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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437609/source-and-biological-response-of-biochar-organic-compounds-released-into-water-relationships-with-bio-oil-composition-and-carbonization-degree
#1
Michele Ghidotti, Daniele Fabbri, Ondřej Mašek, Colin Logan Mackay, Marco Montalti, Andreas Hornung
Water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs) were extracted from corn stalk biochar produced at increasing pyrolysis temperatures (350-650°C) and from the corresponding vapors, collected as bio-oil. WSOCs were characterized by gas chromatography (semi-volatile fraction), negative electron spray ionization high resolution mass spectrometry (hydrophilic fraction) and fluorescence spectroscopy. The pattern of semi-volatile WSOCs in bio-oil was dominated by aromatic products from lignocellulose, while in biochar was featured by saturated carboxylic acids from hemi/cellulose and lipids with concentrations decreased with decreasing H/C ratios...
April 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437291/behcet-disease-initially-presenting-as-deep-venous-thrombosis-a-case-report
#2
Arun Gurunathan, David Teachey, Kudakwashe R Chikwava, Char Witmer, Ami V Desai
Behcet disease is a potentially life-threatening multisystemic vasculitis with thrombotic tendency. Mucocutaneous ulcers, arthritis, and uveitis are the most recognizable features, but may be absent at the time of medical evaluation. We report a case in which a 8-year old patient presented with spontaneous bilateral lower extremity deep venous thromboses, and screening for rheumatologic symptoms led to diagnosing Behcet. This case demonstrates that deep venous thromboses can be the initial event bringing a patient with Behcet to medical attention, highlighting the importance of screening for underlying rheumatologic diseases in pediatric patients who present with unprovoked thrombosis...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433172/preparation-and-characterization-of-chitosan-derivatives-and-their-application-as-flame-retardants-in-thermoplastic-polyurethane
#3
Xiaodong Liu, Xiaoyu Gu, Jun Sun, Sheng Zhang
Our previous work has demonstrated that chitosan (CS) can be directly used as charring agents. In this paper, efforts were made to further improve the thermal stability and charring ability of CS by reacting with benzaldehyde, salicylaldehyde and hydroxybenzaldehyde respectively to obtain different CS derivatives. CS derivatives in association with ammonium polyphosphate (APP) was then introduced into thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) to prepare flame retardant TPU composites. The sample containing 18.75% APP and 6...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429715/mapping-clinicopathological-entities-within-colorectal-mucinous-adenocarcinomas-a-hierarchical-clustering-approach
#4
Charly Liddell, Laure Droy-Dupré, Sylvie Métairie, Fabrice Airaud, Christelle Volteau, Stéphane Bezieau, Christian L Laboisse, Jean-François Mosnier
The aim of this study was to interrogate the heterogeneity of colorectal mucinous adenocarcinomas. This study is based on hierarchical clustering approach combining clinicopathological and molecular patterns known to be relevant to oncogenesis and therapeutic management of patients with colorectal carcinoma, ie, microsatellite instability, O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) status, KRAS, and BRAF mutations and wnt signaling pathway activation. Comparison of the study group of 60 mucinous adenocarcinomas defined according to World Health Organization classification with control group of 136 colorectal adenocarcinomas successively removed shows higher frequency of BRAF and KRAS mutations and microsatellite instability-high status and lower frequency of wnt signaling pathway activation in mucinous adenocarcinomas...
April 21, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428354/multiplex-tandem-mass-spectrometry-enzymatic-activity-assay-for-newborn-screening-of-the-mucopolysaccharidoses-and-type-2-neuronal-ceroid-lipofuscinosis
#5
Yang Liu, Fan Yi, Arun Babu Kumar, Naveen Kumar Chennamaneni, Xinying Hong, C Ronald Scott, Michael H Gelb, Frantisek Turecek
BACKGROUND: We expanded the use of tandem mass spectrometry combined with liquid chromatography (LC-MS/MS) for multiplex newborn screening of seven lysosomal enzymes in dried blood spots (DBS). The new assays are for enzymes responsible for the mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS-I, -II, -IIIB, -IVA, -VI, and -VII) and type 2 neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (LINCL). METHODS: New substrates were prepared and char-acterized for tripeptidyl peptidase 1 (TPP1), α-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAGLU), and lysosomal β-glucuronidase (GUSB)...
April 20, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425324/persistent-idiopathic-facial-pain
#6
Rafael Benoliel, Charly Gaul
Background Persistent idiopathic facial pain (PIFP) is a chronic disorder recurring daily for more than two hours per day over more than three months, in the absence of clinical neurological deficit. PIFP is the current terminology for Atypical Facial Pain and is characterized by daily or near daily pain that is initially confined but may subsequently spread. Pain cannot be attributed to any pathological process, although traumatic neuropathic mechanisms are suspected. When present intraorally, PIFP has been termed 'Atypical Odontalgia', and this entity is discussed in a separate article in this special issue...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422193/challenges-in-developing-direct-carbon-fuel-cells
#7
REVIEW
Cairong Jiang, Jianjun Ma, Gael Corre, Sneh L Jain, John T S Irvine
A direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) can produce electricity with both superior electrical efficiency and fuel utilisation compared to all other types of fuel cells. Although the first DCFC prototype was proposed in 1896, there was, until the 1970s, little sustained effort to investigate further, because of technology development issues. Interest in DCFCs has recently been reinvigorated as a possible method of replacing conventional coal-fired power plants to meet the demands for lower CO2 emissions, and indeed for efficient utilisation of waste derived chars...
April 19, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419121/the-magnitude-of-ivacaftor-effects-on-fluid-secretion-via-r117h-cftr-channels-human-in-vivo-measurements
#8
Jessica E Char, Colleen Dunn, Zoe Davies, Carlos Milla, Richard B Moss, Jeffrey J Wine
We optically measured effects of orally available ivacaftor (Kalydeco®) on sweat rates of identified glands in 3 R117H subjects, each having a unique set of additional mutations, and compared them with 5 healthy control subjects tested contemporaneously. We injected β-adrenergic agonists intradermally to stimulate CFTR-dependent 'C-sweat' and methacholine to stimulate 'M-sweat', which persists in CF subjects. We focused on an R117H-7T/F508del subject who produced quantifiable C-sweat off ivacaftor and was available for 1 blinded, 3 off ivacaftor, and 3 on ivacaftor tests, allowing us to estimate in vivo fold-increase in sweat rates produced by ivacaftor's effect on the open probability (PO) of R117H-CFTR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411469/primary-hepatocytes-from-arctic-char-salvelinus-alpinus-as-a-relevant-arctic-in-vitro-model-for-screening-contaminants-and-environmental-extracts
#9
Karina Petersen, Maria T Hultman, Knut Erik Tollefsen
Contaminants find their way to the Arctic through long-range atmospheric transport, transport via ocean currents, and through increased anthropogenic activity. Some of the typical pollutants reaching the Arctic (PAHs, PCBs) are known to induce cytochrome P450 1a (CYP1A) protein expression and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). In addition, some endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as estrogen mimics (xenoestrogens) have been documented in Arctic areas and they may interfere with natural sexual development and reproduction...
April 2, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410890/pyrolysis-of-automotive-shredder-residue-in-a-bench-scale-rotary-kiln
#10
Michele Notarnicola, Giacinto Cornacchia, Sabino De Gisi, Francesco Di Canio, Cesare Freda, Pietro Garzone, Maria Martino, Vito Valerio, Antonio Villone
Automotive shredder residue (ASR) can create difficulties when managing, with its production increasing. It is made of different type of plastics, foams, elastomers, wood, glasses and textiles. For this reason, it is complicated to dispose of in a cost effective way, while also respecting the stringent environmental restrictions. Among thermal treatments, pyrolysis seems to offer an environmentally attractive method for the treatment of ASR; it also allows for the recovery of valuable secondary materials/fuels such as pyrolysis oils, chars, and gas...
April 11, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410727/transection-and-explantation-of-intraocular-lenses-using-femtosecond-lasers
#11
Chandra Bala, Ushasree Pattamatta, Thomas Chan, Jeffrey Shi, Kerrie Meades
We present 2 cases in which a femtosecond laser was used in vitro to transect hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs). At 8 μJ with 3 μm spot separation and 6 μm line separation, no charring occurred and there was no increase in total organic carbon. In vivo, the IOLs were successfully transected in the capsular bag (Case 1, opaque IOL) and the sulcus (Case 2, subluxated IOL post-pneumatic displacement of submacular hemorrhage) and explanted through a clear corneal incision (∼3.0 mm). At 3 months, in Case 1, the corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) improved from 6/24 to 6/5, astigmatism improved by 0...
March 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410541/the-influence-of-a-novel-two-dimensional-graphene-like-nanomaterial-on-thermal-stability-and-flammability-of-polystyrene
#12
Keqing Zhou, Rui Gao
Significant improvements in thermal stability and fire resistance properties of polymer materials with nanofillers at low loadings hold tremendous promise for fire safety materials. In this study, a novel two dimensional (2D) graphene-like nanomaterial (VOP) was synthesized by a simple refluxing method and then modified with typical organic surfactants. Subsequently, the novel graphene-like nanomaterials were incorporated into polystyrene (PS) matrix for reducing fire hazards. The SEM and TEM images indicated that the VOP nanosheets were well dispersed throughout the matrix without obvious aggregates, leading to remarkable improvements of thermal stability and fire safety properties...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407538/microwave-pyrolysis-of-textile-dyeing-sludge-in-a-continuously-operated-auger-reactor-char-characterization-and-analysis
#13
Hedong Zhang, Zuopeng Gao, Wenya Ao, Jing Li, Guangqing Liu, Jie Fu, Chunmei Ran, Xiao Mao, Qinhao Kang, Yang Liu, Jianjun Dai
Textile dyeing sludge (DS) contains toxic organic and inorganic substances, and needs to be disposed by appropriate technologies. This paper investigated an auger pyrolyser under microwave irradiation for treatment and disposal of DS. Microwave power, temperature, gas and solid residence times, addition of catalysts were studied. The results showed that the char yield gradually decreased with microwave power. The residence times of solid and gas have slight effects on char yields in the temperature range of 450-750°C...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402020/synthesis-of-aromatic-sulfones-from-so2-and-organosilanes-under-metal-free-conditions
#14
Niklas von Wolff, Joëlle Char, Xavier Frogneux, Thibault Cantat
The conversion of SO2 into arylsulfones under metal-free conditions was achieved for the first time by reacting SO2 with (hetero)arylsilanes and alkylhalides in the presence of a fluoride source. The mechanism of this transformation was elucidated based on DFT calculations, which highlight the influence of SO2 in promoting C-Si bond cleavage.
April 12, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400635/oral-and-cutaneous-lymphomas-other-than-mycosis-fungoides-and-s%C3%A3-zary-syndrome-in-a-mexican-cohort-recategorization-and-evaluation-of-international-geographical-disparities
#15
Amparo Hernández-Salazar, Jorge Andrés García-Vera, Yann Charli-Joseph, Guadalupe Ortiz-Pedroza, Silvia Méndez-Flores, Rocío Orozco-Topete, Ana Lilia Morales-Leyte, Judith Domínguez-Cherit, Carmen Lome-Maldonado
BACKGROUND: Nonmycosis fungoides/Sézary syndrome (non-MF/SS) primary cutaneous lymphomas (PCL) are currently categorized under the 2005-World Health Organization/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (WHO-EORTC) classification for PCL. These differ in behavior from secondary cutaneous lymphomas (SCL) and to lymphomas limited to the oral cavity (primary oral lymphomas [POL]) both categorized under the 2016-WHO classification for lymphoid neoplasms. AIMS: This study aims to report the first series of non-MF/SS PCL, SCL, and POL in a Mexican cohort, examine the applicability of current classification systems and compare our findings with those from foreign cohorts...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400156/properties-of-chars-from-the-gasification-and-pyrolysis-of-rice-waste-streams-towards-their-valorisation-as-adsorbent-materials
#16
D Dias, N Lapa, M Bernardo, D Godinho, I Fonseca, M Miranda, F Pinto, F Lemos
Rice straw (RS), rice husk (RH) and polyethylene (PE) were blended and submitted to gasification and pyrolysis processes. The chars obtained were submitted to textural, chemical, and ecotoxic characterisations, towards their possible valorisation. Gasification chars were mainly composed of ashes (73.4-89.8wt%), while pyrolysis chars were mainly composed of carbon (53.0-57.6wt%). Silicon (Si) was the major mineral element in all chars followed by alkaline and alkaline-earth metal species (AAEMs). In the pyrolysis chars, titanium (Ti) was also a major element, as the feedstock blends contained high fractions of PE which was the main source of Ti...
April 8, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399419/biochar-potential-evaluation-of-palm-oil-wastes-through-slow-pyrolysis-thermochemical-characterization-and-pyrolytic-kinetic-studies
#17
Xin Jiat Lee, Lai Yee Lee, Suyin Gan, Suchithra Thangalazhy-Gopakumar, Hoon Kiat Ng
This research investigated the potential of palm kernel shell (PKS), empty fruit bunch (EFB) and palm oil sludge (POS), abundantly available agricultural wastes, as feedstock for biochar production by slow pyrolysis (50mLmin(-1) N2 at 500°C). Various characterization tests were performed to establish the thermochemical properties of the feedstocks and obtained biochars. PKS and EFB had higher lignin, volatiles, carbon and HHV, and lower ash than POS. The thermochemical conversion had enhanced the biofuel quality of PKS-char and EFB-char exhibiting increased HHV (26...
March 22, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390786/gasification-kinetics-of-raw-and-wet-torrefied-microalgae-chlorella-vulgaris-esp-31-in-carbon-dioxide
#18
Quang-Vu Bach, Wei-Hsin Chen, Herng-Kuang Sheen, Jo-Shu Chang
This study aims at investigating the gasification behavior and kinetics of microalga Chlorella vulgaris ESP-31 before and after wet torrefaction. The raw and wet-torrefied microalgae were first gasified in a thermogravimetric analyzer under a continuous CO2 flow. Thereafter, the obtained thermogravimetric data were modeled for kinetic study, employing a seven-parallel-reaction mechanism. The decomposition of the microalgae in CO2 shows two reactive stages: devolatilization with two peaks and gasification with a peak accompanied by a shoulder, and the thermal decomposition of components in the samples can be clearly identified...
March 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390308/developing-a-food-web-based-transfer-factor-of-radiocesium-for-fish-whitespotted-char-salvelinus-leucomaenis-in-headwater-streams
#19
Md Enamul Haque, Takashi Gomi, Masaru Sakai, Junjiro N Negishi
We developed a food web-based transfer factor (TFweb) to study contaminant movements from multiple prey items to a predator based on the dietary contributions of prey items with their respective contamination levels. TFweb was used to evaluate the transfer of (137)Cs into whitespotted char (Salvelinus leucomaenis) from the trophic structure of a stream-riparian ecosystem in headwater streams draining a Japanese cedar forest. We also examined the applicability of this method by comparing sites with different contamination levels but similar surrounding environments in Fukushima and Gunma...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387469/elucidation-of-biosynthetic-pathways-of-natural-products
#20
REVIEW
Shinji Kishimoto, Yuta Tsunematsu, Michio Sato, Kenji Watanabe
During the last decade, we have revealed biosynthetic pathways responsible for the formation of important and chemically complex natural products isolated from various organisms through genetic manipulation. Detailed in vivo and in vitro characterizations enabled elucidation of unexpected mechanisms of secondary metabolite biosynthesis. This personal account focuses on our recent efforts in identifying the genes responsible for the biosynthesis of spirotryprostatin, aspoquinolone, Sch 210972, pyranonigrin, fumagillin and pseurotin...
April 7, 2017: Chemical Record: An Official Publication of the Chemical Society of Japan ... [et Al.]
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