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Hedong Zhang, Zuopeng Gao, Yang Liu, Chunmei Ran, Xiao Mao, Qinhao Kang, Wenya Ao, Jie Fu, Jing Li, Guangqing Liu, Jianjun Dai
This study investigated the pyrolysis characteristic of textile dyeing sludge (DS) using an auger pyrolyser under microwave irradiation at different pyrolysis temperature. The migration and distribution characteristic of heavy metals and their potential ecological risks were investigated using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) techniques. Temperature and additives (e.g. Ca-bentonite, kaolin and CaO) significantly affected product distribution and yields. Heavy metals showed different enrichment characteristics during pyrolysis and a great percentage of the heavy metals was retained in the sludge char (SC), depending on different temperatures and additives...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Jan Mumme, Josephine Getz, Munoo Prasad, Ulf Lüder, Jürgen Kern, Ondřej Mašek, Wolfram Buss
This study assessed the properties and toxicity (water cress germination trials) of 38 waste-derived, novel biochar-mineral composites (BMCs) produced via slow pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonization (hydrochars). The biochars were produced from sewage sludge and compost-like output (CLO) by varying the type of mineral additive (zeolite, wood ash and lignite fly ash), the mineral-to-feedstock ratio and the carbonization process. While pure hydrochars completely inhibited germination of water cress, this effect was ameliorated by mineral additives...
May 8, 2018: Chemosphere
Mikko Mäkelä, Julia Forsberg, Christer Söderberg, Sylvia H Larsson, Olli Dahl
Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) can be used to break down sludge structure and generate carbonaceous hydrochar suitable for solid fuel or value-added material applications. The separation of char and the reaction medium however generates a filtrate, which needs to treated before potential discharge. Thus, this work determined filtrate properties based on HTC temperature and sludge moisture content and estimated the discharge emissions and the potential increase in analyte loads to an industrial wastewater treatment plant based on derived regression models...
May 15, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Wendy C Andersen, Christine R Casey, Tara J Nickel, Susan L Young, Sherri B Turnipseed
Background : Triphenylmethane dyes and metabolites are known or suspected mutagens and areprohibited in animals intended for human consumption. Despite toxicity, triphenylmethane dyes are used illegally as inexpensive treatments for fungal and parasite infections in aquatic animals. Objective: AOAC INTERNTIONAL Official Method ℠ 2012.25 for the LC-MS/MS determination of malachite green, crystal violet, brilliant green, and metabolites leucomalachite green and leucocrystal violet in seafood products was previously validated for finfish (trout, salmon, catfish, and tilapia) and shrimp, but had not been fully validated for other types of aquacultured products such as eel, molluscan shellfish, or frog or for processed seafoods...
May 18, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Peng Fu, Xueyuan Bai, Zhihe Li, Weiming Yi, Yongjun Li, Yuchun Zhang
Fast pyrolysis of corn stovers with ceramic ball heat carriers in a dual concentric rotary cylinder reactor was studied to explore the product yields and characteristics in response to temperature. The reactor was confirmed to successfully scale up to a 25 kg/h pilot plant, with its performance being excellent. The highest bio-oil yield of 48.3 wt% at 500 °C was attained with the char and gas yields being 26.8 and 24.9 wt%. Phenols content was reduced from 22.3% to 18.9% when elevating temperature from 450 until 600 °C, with guaiacols and alkyl phenols being the predominant compounds, while ketones accounted for 15...
May 9, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Roberto F Casal, Garrett Walsh, Mark McArthur, Lori R Hill, Maria F Landaeta, Aristides J Armas Villalba, Philip Ong, Labib Debiane, Erik Vakil, Horiana B Grosu, Carlos A Jimenez, David Ost, Roberto Adachi, George A Eapen
BACKGROUND: Population aging and lung cancer screening strategies may lead to an increase in detection of early-stage lung cancer in medical inoperable patients. Recent advances in peripheral bronchoscopy have made it a suitable platform for ablation of small peripheral tumors. METHODS: We investigated the tissue-ablative effect of a diode laser bronchoscopically applied by a laser delivery fiber (LDF) with wide aperture on porcine lung parenchyma. Laser was tested ex vivo and in vivo to identify the most effective power settings and LDF...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
Inga Brockmann, Juliet Ehrenpfordt, Tabea Sturmheit, Matthias Brandenburger, Charli Kruse, Marietta Zille, Dorothee Rose, Johannes Boltze
The human skin fulfills important barrier, sensory, and immune functions-all of which contribute significantly to health and organism integrity. Widespread skin damage requires immediate treatment and coverage because massive skin loss fosters the invasion of pathogens, causes critical fluid loss, and may ultimately lead to death. Since the skin is a highly immunocompetent organ, autologous transplants are the only viable approach to permanently close a widespread skin wound. Despite the development of tissue-saving autologous transplantation techniques such as mesh and Meek grafts, treatment options for extensive skin damage remain severely limited...
2018: Stem Cells International
Charly B J Brouillard, Jonathan J Crook, Pedro P Irazoqui, Thelma A Lovick
Female Wistar rats were instrumented to record bladder pressure and to stimulate the left pelvic nerve. Repeated voids were induced by continuous infusion of saline into the bladder (11.2 ml/h) via a T-piece in the line to the bladder catheter. In each animal tested ( n = 6) high frequency pelvic nerve stimulation (1-3 kHz, 1-2 mA sinusoidal waveform for 60 s) applied within 2 s of the onset of a sharp rise in bladder pressure signaling an imminent void was able to inhibit micturition. Voiding was modulated in three ways: (1) Suppression of voiding (four rats, n = 13 trials)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Hong Li, Jieyong Ou, Xuedong Wang, Zengguang Yan, Youya Zhou
The widespread use of cadmium (Cd)-containing organic fertilizers is a source of heavy metal inputs to agricultural soils in suburban areas. Therefore, the research and development of new materials and technologies for the remediation of Cd-contaminated soil is of great significance and has the potential to guarantee the safety of agricultural products and the protection of human health. We performed pot experiments to determine the potential of combined amendments of illite/smectite (I/S) clay with bone chars for the remediation of Cd-contaminated agricultural soils in a suburban area of Beijing, China...
May 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Charli Sargent, Michele Lastella, Georgia Romyn, Nathan Versey, Dean J Miller, Gregory D Roach
The validity of a commercially available wearable device for measuring total sleep time was examined in a sample of well-trained young athletes during night-time sleep periods and daytime naps. Participants wore a FitBit HR Charge on their non-dominant wrist and had electrodes attached to their face and scalp to enable polysomnographic recordings of sleep in the laboratory. The FitBit automatically detected 24/30 night-time sleep periods but only 6/20 daytime naps. Compared with polysomnography, the FitBit overestimated total sleep time by an average of 52 ± 152 min for night-time sleep periods, and by 4 ± 8 min for daytime naps...
May 11, 2018: Chronobiology International
Grace E Vincent, Sarah M Jay, Charli Sargent, Katya Kovac, Michele Lastella, Corneel Vandelanotte, Nicola D Ridgers, Sally A Ferguson
This pilot study investigated the impact of breaking up prolonged sitting with light-intensity walking on postprandial glucose responses and sleep architecture. In a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover design, six healthy males completed a sitting condition and an active condition (sitting interrupted with light-intensity walking) for three consecutive days, following 5-h sleep opportunities at night. Postprandial glucose response and sleep (time spent in all stages) was assessed. Breaking up prolonged sitting with light-intensity walking did not affect postprandial glucose responses in sleep-restricted participants; however a small increase (~9 min) in slow-wave sleep was observed...
May 11, 2018: Chronobiology International
Chang Mou Wu, Wen Yen Hsieh, Kuo Bin Cheng, Chiu-Chun Lai, Kuei Chi Lee
The triacetin and nitroglycerin barrier properties of layered-silicate reinforced ethylenepropylenediene monomer/chloroprene rubber (EPDM/CR) nanorubbers were investigated as rocket-propellant inhibitors. EPDM/CR nanorubbers with intercalated structures were formulated and prepared by the melt-compounding method. The triacetin permeability and nitroglycerin absorption were observed to decrease with increasing layered-silicate content. The layered silicates also improved the flame retardancies of the nanorubbers by forming silicate reinforced carbonaceous chars...
May 9, 2018: Nanomaterials
Helena Raclavská, Jana Růžičková, Hana Škrobánková, Silvie Koval, Marek Kucbel, Konstantin Raclavský, Barbora Švédová, Petr Pavlík, Dagmar Juchelková
Since the cellulose used in the production of tetrapak is of very high quality, the char generated during pyrolysis should be influenced mainly by the pyrolysis temperature. This article aims to determine the chemical composition of biochar prepared at the temperatures of 400, 500, 600 and 700 °C and its environmental properties determined by the presence of organic compounds with toxicity and relatively high mobility in the environment. The analytical pyrolysis of char was used to identify the following groups of organic compounds: alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkenes, cycloalkenes, alkynes, alkadiens, ethers, alcohols, nitrogen compounds, nitrils, ketones and aldehydes, compounds containing phenols, furans, benzofurans, PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), carboxylic acids, compounds containing benzenes and markers indicative of the presence of synthetic polymers (polyethylene layers, a part of dyes, antioxidants, stabilizers), and fragments of cellulose...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Juan J Jaller Char, Jose A Jaller, Jill S Waibel, Dhaval G Bhanusali, Neha Bhanusali
Interleukin 17 (IL-17) functions as a bridge between the innate and adaptive immunity. In addition to being a crucial defense mechanism against extracellular pathogens, it plays a significant role in inflammation, therefore considered a decisive factor in inflammatory conditions; hence the importance of its understanding for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Animal models have demonstrated that blockage of the IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) may prevent these pathologies. For instance, there is evidence that IL-17R-deficient mice may be protected against the development of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE)...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
Michele Lastella, Grace E Vincent, Rob Duffield, Gregory D Roach, Shona L Halson, Luke J Heales, Charli Sargent
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Ankita Gupta, Sonal K Thengane, Sanjay Mahajani
In this study, the dry leaves litter from jackfruit, raintree, mango and eucalyptus trees, lignin, and cellulose were characterized, pyrolysed, and evaluated for their char reactivity towards CO2 gasification using TGA. The differences in char reactivity were attributed to the difference in char morphology and the varying inorganic contents. The mineral analysis of biomass ash showed the presence of alkali minerals some of which could act as catalysts. The adverse effect of high silica content was also evident through the experimental results...
April 25, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Tamara S Bodnar, Charlis Raineki, Wladimir Wertelecki, Lyubov Yevtushok, Larisa Plotka, Natalya Zymak-Zakutnya, Gordon Honerkamp-Smith, Alan Wells, Matthieu Rolland, Todd S Woodward, Claire D Coles, Julie A Kable, Christina D Chambers, Joanne Weinberg
Cytokines and chemokines are potent modulators of brain development and as such, dysregulation of the maternal immune system can result in deviations in the fetal cytokine balance, altering the course of typical brain development, and putting the individual on a "pathway to pathology". In the current study, we used a multi-variate approach to evaluate networks of interacting cytokines and investigated whether alterations in the maternal immune milieu could be linked to alcohol-related and alcohol-independent child neurodevelopmental delay...
May 5, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Yongxian Lai, Haiyan Zhang, Minglei Wei, Jie Ji, Lei Shi, Peiru Wang, Bo Wang, Zheng Huang, Xiuli Wang
OBJECTIVE: To study the curative effect of red-light 5-Aminolevulinic photodynamic therapy(ALA-PDT) to port wine stains(PWS) on comb animal model. METHODS: 160 male cocks were randomly divided into 16 groups. The ALA only group was given ALA only topical or systemic application. Light only groups were only given 630 nm red light irradiation with different light density. ALA-PDT groups were given red light after the application of topical or systemic ALA. PDL group was given PDL irradiation...
May 5, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Yong Han, Yingjun Chen, Saud Ahmad, Yanli Feng, Fan Zhang, Wenhuai Song, Fang Cao, Yanlin Zhang, Xin Yang, Jun Li, Gan Zhang
Inefficient coal combustion is a significant source of elemental carbon (EC) air pollution in China, but there is a limited understanding of EC's formation processes. In this study, high time-resolved particle number size distributions (PNSDs) and size-resolved chemical compositions were obtained from the combustion of four bituminous coals burned in a quartz tube furnace at 500°C and 800°C. Based on the distinct characteristics of PNSD, the flaming stage was divided into the first-flaming stage (with a PNSD peak at 0...
May 8, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Kristin A Dimac-Stohl, Charli S Davies, Nicholas M Grebe, Alexandra C Stonehill, Lydia K Greene, Jessica Mitchell, Tim Clutton-Brock, Christine M Drea
Meerkats are group-living, insectivorous herpestids in which subordinate members provide extensive care for the dominant female's young. In contrast to some cooperative breeders, subordinate female meerkats are physiologically able to reproduce and occasionally do so successfully; their attempts are more frequently 'suppressed' via eviction or infanticide by the dominant female. Spontaneous abortion and neonatal loss occur with some regularity, further negatively impacting reproductive success. Here, we compared the reproductive outcomes and endocrine profiles, including of serum progesterone (P4 ), serum estradiol (E2 ), and fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGCm), of dominant and subordinate dams residing within their clans in the Kalahari Desert of South Africa...
May 2, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
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