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Jordan Muscatello, Enrique Chacón, Pedro Tarazona, Fernando Bresme
The interfacial thermal resistance determines condensation-evaporation processes and thermal transport across material-fluid interfaces. Despite its importance in transport processes, the interfacial structure responsible for the thermal resistance is still unknown. By combining nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations and interfacial analyses that remove the interfacial thermal fluctuations we show that the thermal resistance of liquid-vapor interfaces is connected to a low density fluid layer that is adsorbed at the liquid surface...
July 28, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Edward R Ballister, Jessica Rodgers, Franck Martial, Robert J Lucas
BACKGROUND: Animal opsins are light-sensitive G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that enable optogenetic control over the major heterotrimeric G-protein signaling pathways in animal cells. As such, opsins have potential applications in both biomedical research and therapy. Selecting the opsin with the best balance of activity and selectivity for a given application requires knowing their ability to couple to a full range of relevant Gα subunits. We present the GsX assay, a set of tools based on chimeric Gs subunits that transduce coupling of opsins to diverse G proteins into increases in cAMP levels,  measured with a real-time reporter in living cells...
January 16, 2018: BMC Biology
Önder Gül, Hao Zhang, Jouri D S Bommer, Michiel W A de Moor, Diana Car, Sébastien R Plissard, Erik P A M Bakkers, Attila Geresdi, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Leo P Kouwenhoven
Majorana modes are zero-energy excitations of a topological superconductor that exhibit non-Abelian statistics1-3. Following proposals for their detection in a semiconductor nanowire coupled to an s-wave superconductor4,5, several tunnelling experiments reported characteristic Majorana signatures6-11. Reducing disorder has been a prime challenge for these experiments because disorder can mimic the zero-energy signatures of Majoranas12-16, and renders the topological properties inaccessible17-20. Here, we show characteristic Majorana signatures in InSb nanowire devices exhibiting clear ballistic transport properties...
January 15, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
K A Matveev, A V Andreev
We study sound in Galilean invariant systems of one-dimensional fermions. At low temperatures, we find a broad range of frequencies in which in addition to the waves of density there is a second sound corresponding to the ballistic propagation of heat in the system. The damping of the second sound mode is weak, provided the frequency is large compared to a relaxation rate that is exponentially small at low temperatures. At lower frequencies, the second sound mode is damped, and the propagation of heat is diffusive...
December 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Hasan Buyukaslan, Umut Gulacti, Mehmet Tahir Gökdemir, Ramazan Giden, Hakim Celik, Özcan Erel, Erman Mustafa Dörterler
BACKGROUND: Gunshot injuries result in serious traumatic tissue damage due to high velocity of the bullet, deep penetration, and ballistic effect. Trauma is known to be related with oxidative stress. Serum thiol levels and disulphide/thiol homeostasis are novel oxidative stress biomarkers. In this study, we aimed to investigate serum thiol levels and disulphide/thiol homeostasis in injury patterns of patients admitted to the emergency department with a gunshot injury. METHOD: A total of 128 participants were included in the study...
January 11, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Ning Li, Lei Wu, Cunlong Yu, Haoyu Dai, Ting Wang, Zhichao Dong, Lei Jiang
The ballistic ejection of liquid drops by electrostatic manipulating has both fundamental and practical implications, from raindrops in thunderclouds to self-cleaning, anti-icing, condensation, and heat transfer enhancements. In this paper, the ballistic jumping behavior of liquid drops from a superhydrophobic surface is investigated. Powered by the repulsion of the same kind of charges, water drops can jump from the surface. The electrostatic acting time for the jumping of a microliter supercooled drop only takes several milliseconds, even shorter than the time for icing...
January 9, 2018: Advanced Materials
Wanting Xie, Sirimuvva Tadepalli, Sang Hyun Park, Amir Kazemi-Moridani, Qisheng Jiang, Srikanth Singamaneni, Jae-Hwang Lee
Biological materials have the ability to withstand mechanical forces due to their unique multilevel hierarchical structure. Here, we fabricated a nacre-mimetic nanocomposite comprised of silk fibroin and graphene oxide that exhibits hybridized dynamic responses arising from alternating high-contrast mechanical properties of the components at the nanoscale. Dynamic mechanical behavior of these nanocomposites is assessed through a micro-scale ballistic characterization using a 7.6 µm diameter silica sphere moving at a speed of approximately 400 m/s...
January 9, 2018: Nano Letters
Deepu George, Harriet Lloyd, Ronald H Silverman, Parag V Chitnis
A frequency-domain, non-contact approach to photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) that employs amplitude-modulated (0.1-1 MHz) laser for excitation (638-nm pump) in conjunction with a two-wave mixing interferometer (532-nm probe) for non-contact detection of photoacoustic waves at the specimen surface is presented. A lock-in amplifier is employed to detect the photoacoustic signal. Illustrative images of tissue-mimicking phantoms, red-blood cells, and retinal vasculature are presented. Single-frequency modulation of the pump beam directly provides an image that is equivalent to the two-dimensional projection of the image volume...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
John Vorrasi, Ryan Calvi, Mengxi Lv, Richard Hammond
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to estimate the frequency of retained ballistic fragment (RBF) removal and to identify factors associated with an increased risk for RBF removal. To date, there are no studies focused on identifying factors associated with removal of RBFs localized to the maxillofacial region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a retrospective cohort study design, the authors enrolled a sample composed of patients with RBFs localized to the maxillofacial region...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Lachlan P James, G Gregory Haff, Vincent G Kelly, Mark Connick, Ben Hoffman, Emma M Beckman
The purpose of this investigation was to determine if the magnitude of adaptation to integrated ballistic training is influenced by initial strength level. Such information is needed to inform resistance training guidelines for both higher- and lower-level athlete populations. To this end, two groups of distinctly different strength levels (stronger: one-repetition-maximum (1RM) squat = 2.01 ± 0.15 kg. BM-1 ; weaker: 1.20 ± 0.20 kg. BM-1 ) completed 10 weeks of resistance training incorporating weightlifting derivatives, plyometric actions and ballistic exercises...
December 27, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Susu Liu, C Xu, Y Wen, G Li, J Zhou
INTRODUCTION: Penetrating wounds from explosively propelled fragments and bullets are the most common causes of combat injury. There is a requirement to assess the potential effectiveness of bullets penetrating human tissues in order to optimise preventive measures and wound trauma management. METHODS: An advanced voxel model based on the Chinese Visible Human data was built. A digital human vulnerability model was established in combination with wound reconstruction and vulnerability assessment rules, in which wound penetration profiles were obtained by recreating the penetration of projectiles into ballistic gelatin...
December 25, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Kaifeng Zhang, Yaping Luo
To investigate if and how the breech face mark and firing pin impression change over repeated firings, we used an automated ballistic identification system Evofinder® to study cartridge cases fired from five Chinese Norinco QSZ-92 9×19mm pistols. Each pistol fired 3070 consecutive shots. The first 20 cartridge cases were all introduced into the system. From the 21st until the 3070th shot, every ten cartridge cases were collected and one random sample of each group was introduced as the 30th, 40th, …, 3070th round...
December 15, 2017: Forensic Science International
F von Lübken, G Achatz, B Friemert, M Mauser, A Franke, E Kollig, D Bieler
Due to recent rampage and terror attacks in Europe, gunshot wounds have become a focus of attention even though they are still rare in Europe. Approximately 50% of gunshot wounds affect the extremities and to understand the sequelae, a basic knowledge of wound ballistics is indispensable. The energy transmitted from the bullet to the tissue is responsible for the severity of the injury and is dependent on the type of weapon and ammunition. A differentiation is made between low-energy injuries caused, e.g...
December 19, 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
Sheng Li, Minal Bhadane, Fan Gao, Ping Zhou
Objective: Startling acoustic stimulation (SAS), via activation of reticulospinal (RS) pathways, has shown to increase muscle strength in healthy subjects. We hypothesized that, given RS hyperexcitability in stroke survivors, SAS could increase muscle strength in stroke survivors. The objective was to quantify the effect of SAS on maximal and sub-maximal voluntary elbow flexion on the contralesional (impaired) side in stroke survivors as compared to ipsilesional (non-impaired) side and healthy controls...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
Diulian Muniz Medeiros, Tamara Fenner Martini
The calf muscles are one of the muscle groups that have the most need for adequate flexibility since they are deeply related to normal lower limb function. When the goal is to increase flexibility, the most commonly used technique is stretching. However, it remains unknown which stretching technique and parameters are the most effective to increase flexibility. Hence, the aim of the current review was to investigate the influence of chronic stretching on ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (DFROM) of healthy individuals...
October 27, 2017: Foot
Hubert Maier, Johannes Ziegler, Ralf Fischer, Dmitriy Kozlov, Ze Don Kvon, Nikolay Mikhailov, Sergey A Dvoretsky, Dieter Weiss
Transport in topological matter has shown a variety of novel phenomena over the past decade. Although numerous transport studies have been conducted on three-dimensional topological insulators (TIs), study of ballistic motion and thus exploration of potential landscapes on a hundred nanometer scale is for the prevalent TI materials almost impossible due to their low carrier mobility. Therefore, it is unknown whether helical Dirac electrons in TIs, bound to interfaces between topologically distinct materials, can be manipulated on the nanometer scale by local gates or locally etched regions...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
H J Suominen, M Kjaergaard, A R Hamilton, J Shabani, C J Palmstrøm, C M Marcus, F Nichele
We investigate zero-bias conductance peaks that arise from coalescing subgap Andreev states, consistent with emerging Majorana zero modes, in hybrid semiconductor-superconductor wires defined in a two-dimensional InAs/Al heterostructure using top-down lithography and gating. The measurements indicate a hard superconducting gap, ballistic tunneling contact, and in-plane critical fields up to 3 T. Top-down lithography allows complex geometries, branched structures, and straightforward scaling to multicomponent devices compared to structures made from assembled nanowires...
October 27, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Delyle T Polet, Ryan T Schroeder, John E A Bertram
In gravity below Earth normal, a person should be able to take higher leaps in running. We asked ten subjects to run on a treadmill in five levels of simulated reduced gravity and optically tracked center of mass kinematics. Subjects consistently reduced ballistic height compared to running in normal gravity. We explain this trend by considering the vertical takeoff velocity (defined as maximum vertical velocity). Energetically optimal gaits should balance energetic costs of ground-contact collisions (favouring lower takeoff velocity), and step frequency penalties such as leg swing work (favouring higher takeoff velocity, but less so in reduced gravity)...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
David Gutstein, David Lynall, Selvakumar V Nair, Igor Savelyev, Marina Blumin, Daniele Ercolani, Harry E Ruda
The conductance of semiconductor nanowires is strongly dependent on their electrostatic history because of the overwhelming influence of charged surface and interface states on electron confinement and scattering. We show that InAs nanowire field-effect transistor devices can be conditioned to suppress resonances that obscure quantized conduction thereby revealing as many as six sub-bands in the conductance spectra as the Fermi-level is swept across the sub-band energies. The energy level spectra extracted from conductance, coupled with detailed modelling shows the significance of the interface state charge distribution revealing the Coulomb landscape of the nanowire device...
December 7, 2017: Nano Letters
Hao Ma, Zhiting Tian
Tapered bottlebrush polymers have novel nanoscale polymer architecture. Using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we show that these polymers have the unique ability to generate thermal rectification in a single polymer molecule and offer an exceptional platform for unveiling different heat conduction regimes. In sharp contrast to all other reported asymmetric nanostructures, we observed that the heat current from the wide end to the narrow end in tapered bottlebrush polymers is smaller than that in the opposite direction...
December 7, 2017: Nano Letters
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