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Vitamin D AND NAD

Xin Zhao, Jia-Le Song, Ruokun Yi, Guijie Li, Peng Sun, Kun-Young Park, Huayi Suo
Kudingcha is a traditional Chinese tea, and insect tea is a special drink produced by the metabolism of insect larvae using the raw Kuding tea. Insect tea polyphenols (ITP) and its raw tea (Kuding tea) polyphenols (KTP) are high-purity polyphenols extracted by centrifuge precipitation. The present study was designed to compare the antioxidative effects of insect tea polyphenols (ITP) and its raw tea (Kuding tea) polyphenols (KTP) on d-galactose-induced oxidation in Kunming (KM) mice. KM mice were treated with ITP (200 mg/kg) and KTP (200 mg/kg) by gavage, and vitamin C (VC, 200 mg/kg) was also used as a positive control by gavage...
January 19, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ning Zhang, Anthony A Sauve
A two-step chemical method for the synthesis of β-nicotinamide riboside (NR) is described. NR has achieved wide use as an NAD+ precursor (vitamin B3) and can significantly increase central metabolite NAD+ concentrations in mammalian cells. β-NR can be prepared with an efficient two-step procedure. The synthesis is initiated via coupling of commercially available 1,2,3,5-tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-ribofuranose with ethyl nicotinate in the presence of trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (TMSOTf).1 H NMR showed that the product was formed with complete stereoselectivity to produce only the β-isomer in high yield (>90% versus starting sugar)...
December 24, 2017: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Minju Kim, Hyunkyung Na, Hiroshi Kasai, Kazuaki Kawai, Yun-Shan Li, Mihi Yang
BACKGROUND: Chemopreventive effects and the underlying mechanisms of blueberry ( Vaccinium spp.) are not clearly understood in human. We hypothesized blueberry would work via antioxidative and epigenetic modulation, which is similar to vitamin C. METHODS: We performed a pilot and non-inferiority study in healthy young women (n = 12), who consumed vitamin C (1 g/d) or 240 mL of blueberry juice (total polyphenols 300 mg and proanthocyanidin 76 mg/d) for 2 weeks. We analyzed 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in their urine, and global and specific DNA methylation at the NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 ( NQO1 ), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase ( MTHFR ), or DNA methyltransferase 1 ( DNMT1 ) genes in their blood...
September 2017: Journal of Cancer Prevention
Pauline Vaur, Bernard Brugg, Mathias Mericskay, Zhenlin Li, Mark S Schmidt, Denis Vivien, Cyrille Orset, Etienne Jacotot, Charles Brenner, Eric Duplus
NAD+ depletion is a common phenomenon in neurodegenerative pathologies. Excitotoxicity occurs in multiple neurologic disorders and NAD+ was shown to prevent neuronal degeneration in this process through mechanisms that remained to be determined. The activity of nicotinamide riboside (NR) in neuroprotective models and the recent description of extracellular conversion of NAD+ to NR prompted us to probe the effects of NAD+ and NR in protection against excitotoxicity. Here, we show that intracortical administration of NR but not NAD+ reduces brain damage induced by NMDA injection...
December 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Saikumari Y Krishnaiah, Gang Wu, Brian J Altman, Jacqueline Growe, Seth D Rhoades, Faith Coldren, Anand Venkataraman, Anthony O Olarerin-George, Lauren J Francey, Sarmistha Mukherjee, Saiveda Girish, Christopher P Selby, Sibel Cal, Ubeydullah Er, Bahareh Sianati, Arjun Sengupta, Ron C Anafi, I Halil Kavakli, Aziz Sancar, Joseph A Baur, Chi V Dang, John B Hogenesch, Aalim M Weljie
The intricate connection between the circadian clock and metabolism remains poorly understood. We used high temporal resolution metabolite profiling to explore clock regulation of mouse liver and cell-autonomous metabolism. In liver, ∼50% of metabolites were circadian, with enrichment of nucleotide, amino acid, and methylation pathways. In U2 OS cells, 28% were circadian, including amino acids and NAD biosynthesis metabolites. Eighteen metabolites oscillated in both systems and a subset of these in primary hepatocytes...
April 4, 2017: Cell Metabolism
Thaisa M Teixeira, Danielly C da Costa, Angela C Resende, Christophe O Soulage, Flavia F Bezerra, Julio B Daleprane
Background: Obesity is associated with hyperleptinemia and endothelial dysfunction. Hyperleptinemia has been reported to induce both oxidative stress and inflammation by increasing reactive oxygen species production. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25(OH)2 D3 ] against leptin-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in human endothelial cells. Methods: Small interfering RNA (siRNA) were used to knock down the expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
April 2017: Journal of Nutrition
Eugene Chang, Yangha Kim
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies suggest that low vitamin D status is associated with obesity characterized by excess lipid storage in adipocytes. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of the most hormonally active form of vitamin D 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] on adipocyte fat storage and lipid metabolism in mature 3T3-L1 cells. METHODS: Differentiated 3T3-L1 cells were treated with various concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide cell proliferation, intracellular lipid content, and basal and isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis were measured to investigate the regulatory role of 1,25(OH)2D in adipocyte lipid metabolism...
June 2016: Nutrition
D B Conze, J Crespo-Barreto, C L Kruger
Nicotinamide riboside (NR) is a naturally occurring form of vitamin B3 present in trace amounts in some foods. Like niacin, it has been shown to be a precursor in the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). The safety of Niagen™, a synthetic form of NR, was determined using a bacterial reverse mutagenesis assay (Ames), an in vitro chromosome aberration assay, an in vivo micronucleus assay, and acute, 14-day and 90-day rat toxicology studies. NR was not genotoxic. There was no mortality at an oral dose of 5000 mg/kg...
January 20, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Lara Pizzorno
The trace mineral boron is a micronutrient with diverse and vitally important roles in metabolism that render it necessary for plant, animal, and human health, and as recent research suggests, possibly for the evolution of life on Earth. As the current article shows, boron has been proven to be an important trace mineral because it (1) is essential for the growth and maintenance of bone; (2) greatly improves wound healing; (3) beneficially impacts the body's use of estrogen, testosterone, and vitamin D; (4) boosts magnesium absorption; (5) reduces levels of inflammatory biomarkers, such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α); (6) raises levels of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase; (7) protects against pesticide-induced oxidative stress and heavy-metal toxicity; (8) improves the brains electrical activity, cognitive performance, and short-term memory for elders; (9) influences the formation and activity of key biomolecules, such as S-adenosyl methionine (SAM-e) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)); (10) has demonstrated preventive and therapeutic effects in a number of cancers, such as prostate, cervical, and lung cancers, and multiple and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; and (11) may help ameliorate the adverse effects of traditional chemotherapeutic agents...
August 2015: Integrative Medicine
Katsumi Shibata
Pyridine nucleotide coenzymes (PNCs) are involved in over 500 enzyme reactions. PNCs are biosynthesized from the amino acid L-tryptophan (L-Trp), as well as the vitamin niacin. Hence, "true" niacin-deficient animals cannot be "created" using nutritional techniques. We wanted to establish a truly niacin-deficient model animal using a protocol that did not involve manipulating dietary L-Trp. We generated mice that are missing the quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase (QPRT) gene. QPRT activity was not detected in qprt(-/-)mice...
2015: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
D O Labudzynskyi, O V Zaitseva, N V Latyshko, O O Gudkova, M M Veliky
UNLABELLED: This work is devoted to the study of the features of oxidative metabolism of hepatocytes in diabetic mice and those under the vitamin D3 action. We found out that a 2.5-fold decrease of 25OHD3 content in the serum was caused by chronic hyperglycemia in diabetes. Intensification of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrogen monoxide (NO) production, protein oxidative modifications (detected by the contents of carbonyl groups and 3-nitrotyrosine), accumulation of diene conjugates and TBA-reactive products of lipid peroxidation, and the decreased level of free SH-groups of low molecular weight compounds in the liver were accompanied by development of vitamin D3 deficient state...
May 2015: Ukrainian Biochemical Journal
Ting Wang, Guojie Di, Li Yang, Yaoyan Dun, Zhiwei Sun, Jingzhi Wan, Ben Peng, Chaoqi Liu, Guangrun Xiong, Changcheng Zhang, Ding Yuan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the neuroprotective effects of saponins from Panax japonicus (SPJ) on D-galactose (D-gal)-induced brain ageing, and further explore the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: SPJ were analysed using high-pressure liquid chromatography. Male Wistar rats weighing 200 ± 20 g were randomly divided into four groups: control group (saline), D-gal-treated group (400 mg/kg, subcutaneously), D-gal + SPJ groups (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, orally) and vitamin E group (100 mg/kg)...
September 2015: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
I O Shymans'kyĭ, A V Khomenko, O O Lisakovs'ka, D O Labudzyns'kyĭ, L I Apukhovs'ka, M M Velykyĭ
The mechanisms of glucocorticoid-induced disturbances of liver function is currently not fully clarified. Vitamin D3 was previously shown to play an important role in the regulation of impaired oxidative metabolism and detoxification function of the liver associated with the effects of hepatotoxic compounds. The study was undertaken to define the intensity of oxidative metabolism in the rat liver and survival of hepatocytes after prolonged prednisolone administration and to assess whether vitamin D3 is capable to counter glucocorticoid-induced changes...
September 2014: Ukrainian Biochemical Journal
Toru Matsui, Yasutaka Kitagawa, Mitsutaka Okumura, Yasuteru Shigeta
We computationally evaluated the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) potential in aqueous phase and the Gibbs energy of a proton from the experimental pKa values of alcohol molecules. From the "golden standard" CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ level calculation, we estimated the SHE potential as 4.48 V, which is very close to the IUPAC-recommended experimental value of 4.44 V. As applications to the Gaussian-3 (G3) methods, which also reproduce the "golden standard" level calculations, we computed various pKa values and redox potentials for a vitamin series...
January 15, 2015: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Paul Murima, John D McKinney, Kevin Pethe
Current antibiotics, derived mainly from natural sources, inhibit a narrow spectrum of cellular processes, namely DNA replication, protein synthesis, and cell wall biosynthesis. With the worldwide explosion of drug resistance, there is renewed interest in the investigation of alternate essential cellular processes, including bacterial central metabolic pathways, as a drug target space for the next generation of antibiotics. However, the validation of targets in central metabolism is more complex, as essentiality of such targets can be conditional and/or contextual...
November 20, 2014: Chemistry & Biology
Pranee Thongthai, La-or Chailurkit, Suwannee Chanprasertyothin, Hataikarn Nimitphong, Piyamitr Sritara, Wichai Aekplakorn, Boonsong Ongphiphadhanakul
OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D deficiency is related to increased risks for a number of diseases. To date, at least 3 candidate genes, vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) gene (GC), 25-hydroxylase (CYP2R1), and 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase/NAD synthetase 1 (DHCR7/NADSYN1), have been associated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels, but their influences on the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in relation to other known risk factors have not been clearly defined. METHODS: The study assessed 4,476 individuals aged 14 to 93 years from the Thailand 4th National Health Examination Survey (2008-2009) and the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) (2008) cohorts...
March 2015: Endocrine Practice
Hu Yang, Dan Lan, Mengjie Wang, Xinye Li, Zongyan Gao, Lindi Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect and mechanism of high dose Vitamin B3 on granulopoiesis in normal rat. METHODS: Twenty one healthy SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: the Vitamin B3 group (Vit B3 500 mg·kg⁻¹·d⁻¹, × 7 d), the rhG-CSF group (rhG-CSF 25 μg·kg⁻¹·d⁻¹, × 7 d) and the normal saline group (2 ml/d, × 7 d). The peripheral blood cell counts were analyzed by automatic blood cell counter before (day 0) treatment, the third day (day 3) and the seventh day (day 7) after administration of drugs, respectively...
October 2014: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
Iraida Amaya, Sonia Osorio, Elsa Martinez-Ferri, Viviana Lima-Silva, Veronica G Doblas, Rafael Fernández-Muñoz, Alisdair R Fernie, Miguel A Botella, Victoriano Valpuesta
Increasing L-ascorbic acid (AsA, vitamin C) content in fruits is a common goal in current breeding programs due to its beneficial effect on human health. Attempts to increase AsA content by genetic engineering have resulted in variable success likely due to AsA's complex regulation. Here, we report the effect of ectopically expressing in tomato the D-galacturonate reductase (FaGalUR) gene from strawberry, involved in AsA biosynthesis, either under the control of the constitutive 35S or the tomato fruit-specific polygalucturonase (PG) promoters...
March 2015: Biotechnology Journal
Daniel Kraus, Qin Yang, Dong Kong, Alexander S Banks, Lin Zhang, Joseph T Rodgers, Eija Pirinen, Thomas C Pulinilkunnil, Fengying Gong, Ya-chin Wang, Yana Cen, Anthony A Sauve, John M Asara, Odile D Peroni, Brett P Monia, Sanjay Bhanot, Leena Alhonen, Pere Puigserver, Barbara B Kahn
In obesity and type 2 diabetes, Glut4 glucose transporter expression is decreased selectively in adipocytes. Adipose-specific knockout or overexpression of Glut4 alters systemic insulin sensitivity. Here we show, using DNA array analyses, that nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (Nnmt) is the most strongly reciprocally regulated gene when comparing gene expression in white adipose tissue (WAT) from adipose-specific Glut4-knockout or adipose-specific Glut4-overexpressing mice with their respective controls. NNMT methylates nicotinamide (vitamin B3) using S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as a methyl donor...
April 10, 2014: Nature
J Bautista-Ortega, A Cortes-Cuevas, E A Ellis, C A Ruiz-Feria
The effects of l-Arg, vitamin C (VC), and vitamin E (VE) on xanthine- (XO) and NAD(P)H-oxidase (NOX) activities, and nitric oxide (NO) availability of hypoxic broilers were evaluated. Chickens were kept in wire cages with free access to feed and water. One-day-old chicks were assigned to 1 of 3 diets: control (CTL; ME 3,200 kcal/kg, CP 23%), high Arg (HA; CTL + Arg 0.8%), or high Arg plus VE and VC (AEC; HA + 200 IU of VE/kg of feed + 500 mg of VC/L of water), and grown under hypobaric hypoxia (HYP) from d 7 to 30...
April 2014: Poultry Science
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