe Parachute System (CAPS) at reducing the odds of a fatal accident in Cirrus aircraft crashes. METHODS: Publicly available Cirrus aircraft crash reports were obtained from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database for the period of January 1, 2001-December 31, 2016...
June 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
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