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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784654/preliminary-study-into-the-skeletal-injuries-sustained-to-the-spine-from-posterior-non-perforating-ballistic-impacts-into-body-armour
#1
Rosalind M Jennings, C Malbon, F Brock, S E Harrisson, D J Carr
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this paper was to examine any injuries from posterior behind armour blunt trauma ballistic impacts directly over the spine onto typical hard body armours. Due to the spine being close to the surface of the skin and a lack of any previous specific research into this topic, this study was designed to gain preliminary insight into the mechanisms involved and injuries caused. Pigs were chosen as the closest representative of human spine, tissue and skin, although their spines are deeper under the surface than humans...
May 21, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781118/ballistic-tongue-projection-in-a-miniaturized-salamander
#2
Stephen M Deban, Segall V Bloom
Miniaturization of body size is often accompanied by peculiarities in morphology that can have functional consequences. We examined the feeding behavior and morphology of the miniaturized plethodontid salamander Thorius, one of the smallest vertebrates, to determine if its performance and biomechanics differ from those of its larger relatives. High-speed imaging and dynamics analysis of feeding at a range of temperatures show that tongue projection in Thorius macdougalli is ballistic and achieves accelerations of up to 600 G with low thermal sensitivity, indicating that tongue projection is powered by an elastic-recoil mechanism...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780800/redox-reaction-triggered-nanomotors-based-on-soft-oxometalates-with-high-and-sustained-motility
#3
Apabrita Mallick, Abhrajit Laskar, R Adhikari, Soumyajit Roy
The recent interest in self-propulsion raises an immediate challenge in facile and single-step synthesis of active particles. Here, we address this challenge and synthesize soft oxometalate nanomotors that translate ballistically in water using the energy released in a redox reaction of hydrazine fuel with the soft-oxometalates. Our motors reach a maximum speed of 370 body lengths per second and remain motile over a period of approximately 3 days. We report measurements of the speed of a single motor as a function of the concentration of hydrazine...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778450/-why-is-brachytherapy-still-essential-in-2017
#4
C Haie-Méder, P Maroun, I Fumagalli, I Lazarescu, I Dumas, F Martinetti, C Chargari
These recent years, brachytherapy has benefited from imaging modalities advances. A more systematic use of tomodensitometric, ultrasonographic and MRI images during brachytherapy procedures has allowed an improvement in target and organs at risk assessment as well as their relationship with the applicators. New concepts integrating tumor regression during treatment have been defined and have been clinically validated. New applicators have been developed and are commercially available. Optimization processes have been developed, integrating hypofractionation modalities leading to tumor control improvement...
May 16, 2018: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777130/remote-heat-dissipation-in-atom-sized-contacts
#5
Makusu Tsutsui, Takanori Morikawa, Kazumichi Yokota, Masateru Taniguchi
Understanding and control of heat dissipation is an important challenge in nanoelectronics wherein field-accelerated hot carriers in current-carrying ballistic systems release a large part of the kinetic energy into external bulk phonon baths. Here we report on a physical mechanism of this remote heat dissipation and its role on the stability of atomic contacts. We used a nano-fabricated thermocouple to directly characterize the self-heating in a mechanically-configurable Au junction. We found more pronounced heat dissipation at the current downstream that signifies the electron-hole asymmetry in Au nanocontacts...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776153/dimension-dependence-of-clustering-dynamics-in-models-of-ballistic-aggregation-and-freely-cooling-granular-gas
#6
Subhajit Paul, Subir K Das
Via event-driven molecular dynamics simulations we study kinetics of clustering in assemblies of inelastic particles in various space dimensions. We consider two models, viz., the ballistic aggregation model (BAM) and the freely cooling granular gas model (GGM), for each of which we quantify the time dependence of kinetic energy and average mass of clusters (that form due to inelastic collisions). These quantities, for both the models, exhibit power-law behavior, at least in the long time limit. For the BAM, corresponding exponents exhibit strong dimension dependence and follow a hyperscaling relation...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776143/transition-from-normal-to-ballistic-diffusion-in-a-one-dimensional-impact-system
#7
André L P Livorati, Tiago Kroetz, Carl P Dettmann, Iberê L Caldas, Edson D Leonel
We characterize a transition from normal to ballistic diffusion in a bouncing ball dynamics. The system is composed of a particle, or an ensemble of noninteracting particles, experiencing elastic collisions with a heavy and periodically moving wall under the influence of a constant gravitational field. The dynamics lead to a mixed phase space where chaotic orbits have a free path to move along the velocity axis, presenting a normal diffusion behavior. Depending on the control parameter, one can observe the presence of featured resonances, known as accelerator modes, that lead to a ballistic growth of velocity...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776123/efficient-thermal-diode-with-ballistic-spacer
#8
Shunda Chen, Davide Donadio, Giuliano Benenti, Giulio Casati
Thermal rectification is of importance not only for fundamental physics, but also for potential applications in thermal manipulations and thermal management. However, thermal rectification effect usually decays rapidly with system size. Here, we show that a mass-graded system, with two diffusive leads separated by a ballistic spacer, can exhibit large thermal rectification effect, with the rectification factor independent of system size. The underlying mechanism is explained in terms of the effective size-independent thermal gradient and the match or mismatch of the phonon bands...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771838/face-transplantation-an-update-for-the-united-states-trauma-system
#9
Scott J Farber, Rami S Kantar, J Rodrigo Diaz-Siso, Eduardo D Rodriguez
Face transplantation has evolved over the last 12 years into a safe and feasible reconstructive solution, with good aesthetic and functional outcomes for patients with severe facial defects who are not amenable to reconstruction through conventional and autologous approaches. Among patients who underwent face transplantation to date, a significant proportion did so following trauma, mostly ballistic and thermal injuries. It is therefore important for trauma surgeons who deal with these injuries regularly to be familiar with the literature on face transplantation following traumatic injuries...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765052/coherent-x-rays-reveal-the-influence-of-cage-effects-on-ultrafast-water-dynamics
#10
Fivos Perakis, Gaia Camisasca, Thomas J Lane, Alexander Späh, Kjartan Thor Wikfeldt, Jonas A Sellberg, Felix Lehmkühler, Harshad Pathak, Kyung Hwan Kim, Katrin Amann-Winkel, Simon Schreck, Sanghoon Song, Takahiro Sato, Marcin Sikorski, Andre Eilert, Trevor McQueen, Hirohito Ogasawara, Dennis Nordlund, Wojciech Roseker, Jake Koralek, Silke Nelson, Philip Hart, Roberto Alonso-Mori, Yiping Feng, Diling Zhu, Aymeric Robert, Gerhard Grübel, Lars G M Pettersson, Anders Nilsson
The dynamics of liquid water feature a variety of time scales, ranging from extremely fast ballistic-like thermal motion, to slower molecular diffusion and hydrogen-bond rearrangements. Here, we utilize coherent X-ray pulses to investigate the sub-100 fs equilibrium dynamics of water from ambient conditions down to supercooled temperatures. This novel approach utilizes the inherent capability of X-ray speckle visibility spectroscopy to measure equilibrium intermolecular dynamics with lengthscale selectivity, by measuring oxygen motion in momentum space...
May 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761295/a-startling-acoustic-stimulus-facilitates-voluntary-lower-extremity-movements-and-automatic-postural-responses-in-people-with-chronic-stroke
#11
Milou J M Coppens, Jolanda M B Roelofs, Nicole A J Donkers, Jorik Nonnekes, Alexander C H Geurts, Vivian Weerdesteyn
A startling acoustic stimulus (SAS) involuntary releases prepared movements at accelerated latencies, known as the StartReact effect. Previous work has demonstrated intact StartReact in paretic upper extremity movements in people after stroke, suggesting preserved motor preparation. The question remains whether motor preparation of lower extremity movements is also unaffected after stroke. Here, we investigated StartReact effects on ballistic lower extremity movements and on automatic postural responses (APRs) following perturbations to standing balance...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760645/systems-analysis-of-human-visuo-myoelectric-control-facilitated-by-anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-healthy-humans
#12
Vinh Kha, Aguida S Foerster, Susan Bennett, Michael A Nitsche, Filip Stefanovic, Anirban Dutta
Induction of neuroplasticity by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied to the primary motor cortex facilitates motor learning of the upper extremities in healthy humans. The impact of tDCS on lower limb functions has not been studied extensively so far. In this study, we applied a system identification approach to investigate the impact of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of the leg area of the motor cortex via the human visuo-myoelectric controller. The visuo-myoelectric reaching task (VMT) involves ballistic muscle contraction after a visual cue...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758693/phase-separation-of-self-propelled-ballistic-particles
#13
Isaac R Bruss, Sharon C Glotzer
Self-propelled particles phase-separate into coexisting dense and dilute regions above a critical density. The statistical nature of their stochastic motion lends itself to various theories that predict the onset of phase separation. However, these theories are ill-equipped to describe such behavior when noise becomes negligible. To overcome this limitation, we present a predictive model that relies on two density-dependent timescales: τ_{F}, the mean time particles spend between collisions; and τ_{C}, the mean lifetime of a collision...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758638/establishing-the-kinetics-of-ballistic-to-diffusive-transition-using-directional-statistics
#14
Pai Liu, William R Heinson, Benjamin J Sumlin, Kuan-Yu Shen, Rajan K Chakrabarty
We establish the kinetics of ballistic-to-diffusive (BD) transition observed in two-dimensional random walk using directional statistics. Directional correlation is parameterized using the walker's turning angle distribution, which follows the commonly adopted wrapped Cauchy distribution (WCD) function. During the BD transition, the concentration factor (ρ) governing the WCD shape is observed to decrease from its initial value. We next analytically derive the relationship between effective ρ and time, which essentially quantifies the BD transition rate...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757360/decision-analysis-supports-the-use-of-drain-amylase-based-enhanced-recovery-method-after-esophagectomy
#15
B Jiang, V P Ho, J Ginsberg, S J Fu, Y Perry, L Argote-Greene, P A Linden, C W Towe
Postesophagectomy anastomotic leak is a common postsurgical complication. The current standard method of detecting leak is esophagram usually late in the postoperative period. Perianastomotic drain amylase level had shown promising results in early detection anastomosis leak. Previous studies have shown that postoperative day 4 amylase level is more specific and sensitive than esophagram. The purpose of this study is to determine if implementing a drain amylase-based screening method for anastomotic leak can reduce length of stay and hospital cost relative to a traditional esophagram-based pathway...
May 10, 2018: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756939/transition-from-propagating-polariton-solitons-to-a-standing-wave-condensate-induced-by-interactions
#16
M Sich, J K Chana, O A Egorov, H Sigurdsson, I A Shelykh, D V Skryabin, P M Walker, E Clarke, B Royall, M S Skolnick, D N Krizhanovskii
We explore phase transitions of polariton wave packets, first, to a soliton and then to a standing wave polariton condensate in a multimode microwire system, mediated by nonlinear polariton interactions. At low excitation density, we observe ballistic propagation of the multimode polariton wave packets arising from the interference between different transverse modes. With increasing excitation density, the wave packets transform into single-mode bright solitons due to effects of both intermodal and intramodal polariton-polariton scattering...
April 20, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756040/experimental-two-dimensional-quantum-walk-on-a-photonic-chip
#17
Hao Tang, Xiao-Feng Lin, Zhen Feng, Jing-Yuan Chen, Jun Gao, Ke Sun, Chao-Yue Wang, Peng-Cheng Lai, Xiao-Yun Xu, Yao Wang, Lu-Feng Qiao, Ai-Lin Yang, Xian-Min Jin
Quantum walks, in virtue of the coherent superposition and quantum interference, have exponential superiority over their classical counterpart in applications of quantum searching and quantum simulation. The quantum-enhanced power is highly related to the state space of quantum walks, which can be expanded by enlarging the photon number and/or the dimensions of the evolution network, but the former is considerably challenging due to probabilistic generation of single photons and multiplicative loss. We demonstrate a two-dimensional continuous-time quantum walk by using the external geometry of photonic waveguide arrays, rather than the inner degree of freedoms of photons...
May 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753154/preliminary-development-of-a-bleeding-layer-to-assess-the-effect-of-a-ballistic-impact-on-textile-damage
#18
D J Carr, M Featherstone, C Malbon, D Miller, M Teagle
When a person is shot, they are generally wearing clothing which will be damaged by the perforation of the bullet. There are relatively few reports of such textile damage in the literature and the effect of blood on the textile damage observed is not reported. The appearance of textile damage caused by bullet impacts is further compounded by the diverse nature of (i) fabrics used in apparel and (ii) ammunition types. In this work, the effect of blood on textile damage due to ballistic impact was investigated by the development of a specimen that incorporated blood...
April 23, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747046/comparison-of-porcine-organs-and-commonly-used-ballistic-simulants-when-subjected-to-impact-from-steel-spheres-fired-at-supersonic-velocities
#19
Caitlin Humphrey, Maciej Henneberg, Christian Wachsberger, Jaliya Kumaratilake
Firearm injuries are common in the world today, in both military and civilian settings. Research into the effects different ammunition has on the human body has been conducted using tissue simulants such as Ballistics Ordnance Gelatine. Previous research has found that with low velocity projectiles, the tissue simulants only represent a selected few organs, as the human body and its organs/tissues are not homogeneous. The aim of this research was to determine which ballistic simulants best represent the abdomen and thorax, for the purposes of anatomical modelling...
April 25, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740994/numerical-modeling-of-two-photon-focal-modulation-microscopy-with-a-sinusoidal-phase-filter
#20
Rui Chen, Shuhao Shen, Nanguang Chen
A spatiotemporal phase modulator (STPM) is theoretically investigated using the vectorial diffraction theory. The STPM is equivalent to a time-dependent phase-only pupil filter that alternates between a homogeneous filter and a stripe-shaped filter with a sinusoidal phase distribution. It is found that two-photon focal modulation microscopy (TPFMM) using this STPM can significantly suppress the background contribution from out-of-focus ballistic excitation and achieve almost the same resolution as two-photon microscopy...
May 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
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