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Vitamin D AND NAD

Eugene Chang, Yangha Kim
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies suggest that low vitamin D status is associated with obesity characterized by excess lipid storage in adipocytes. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of the most hormonally active form of vitamin D 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] on adipocyte fat storage and lipid metabolism in mature 3T3-L1 cells. METHODS: Differentiated 3T3-L1 cells were treated with various concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide cell proliferation, intracellular lipid content, and basal and isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis were measured to investigate the regulatory role of 1,25(OH)2D in adipocyte lipid metabolism...
June 2016: Nutrition
D B Conze, J Crespo-Barreto, C L Kruger
Nicotinamide riboside (NR) is a naturally occurring form of vitamin B3 present in trace amounts in some foods. Like niacin, it has been shown to be a precursor in the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). The safety of Niagen™, a synthetic form of NR, was determined using a bacterial reverse mutagenesis assay (Ames), an in vitro chromosome aberration assay, an in vivo micronucleus assay, and acute, 14-day and 90-day rat toxicology studies. NR was not genotoxic. There was no mortality at an oral dose of 5000 mg/kg...
January 20, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Lara Pizzorno
The trace mineral boron is a micronutrient with diverse and vitally important roles in metabolism that render it necessary for plant, animal, and human health, and as recent research suggests, possibly for the evolution of life on Earth. As the current article shows, boron has been proven to be an important trace mineral because it (1) is essential for the growth and maintenance of bone; (2) greatly improves wound healing; (3) beneficially impacts the body's use of estrogen, testosterone, and vitamin D; (4) boosts magnesium absorption; (5) reduces levels of inflammatory biomarkers, such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α); (6) raises levels of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase; (7) protects against pesticide-induced oxidative stress and heavy-metal toxicity; (8) improves the brains electrical activity, cognitive performance, and short-term memory for elders; (9) influences the formation and activity of key biomolecules, such as S-adenosyl methionine (SAM-e) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)); (10) has demonstrated preventive and therapeutic effects in a number of cancers, such as prostate, cervical, and lung cancers, and multiple and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; and (11) may help ameliorate the adverse effects of traditional chemotherapeutic agents...
August 2015: Integrative Medicine
Katsumi Shibata
Pyridine nucleotide coenzymes (PNCs) are involved in over 500 enzyme reactions. PNCs are biosynthesized from the amino acid L-tryptophan (L-Trp), as well as the vitamin niacin. Hence, "true" niacin-deficient animals cannot be "created" using nutritional techniques. We wanted to establish a truly niacin-deficient model animal using a protocol that did not involve manipulating dietary L-Trp. We generated mice that are missing the quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase (QPRT) gene. QPRT activity was not detected in qprt(-/-)mice...
2015: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
D O Labudzynskyi, O V Zaitseva, N V Latyshko, O O Gudkova, M M Veliky
UNLABELLED: This work is devoted to the study of the features of oxidative metabolism of hepatocytes in diabetic mice and those under the vitamin D3 action. We found out that a 2.5-fold decrease of 25OHD3 content in the serum was caused by chronic hyperglycemia in diabetes. Intensification of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrogen monoxide (NO) production, protein oxidative modifications (detected by the contents of carbonyl groups and 3-nitrotyrosine), accumulation of diene conjugates and TBA-reactive products of lipid peroxidation, and the decreased level of free SH-groups of low molecular weight compounds in the liver were accompanied by development of vitamin D3 deficient state...
May 2015: Ukrainian Biochemical Journal
Ting Wang, Guojie Di, Li Yang, Yaoyan Dun, Zhiwei Sun, Jingzhi Wan, Ben Peng, Chaoqi Liu, Guangrun Xiong, Changcheng Zhang, Ding Yuan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the neuroprotective effects of saponins from Panax japonicus (SPJ) on D-galactose (D-gal)-induced brain ageing, and further explore the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: SPJ were analysed using high-pressure liquid chromatography. Male Wistar rats weighing 200 ± 20 g were randomly divided into four groups: control group (saline), D-gal-treated group (400 mg/kg, subcutaneously), D-gal + SPJ groups (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, orally) and vitamin E group (100 mg/kg)...
September 2015: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
I O Shymans'kyĭ, A V Khomenko, O O Lisakovs'ka, D O Labudzyns'kyĭ, L I Apukhovs'ka, M M Velykyĭ
The mechanisms of glucocorticoid-induced disturbances of liver function is currently not fully clarified. Vitamin D3 was previously shown to play an important role in the regulation of impaired oxidative metabolism and detoxification function of the liver associated with the effects of hepatotoxic compounds. The study was undertaken to define the intensity of oxidative metabolism in the rat liver and survival of hepatocytes after prolonged prednisolone administration and to assess whether vitamin D3 is capable to counter glucocorticoid-induced changes...
September 2014: Ukrainian Biochemical Journal
Toru Matsui, Yasutaka Kitagawa, Mitsutaka Okumura, Yasuteru Shigeta
We computationally evaluated the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) potential in aqueous phase and the Gibbs energy of a proton from the experimental pKa values of alcohol molecules. From the "golden standard" CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ level calculation, we estimated the SHE potential as 4.48 V, which is very close to the IUPAC-recommended experimental value of 4.44 V. As applications to the Gaussian-3 (G3) methods, which also reproduce the "golden standard" level calculations, we computed various pKa values and redox potentials for a vitamin series...
January 15, 2015: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Paul Murima, John D McKinney, Kevin Pethe
Current antibiotics, derived mainly from natural sources, inhibit a narrow spectrum of cellular processes, namely DNA replication, protein synthesis, and cell wall biosynthesis. With the worldwide explosion of drug resistance, there is renewed interest in the investigation of alternate essential cellular processes, including bacterial central metabolic pathways, as a drug target space for the next generation of antibiotics. However, the validation of targets in central metabolism is more complex, as essentiality of such targets can be conditional and/or contextual...
November 20, 2014: Chemistry & Biology
Pranee Thongthai, La-or Chailurkit, Suwannee Chanprasertyothin, Hataikarn Nimitphong, Piyamitr Sritara, Wichai Aekplakorn, Boonsong Ongphiphadhanakul
OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D deficiency is related to increased risks for a number of diseases. To date, at least 3 candidate genes, vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) gene (GC), 25-hydroxylase (CYP2R1), and 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase/NAD synthetase 1 (DHCR7/NADSYN1), have been associated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels, but their influences on the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in relation to other known risk factors have not been clearly defined. METHODS: The study assessed 4,476 individuals aged 14 to 93 years from the Thailand 4th National Health Examination Survey (2008-2009) and the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) (2008) cohorts...
March 2015: Endocrine Practice
Hu Yang, Dan Lan, Mengjie Wang, Xinye Li, Zongyan Gao, Lindi Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect and mechanism of high dose Vitamin B3 on granulopoiesis in normal rat. METHODS: Twenty one healthy SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: the Vitamin B3 group (Vit B3 500 mg·kg⁻¹·d⁻¹, × 7 d), the rhG-CSF group (rhG-CSF 25 μg·kg⁻¹·d⁻¹, × 7 d) and the normal saline group (2 ml/d, × 7 d). The peripheral blood cell counts were analyzed by automatic blood cell counter before (day 0) treatment, the third day (day 3) and the seventh day (day 7) after administration of drugs, respectively...
October 2014: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
Iraida Amaya, Sonia Osorio, Elsa Martinez-Ferri, Viviana Lima-Silva, Veronica G Doblas, Rafael Fernández-Muñoz, Alisdair R Fernie, Miguel A Botella, Victoriano Valpuesta
Increasing L-ascorbic acid (AsA, vitamin C) content in fruits is a common goal in current breeding programs due to its beneficial effect on human health. Attempts to increase AsA content by genetic engineering have resulted in variable success likely due to AsA's complex regulation. Here, we report the effect of ectopically expressing in tomato the D-galacturonate reductase (FaGalUR) gene from strawberry, involved in AsA biosynthesis, either under the control of the constitutive 35S or the tomato fruit-specific polygalucturonase (PG) promoters...
March 2015: Biotechnology Journal
Daniel Kraus, Qin Yang, Dong Kong, Alexander S Banks, Lin Zhang, Joseph T Rodgers, Eija Pirinen, Thomas C Pulinilkunnil, Fengying Gong, Ya-chin Wang, Yana Cen, Anthony A Sauve, John M Asara, Odile D Peroni, Brett P Monia, Sanjay Bhanot, Leena Alhonen, Pere Puigserver, Barbara B Kahn
In obesity and type 2 diabetes, Glut4 glucose transporter expression is decreased selectively in adipocytes. Adipose-specific knockout or overexpression of Glut4 alters systemic insulin sensitivity. Here we show, using DNA array analyses, that nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (Nnmt) is the most strongly reciprocally regulated gene when comparing gene expression in white adipose tissue (WAT) from adipose-specific Glut4-knockout or adipose-specific Glut4-overexpressing mice with their respective controls. NNMT methylates nicotinamide (vitamin B3) using S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as a methyl donor...
April 10, 2014: Nature
J Bautista-Ortega, A Cortes-Cuevas, E A Ellis, C A Ruiz-Feria
The effects of l-Arg, vitamin C (VC), and vitamin E (VE) on xanthine- (XO) and NAD(P)H-oxidase (NOX) activities, and nitric oxide (NO) availability of hypoxic broilers were evaluated. Chickens were kept in wire cages with free access to feed and water. One-day-old chicks were assigned to 1 of 3 diets: control (CTL; ME 3,200 kcal/kg, CP 23%), high Arg (HA; CTL + Arg 0.8%), or high Arg plus VE and VC (AEC; HA + 200 IU of VE/kg of feed + 500 mg of VC/L of water), and grown under hypobaric hypoxia (HYP) from d 7 to 30...
April 2014: Poultry Science
Rona J Strawbridge, Anna Deleskog, Olga McLeod, Lasse Folkersen, Maryam Kavousi, Karl Gertow, Damiano Baldassarre, Fabrizio Veglia, Karin Leander, Bruna Gigante, Jussi Kauhanen, Rainer Rauramaa, Andries J Smit, Elmo Mannarino, Philippe Giral, Abbas Dehghan, Albert Hofman, Oscar H Franco, Steve E Humphries, Elena Tremoli, Ulf de Faire, Sven Gustafsson, Claes-Göran Östensson, Per Eriksson, John Öhrvik, Anders Hamsten
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The findings of studies investigating whether or not low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration promotes development of atherosclerosis have been contradictory. The present study employed a Mendelian randomisation approach and carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT), a surrogate marker of coronary artery disease, to address this question. METHODS: The multicentre, longitudinal Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and IMT-Progression as Predictors of Vascular Events in a High-Risk European Population (IMPROVE) cohort study, which enrolled individuals with at least three cardiovascular risk factors and no history or symptoms of cardiovascular disease, was used for the present investigation...
June 2014: Diabetologia
John T Pinto, Arthur J L Cooper
Flavin-dependent monooxygenases and oxidoreductases are located at critical branch points in the biosynthesis and metabolism of cholesterol and vitamin D. These flavoproteins function as obligatory intermediates that accept 2 electrons from NAD(P)H with subsequent 1-electron transfers to a variety of cytochrome P450 (CYP) heme proteins within the mitochondria matrix (type I) and the (microsomal) endoplasmic reticulum (type II). The mode of electron transfer in these systems differs slightly in the number and form of the flavin prosthetic moiety...
March 2014: Advances in Nutrition
Tom D Niehaus, Lynn G L Richardson, Satinder K Gidda, Mona ElBadawi-Sidhu, John K Meissen, Robert T Mullen, Oliver Fiehn, Andrew D Hanson
NADH and NADPH undergo spontaneous and enzymatic reactions that produce R and S forms of NAD(P)H hydrates [NAD(P)HX], which are not electron donors and inhibit various dehydrogenases. In bacteria, yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and mammals, these hydrates are repaired by the tandem action of an ADP- or ATP-dependent dehydratase that converts (S)-NAD(P)HX to NAD(P)H and an epimerase that facilitates interconversion of the R and S forms. Plants have homologs of both enzymes, the epimerase homolog being fused to the vitamin B6 salvage enzyme pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase...
May 2014: Plant Physiology
Katheryne Z Edson, Bhagwat Prasad, Jashvant D Unadkat, Yoshitomo Suhara, Toshio Okano, F Peter Guengerich, Allan E Rettie
Vitamin K plays an essential role in many biological processes including blood clotting, maintenance of bone health, and inhibition of arterial calcification. A menaquinone form of vitamin K, MK4, is increasingly recognized for its key roles in mitochondrial electron transport, as a ligand for the nuclear receptor SXR, which controls the expression of genes involved in transport and metabolism of endo- and xenobiotics, and as a pharmacotherapeutic in the treatment of osteoporosis. Although cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4F2 activity is recognized as an important determinant of phylloquinone (K1) metabolism, the enzymes involved in menaquinone catabolism have not been studied previously...
November 19, 2013: Biochemistry
Lydia Foucan, Fritz-Line Vélayoudom-Céphise, Laurent Larifla, Christophe Armand, Jacqueline Deloumeaux, Cedric Fagour, Jean Plumasseau, Marie-Line Portlis, Longjian Liu, Fabrice Bonnet, Jacques Ducros
BACKGROUND: Our aim was to assess the associations between vitamin D (vitD) status, metabolic profile and polymorphisms in genes involved in the transport (Group-Component: GC) and the hydroxylation (NAD synthetase 1: NADSYN1) of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in non-diabetic individuals. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study with 323 individuals recruited from the Health Center of Guadeloupe, France. The rs2282679 T > G and rs2298849 T > C in GC and rs12785878 G > T in NADSYN1 were genotyped...
2013: BMC Endocrine Disorders
Bharat Panwar, Sudheer Gupta, Gajendra P S Raghava
BACKGROUND: The vitamins are important cofactors in various enzymatic-reactions. In past, many inhibitors have been designed against vitamin binding pockets in order to inhibit vitamin-protein interactions. Thus, it is important to identify vitamin interacting residues in a protein. It is possible to detect vitamin-binding pockets on a protein, if its tertiary structure is known. Unfortunately tertiary structures of limited proteins are available. Therefore, it is important to develop in-silico models for predicting vitamin interacting residues in protein from its primary structure...
2013: BMC Bioinformatics
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