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Antonio Charlys da Costa, Julien Thézé, Shirley Cavalcante Vasconcelos Komninakis, Rodrigo Lopes Sanz-Duro, Marta Rejane Lemos Felinto, Lúcia Cristina Corrêa Moura, Ivoneide Moreira de Oliveira Barroso, Lucineide Eliziario Correia Santos, Mardjane Alves de Lemos Nunes, Adriana Avila Moura, José Lourenço, Xutao Deng, Eric L Delwart, Maria Raquel Dos Anjos Silva Guimarães, Oliver G Pybus, Ester C Sabino, Nuno R Faria
We investigated an outbreak of exanthematous illness in Maceió by using molecular surveillance; 76% of samples tested positive for chikungunya virus. Genetic analysis of 23 newly generated genomes identified the East/Central/South African genotype, suggesting that this lineage has persisted since mid-2014 in Brazil and may spread in the Americas and beyond.
October 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Wei Chen, Yingquan Chen, Haiping Yang, Mingwei Xia, Kaixu Li, Xu Chen, Hanping Chen
Co-pyrolysis of biomass has a potential to change the quality of pyrolytic bio-oil. In this work, co-pyrolysis of bamboo, a typical lignocellulosic biomass, and Nannochloropsis sp. (NS), a microalgae, was carried out in a fixed bed reactor at a range of mixing ratio of NS and bamboo, to find out whether the quality of pyrolytic bio-oil was improved. A significant improvement on bio-oil after co-pyrolysis of bamboo and NS was observed that bio-oil yield increased up to 66.63wt% (at 1:1) and the content of long-chain fatty acids in bio-oil also dramatically increased (the maximum up to 50...
September 6, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Minori Uchimiya, Joseph J Pignatello, Jason C White, Szu-Tung Hu, Paulo J Ferreira
Pyrogenic carbon is widespread in soil due to wildfires, soot deposition, and intentional amendment of pyrolyzed waste biomass (biochar). Interactions between engineered carbon nanoparticles and natural pyrogenic carbon (char) are unknown. This study first employed transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to interpret the superstructure composing aqueous fullerene C60 nanoparticles prepared by prolonged stirring of commercial fullerite in water (nC60-stir). The nC60-stir was a superstructure composed of face-centered cubic (fcc) close-packing of near-spherical C60 superatoms...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Mengjun Han, Kangkang Jiang, Pengfei Jiao, Yingchun Ji, Jingwei Zhou, Wei Zhuang, Yong Chen, Dong Liu, Chenjie Zhu, Xiaochun Chen, Hanjie Ying, Jinglan Wu
A series of porous-carbon adsorbents termed as HDPC (hydrochar-derived pyrolysis char) were prepared from corncob and used for the 1-butanol recovery from aqueous solution. The influences of pyrolysis temperature on properties of the adsorbents were systematically investigated. The results showed that hydrophobicity, surface area, and pore volume of HDPC samples increased with an increase in pyrolysis temperature. Furthermore, the adsorption mechanism of 1-butanol on the adsorbents was explored based on correlation of the samples properties with adsorption parameters extracted from the 1-butanol adsorption isotherms (K F and Q e12 )...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Alicia McDonnell, Karen L Bride, Derick Lim, Michele Paessler, Char M Witmer, Michele P Lambert
BACKGROUND: Differentiating childhood immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) from other cause of thrombocytopenia remains a diagnosis of exclusion. Additionally factors that predict bleeding risk for those patients with ITP are currently not well understood. Previous small studies have suggested that immature platelet fraction (IPF) may differentiate ITP from other causes of thrombocytopenia and in combination with other factors may predict bleeding risk. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of thrombocytopenic patients with an IPF measured between November 1, 2013 and July 1, 2015...
September 17, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Lauren T Bennett, Matthew J Bruce, Josephine Machunter, Michele Kohout, Saravanan Jangammanaidu Krishnaraj, Cristina Aponte
The carbon stability of fire-tolerant forests is often assumed but less frequently assessed, limiting potential to anticipate threats to forest carbon posed by predicted increases in forest fire activity. Assessing the carbon stability of fire-tolerant forests requires multi-indicator approaches that recognise the myriad of ways that fires influence the carbon balance including combustion, deposition of pyrogenic material, and tree death, post-fire decomposition, recruitment, and growth. Five years after a large-scale wildfire in south-eastern Australia, we assessed the impacts of low- and high-severity wildfire, with and without prescribed fire (≤ 10 years before), on carbon stocks in multiple pools, and on carbon stability indicators (carbon stock percentages in live trees and in small trees, and carbon stocks in char and fuels) in fire-tolerant eucalypt forests...
September 16, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
M A Martín-Lara, N Ortuño, J A Conesa
Heavy metal-loaded almond shell was subjected to pyrolysis to understand the effect of the presence of different heavy metals on its thermal degradation. Pyrolysis behavior of native and metal-loaded samples was studied by thermogravimetric analysis. Similar shapes of thermogravimetric curves indicate that the presence of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) did not change the main degradation pathways of almond shell. However, the temperature at which the decomposition in each stage takes place at a higher rate and char yield was considerably modified by the presence of Cr and Ni...
September 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Yajuan Feng, Yang Zhou, Daikun Li, Shuai He, Fengxiu Zhang, Guangxian Zhang
A plant-based non-formaldehyde flame retardant containing high phosphorus ammonium phytate (APA) was synthesized for cotton fabric. The char length of treated cotton sample decreased to 31mm from the original 300mm. The LOI value of finished cotton fabric was as high as 43.2%, and after 30 laundering cycles, it still remained 30.5%, suggesting that APA could be used as an effective semi-durable flame retardant. The TG analysis in air demonstrated that the thermal oxidation stability of treated fabric was significantly improved...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Mahendra Sheshama, Hitesh Khatri, Manish Suthar, Santanu Basak, Wazed Ali
Flame retardant functionality was imparted in sisal (leaf fibre) yarn whereas a strong scientific finding has been established between fire retardant efficacy of bulk and nano zinc oxide based formulations. Bulk and nano ZnO treated sisal yarns have been compared on the basis of their flame retardant efficacy, weight add-on% and tensile strength. Limiting oxygen index and char length of the 12% ZnO treated sisal was found to be well comparable with the 1% nano ZnO treated yarn. Further, add-on% and the tensile strength of the nano ZnO treated sample is 70-80% lower and 20% more, respectively, compared to the 12% bulk ZnO treated sisal yarn...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Yun Hai, Saihua Jiang, Xiaodong Qian, Shuidong Zhang, Ping Sun, Bo Xie, Ningning Hong
Novel nanohybrid (β-Ni(OH)2-CNTs) obtained by ultrathin Beta-Nickel hydroxide (β-Ni(OH)2) nanosheets grown along multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was successfully synthesized and then incorporated into UPR to prepare UPR/β-Ni(OH)2-CNTs nanocomposites. Structure of β-Ni(OH)2-CNTs nanohybrid was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy measurements. Compared with single CNTs or β-Ni(OH)2, the dispersion of β-Ni(OH)2-CNTs in UPR was improved greatly. And the UPR/β-Ni(OH)2-CNTs nanocomposites exhibited significant improvements in flame retardancy, smoke suppression, and mechanical properties, including decreased peak heat release rate by 39...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Jamshid Parakkattil, Shanmugam Kandasamy, Siddhartha Das, Gerard Pradeep Devnath, Vinod Ashok Chaudhari, Kusa Kumar Shaha
Electrocution fatality cases are difficult to investigate. High-voltage electrocution burns resemble burns caused by other sources, especially if the person survives for few days. In that case, circumstantial evidence if correlated with the autopsy findings helps in determining the cause and manner of death. In addition, the crime scene findings also help to explain the pattern of injuries observed at autopsy. A farmer came in contact with a high-voltage transmission wire and sustained superficial to deep burns over his body...
September 14, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Shu-Dong Jiang, Gang Tang, Junmin Chen, Zheng-Qi Huang, Yuan Hu
Here, we describe a multifunctional biobased polyelectrolyte multilayer-coated hollow mesoporous silica (HM-SiO2@CS@PCL) as a green flame retardant through layer-by-layer assembly using hollow mesoporous silica (HM-SiO2), chitosan (CS) and phosphorylated cellulose (PCL). The electrostatic interactions deposited the CS/PCL coating on the surface of HM-SiO2. Subsequently, this multifunctional flame retardant was used to enhance thermal properties and flame retardancy of epoxy resin. The addition of HM-SiO2@CS@PCL to the epoxy resin thermally destabilized the epoxy resin composite, but generated a higher char yield...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Yan Zheng, Yimin Zhang, Jingna Xu, Xiayang Li, Chunbao Charles Xu
This study aimed at cost-effective utilization of fermentation residues (FR) from biogas project for bio-energy via co-pyrolysis of FR and woody sawdust (WS). In this study, a vacuum reactor was used to study the pyrolysis behaviors of individual and blend samples of FR and WS. Obvious synergistic effects were observed, resulting in a lower char yield but a higher gas yield. The presence of woody sawdust promoted the devolatilization of FR, and improved the syngas (H2 and CO) content in the gaseous products...
July 30, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Cristina Santín, Stefan H Doerr, Agustin Merino, Thomas D Bucheli, Rob Bryant, Philippa Ascough, Xiaodong Gao, Caroline A Masiello
Pyrogenic carbon (PyC), produced naturally (wildfire charcoal) and anthropogenically (biochar), is extensively studied due to its importance in several disciplines, including global climate dynamics, agronomy and paleosciences. Charcoal and biochar are commonly used as analogues for each other to infer respective carbon sequestration potentials, production conditions, and environmental roles and fates. The direct comparability of corresponding natural and anthropogenic PyC, however, has never been tested. Here we compared key physicochemical properties (elemental composition, δ(13)C and PAHs signatures, chemical recalcitrance, density and porosity) and carbon sequestration potentials of PyC materials formed from two identical feedstocks (pine forest floor and wood) under wildfire charring- and slow-pyrolysis conditions...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Nikolas Hagemann, Edisson Subdiaga, Silvia Orsetti, José María de la Rosa, Heike Knicker, Hans-Peter Schmidt, Andreas Kappler, Sebastian Behrens
Biochar, a material defined as charred organic matter applied in agriculture, is suggested as a beneficial additive and bulking agent in composting. Biochar addition to the composting feedstock was shown to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and nutrient leaching during the composting process, and to result in a fertilizer and plant growth medium that is superior to non-amended composts. However, the impact of biochar on the quality and carbon speciation of the organic matter in bulk compost has so far not been the focus of systematic analyses, although these parameters are key to determine the long-term stability and carbon sequestration potential of biochar-amended composts in soil...
September 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Yan Zhang, Ping Geng, Rui Liu
Two typical biomass feedstocks obtained from woody wastes and agricultural residues were torrefied or mildly pyrolized in a fixed-bed reactor. Effects of the torrefaction conditions on product distributions, compositional and energetic properties of the solid products, char gasification reactivity, and co-gasification behavior between coal and torrefied solids were systematically investigated. Torrefaction pretreatment produced high quality bio-solids with not only increased energy density, but also concentrated alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM)...
September 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Brendan Davies, Charly Gaul, Paolo Martelletti, Juan Carlos García-Moncó, Stephanie Brown
BACKGROUND: Migraine is a debilitating neurological disorder that affects 14.1% of the US and 14.7% of the European populations. Chronic migraine (CM) is broadly defined as headache occurring on ≥15 days per month for ≥3 months, and has an estimated worldwide prevalence of 1.4% to 2.2%. OnabotulinumtoxinA is currently approved for the treatment of CM in most European countries, and is the only preventative treatment approved for adults with CM, based on results from the PREEMPT clinical trial programme...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
Sha Peng, Ming Zhou, Feiyan Liu, Chang Zhang, Xueqing Liu, Jiyan Liu, Liyong Zou, Jia Chen
Flame-retardant polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) membranes with high transparency and flexibility were prepared by mixing an aqueous solution of a phosphorus-containing acrylic acid (AOPA) with PVA. The reaction between AOPA and PVA, the transparency, the crystallinity and the flexibility of the membrane were investigated with Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), UV-vis light transmittance, X-ray diffraction and tensile tests, respectively. The limited oxygen index (LOI) and vertical flame (UL 94 VTM), microscale combustion calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and TGA-FTIR were employed to evaluate the flame retardancy as well as to reveal the corresponding mechanisms...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Volker Häring, Delphine Manka'abusi, Edmund K Akoto-Danso, Steffen Werner, Kofi Atiah, Christoph Steiner, Désiré J P Lompo, Samuel Adiku, Andreas Buerkert, Bernd Marschner
In large areas of sub-Saharan Africa crop production must cope with low soil fertility. To increase soil fertility, the application of biochar (charred biomass) has been suggested. In urban areas, untreated waste water is widely used for irrigation because it is a nutrient-rich year-round water source. Uncertainty exists regarding the interactions between soil properties, biochar, waste water and fertilization over time. The aims of this study were to determine these interactions in two typical sandy, soil organic carbon (SOC) and nutrient depleted soils under urban vegetable production in Tamale (Ghana) and Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) over two years...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xiang You, Adriaan van Heiningen, Herbert Sixta, Mikhail Iakovlev
Lignin and ash material balances of SO2-ethanol-water (AVAP®) fractionation of sugarcane (SC) straw were thoroughly studied at various conditions. Most of straw lignin and ash dissolve in the liquor and 40-80% of lignin is precipitated after ethanol removal as a pure (∼99%) and sulfur-lean (<2%) fraction. Most of the acid-soluble ash and its elements (Na, K, Fe, Al) as well as large portion of silica are removed from the fiber phase. Straw lignin behavior exhibited differences compared to wood lignin including high apparent content in fiber, higher degree of sulfonation of dissolved lignin, and dense char-like precipitate formation upon ethanol removal...
November 2017: Bioresource Technology
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