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Maria Manuel Serrano Bernardo, Catarina Alexandra Catanas Madeira, Nuno Carlos Lapa Dos Santos Nunes, Diogo André Costa Messias Dias, Delfina Maria Barbosa Godinho, Maria Filomena de Jesus Pinto, Inês Alexandra Morgado do Nascimento Matos, Ana Paula Batista Carvalho, Isabel Maria de Figueiredo Ligeiro Fonseca
This work is dedicated to study the potential application of char byproducts obtained in the gasification of rice husk (RG char) and rice husk blended with corn cob (RCG char) as removal agents of two emergent aquatic contaminants: tetracycline and caffeine. The chars presented high ash contents (59.5-81.5%), being their mineral content mainly composed of silicon (as silica) and potassium. The samples presented a strong basic character, which was related to its higher mineral oxides content. RCG char presented better textural properties with a higher apparent surface area (144 m(2) g(-1)) and higher micropore content (V micro = 0...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jorge A Gálvez, Janine M Pappas, Luis Ahumada, John N Martin, Allan F Simpao, Mohamed A Rehman, Char Witmer
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a potentially life-threatening condition that includes both deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism. We sought to improve detection and reporting of children with a new diagnosis of VTE by applying natural language processing (NLP) tools to radiologists' reports. We validated an NLP tool, Reveal NLP (Health Fidelity Inc, San Mateo, CA) and inference rules engine's performance in identifying reports with deep venous thrombosis using a curated set of ultrasound reports...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
Ming Song, Gang-Qiang Dong, Ya-Qin Zhang, Xia Liu, Wei Sun
Most of Chinese medicinal herbs are subjected to traditional processing procedures, including stir-frying, charring, steaming, boiling, and calcining before they are released into dispensaries. The marketing and identification of processed medicinal materials is a growing issue in the marketplace. However, conventional methods of identification have limitations, while DNA mini-barcoding, based on the sequencing of a short-standardized region, has received considerable attention as a new potential means to identify processed medicinal materials...
July 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
Guotao Yu, Dezhen Chen, Umberto Arena, Zhen Huang, Xiaohu Dai
Obtaining high quality syngas from sewage sludge (SS) means transferring a low-grade SS into a high-grade fuel or raw materials for chemical products. In this study, Fe is added to SS in form of Fe2(SO4)3 to produce an effective and self-sufficient catalyst in order to obtain more syngas and minimize liquid products from SS pyrolysis. The Fe-embedded sewage sludge chars (SSCs) were used as catalysts for volatile reforming at 600°C. It has been found that the gas yield increases from 15.9 to 35.8wt% of the SS and that of liquids decreases from 31...
August 9, 2017: Waste Management
Oluwafemi Oyedeji, Charles Stuart Daw, Nicole Labbe, Paul Ayers, Nourredine Abdoulmoumine
In this study, the results from laboratory measurements of the devolatilization kinetics of switchgrass in a rapidly heated fixed bed reactor flushed with argon and operated at constant temperatures between 600 and 800°C was reported. Results indicate that switchgrass decomposes in two sequential stages during pyrolysis: stage I involves the evaporation and devolatilization of water and extractives and stage II involves that of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin. The estimated global activation energy for stage II increased from 52...
July 29, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Lin Gu, Sifan Wu, Binglian Li, Haifeng Wen, Daofang Zhang, Jianfeng Ye, Liang Wang
Platanus Orientalis Leaves (POL), a widely planted tree in parks and along streets, was employed by sequential persulfate oxidation (Fe(2+)and persulfate) and hydrothermal treatment (HTC) to improve the thermal stability, energy yield and combustion behavior of hydrochars (HCs). Higher heating values (HHVs) of HCs derived from persulfate pretreated POL was increased by 30.5% at mild HTC temperature (i.e., 210°C) as compared to char without pretreatment. Elevating Fe(2+)/persulfate ratio to 0.2 enables HCs with high fractions of lignin, thus promoting the energy yield going up to 64...
August 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Hector Garcia-Seisdedos, Charly Empereur-Mot, Nadav Elad, Emmanuel D Levy
The self-association of proteins into symmetric complexes is ubiquitous in all kingdoms of life. Symmetric complexes possess unique geometric and functional properties, but their internal symmetry can pose a risk. In sickle-cell disease, the symmetry of haemoglobin exacerbates the effect of a mutation, triggering assembly into harmful fibrils. Here we examine the universality of this mechanism and its relation to protein structure geometry. We introduced point mutations solely designed to increase surface hydrophobicity among 12 distinct symmetric complexes from Escherichia coli...
August 2, 2017: Nature
H M H Gad, M A Youssef
Nano-pore hydroxyapatite (HAP) was prepared using physical activation of raw and chemically modified [using Acid; HNO3 (HAPA) or Base; NaOH (HAPB)] bone char (BC) by heating at 900°C for 1 hr to obtain HAP9, HAPA9 and HAPB9, respectively. Investigation the effects of thermal and chemical treatment of prepared nano-hydroxyapatite on elemental analysis, FTIR, scanning electron microscopy, surface area and consequently, the sorption behavior of Eu (III) ions onto the prepared nano-pore hydroxyapatite. Batch adsorption technique was used and the obtained results revealed that the optimum pH = 5...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Technology
Junhao Hu, Jingai Shao, Haiping Yang, Guiying Lin, Yingquan Chen, Xianhua Wang, Wennan Zhang, Hanping Chen
The synergy effect between coal and biomass in their co-gasification was studied in a vertical fixed bed reactor, and the physic-chemical structural characteristics and gasification reactivity of the residual char obtained from co-gasification were also investigated. The results shows that, conversion of the residual char and tar into gas is enhanced due to the synergy effect between coal and biomass. The physical structure of residual char shows more pore on coal char when more biomass is added in the co-gasification...
July 22, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Chunlei Dong, Alvianto Wirasaputra, Qinqin Luo, Shumei Liu, Yanchao Yuan, Jianqing Zhao, Yi Fu
It is difficult to realize flame retardancy of epoxy without suffering much detriment in thermal stability. To solve the problem, a super-efficient phosphorus-nitrogen-containing reactive-type flame retardant, 10-(hydroxy(4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl)-5,10-dihydrophenophosphazinine-10-oxide (HB-DPPA) is synthesized and characterized. When it is used as a co-curing agent of 4,4'-methylenedianiline (DDM) for curing diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA), the cured epoxy achieves UL-94 V-0 rating with the limiting oxygen index of 29...
December 12, 2016: Materials
Guangwu Zhang, Fuzhong Wang, Zhixiong Huang, Jing Dai, Minxian Shi
Montmorillonite (MMT) was added to silicone rubber (SR) to improve the ablation resistance of the silicone. Following this, different quantities of silicon carbide whiskers (SiCw) were incorporated into the MMT/SR to yield a hybrid, ablative composite. The tensile strength and elongation at break of the composite increased after the addition of MMT. The ablation test results showed that MMT helped to form a covering layer by bonding with the silica and other components on the ablated surface. The linear and mass ablation rates exhibited decreases of 22...
August 24, 2016: Materials
Yolanda Bautista, Ana Gozalbo, Sergio Mestre, Vicente Sanz
Different characterization techniques were used to study the hydrolysis and condensation reaction kinetics of 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MAPTMS) to obtain open cage silsesquioxane oligomers. The formation of hydrogen bonds, which condition the chemical structures of the resulting products, was identified. Improved thermal and fire resistant behavior of unsaturated polyester (UP) composites prepared with aluminium trihydroxide (ATH) and the synthesized oligomer were registered. Opened silsesquioxane structures also showed an improvement in the mechanical properties of the char formed after firing...
May 23, 2017: Materials
Sebastian Rabe, Yuttapong Chuenban, Bernhard Schartel
Phosphorus-based flame retardants were incorporated into different, easily preparable matrices, such as polymeric thermoset resins and paraffin as a proposed model for polyolefins and investigated for their flame retardancy performance. The favored mode of action of each flame retardant was identified in each respective system and at each respective concentration. Thermogravimetric analysis was used in combination with infrared spectroscopy of the evolved gas to determine the pyrolysis behavior, residue formation and the release of phosphorus species...
April 26, 2017: Materials
Andreas G Heiss, Ferran Antolín, Niels Bleicher, Christian Harb, Stefanie Jacomet, Marlu Kühn, Elena Marinova, Hans-Peter Stika, Soultana Maria Valamoti
The site of Parkhaus Opéra is located on the north-eastern shore of Lake Zürich (Switzerland) and was documented during a rescue excavation in 2010 and 2011 by the Office for Urbanism, City of Zürich. Two charred bread-like objects were found in late Neolithic Layer 13 of the pile-dwelling, and are investigated using a novel set of analyses for cereal-based foodstuffs. Tissue remains of barley and wheat were identified, as well as a schizocarp of celery (cf. Apium graveolens), providing the first evidence for the use of bread condiments in the Neolithic...
2017: PloS One
Danton Char
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
Changsong Hu, Rui Xiao, Huiyan Zhang
Ex-situ and in-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) of biomass over HZSM-5 were compared in a two-stage fluidized-bed/fixed-bed combination reactor. Ex-situ CFP gave a similar carbon yield of aromatics+olefins (∼20%) with in-situ CFP but produced much more olefins (10.3% vs. 5.8%) and less char+coke (42.7% vs. 48.4%). The effects of weight hourly space velocity (WHSV), carrier gas flow rate, pyrolysis temperature and catalysis temperature on product distribution in ex-situ CFP were further studied. The maximum carbon yield of aromatics+olefins (21...
July 6, 2017: Bioresource Technology
D Lachos-Perez, G A Tompsett, P Guerra, M T Timko, M A Rostagno, Julian Martínez, T Forster-Carneiro
Subcritical water has potential as an environmentally friendly solvent for applications including hydrolysis, liquefaction, extraction, and carbonization. Here, we report hydrolysis of sugarcane straw, an abundant byproduct of sugar production, in a semi-continuous reactor at reaction temperatures ranging from 190 to 260°C and at operating pressures of 9 and 16MPa. The target hydrolysis products were total reducing sugars. The main products of sugarcane straw hydrolysis were glucose, xylose, arabinose, and galactose in addition to 5- hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural as minor byproducts...
July 16, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Anna Travesa, Tatyana I Kalashnikova, Robertus A M de Bruin, Sarah Rose Cass, Charly Chahwan, David E Lee, Noel F Lowndes, Curt Wittenberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
J J Pignatello, William A Mitch, Wenqing Xu
Pyrogenic carbonaceous matter (PCM) includes environmental black carbon (fossil fuel soot, biomass char), engineered carbons (biochar, activated carbon), and related materials like graphene and nanotubes. These materials contact organic pollutants due to their widespread presence in the environment or through their use in various engineering applications. This review covers recent advances in our understanding of adsorption and chemical reactions mediated by PCM and the links between these processes. It also covers adsorptive processes previously receiving little attention and ignored in models such as steric constraints, physicochemical effects of confinement in nanopores, π interactions of aromatic compounds with polyaromatic surfaces, and very strong hydrogen bonding of ionizable compounds with surface functional groups...
July 28, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Jin Iwasawa, Jacob S Koruth, Jan Petru, Libor Dujka, Stepan Kralovec, Katerina Mzourkova, Srinivas R Dukkipati, Petr Neuzil, Vivek Y Reddy
BACKGROUND: Saline irrigation improved the safety of radiofrequency (RF) ablation, but the thermal feedback for energy titration is absent. OBJECTIVES: To allow temperature-controlled irrigated ablation, a novel irrigated RF catheter was designed with a diamond-embedded tip (for rapid cooling) and 6 surface thermocouples to reflect tissue temperature. High-resolution electrograms (EGMs) from the split-tip electrode allowed rapid lesion assessment. The authors evaluated the preclinical and clinical performance of this catheter for pulmonary vein (PV) isolation...
August 1, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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