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Yo Otsu, Salvatore Lecca, Katarzyna Pietrajtis, Charly Vincent Rousseau, Païkan Marcaggi, Guillaume Pierre Dugué, Caroline Mailhes-Hamon, Manuel Mameli, Marco Alberto Diana
The medial habenula (MHb) is an epithalamic hub contributing to expression and extinction of aversive states by bridging forebrain areas and midbrain monoaminergic centers. Although contradictory information exists regarding their synaptic properties, the physiology of the excitatory inputs to the MHb from the posterior septum remains elusive. Here, combining optogenetics-based mapping with ex vivo and in vivo physiology, we examine the synaptic properties of posterior septal afferents to the MHb and how they influence behavior...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
Jong-Hwan Park, Jim J Wang, Seong-Heon Kim, Se-Won Kang, Ju-Sik Cho, Ronald D Delaune, Yong Sik Ok, Dong-Cheol Seo
Recycling food waste for beneficial use is becoming increasingly important in resource-limited economy. In this study, waste chicken bones of different parts from restaurant industry were pyrolyzed at 600 °C and evaluated for char physicochemical properties and Pb sorption characteristics. Lead adsorption isotherms by different chicken bone chars were carried out with initial Pb concentration range of 1-1000 mg L-1 at pH 5. The Pb adsorption data were better described by the Langmuir model (R2 = 0.9289-0...
January 18, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Rixiang Huang, Bei Zhang, Emily M Saad, Ellery D Ingall, Yuanzhi Tang
Thermal and hydrothermal treatments are promising techniques for sewage sludge management that can potentially facilitate safe waste disposal, energy recovery, and nutrient recovery/recycling. Content and speciation of heavy metals in the treatment products affect the potential environmental risks upon sludge disposal and/or application of the treatment products. Therefore, it is important to study the speciation transformation of heavy metals and the effects of treatment conditions. By combining synchrotron X-ray spectroscopy/microscopy analysis and sequential chemical extraction, this study systematically characterized the speciation of Zn and Cu in municipal sewage sludges and their chars derived from pyrolysis (a representative thermal treatment technique) and hydrothermal carbonization (HTC; a representative hydrothermal treatment technique)...
January 4, 2018: Water Research
Hongda Chen, Jihui Wang, Aiqing Ni, Anxin Ding, Xia Han, Ziheng Sun
In order to improve the efficiency of intumescent flame retardants (IFRs), a novel macromolecular charring agent named poly(ethanediamine-1,3,5-triazine-p-4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine) (PETAT) with gas phase and condense phase synergistic flame-retardant capability was synthesized and subsequently dispersed into polypropylene (PP) in combination with ammonium polyphosphate (APP) via a melt blending method. The chemical structure of PETAT was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy...
January 11, 2018: Materials
Zahra Afshar, Charlotte Roberts, Andrew Millard
The site of Tepe Hissar (Iran) experienced widespread cultural and economic changes during the Chalcolithic and Bronze Ages (5th to the 2nd millennium B.C.). The discovery of evidence of burning, including charred human remains, the destruction of buildings (Periods II and III), and the presence of several mass-burials with comingling of human skeletal remains consisting of ten or more individuals (Period III), suggests interpersonal violence during these periods. The original excavator of Tepe Hissar, Erich Schmidt, suggested that phenomena such as war, massacres, epidemics, or similar catastrophes, may have been responsible for the excavated archaeological evidence...
January 10, 2018: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
Xingxing Cheng, Ming Zhang, Zhiqiang Wang, Guiying Xu, Chunyuan Ma
Thermal degradation of sewage sludge disposal is attracting more attention due to the increase in municipal wastewater treatment. In this work the performance of the thermochemical processes of sewage sludge at different oxygen concentrations was investigated by thermogravimetric (TG) and Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR) study. The oxygen concentrations were varied systematically from 0 to 20%, representing heating process from pyrolysis to full combustion. The evolutions of surface functional groups in these processes were also investigated by in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectra (DRIFT), which helped to understand the reaction mechanism during the thermal degradation, especially when the reaction conditions were different...
January 6, 2018: Waste Management
Michael E Charness
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Jarrett Evans, Neil Charness, Katinka Dijkstra, Joanna M Fitzgibbons, Jong-Sung Yoon
This study examined how age, depressive symptoms, demographic variables, frailty, and health factors jointly influence episodic memory across the lifespan in two large, diverse samples. Hierarchical regression analyses from both samples showed that depressive symptoms negatively impacted episodic memory performance with the effect being more pronounced for older adults. Health and frailty tended not to be associated with episodic memory. However, the main effect of depressive symptoms tended to remain significant over and above other predictors, while the interaction with age was weakened with the addition of demographic variables...
January 9, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
Md Abu Talha, Mandavi Goswami, B S Giri, Anjaney Sharma, B N Rai, R S Singh
In the present study, bacterial species capable of degrading colour waste were isolated from the water bodies located near the carpet cluster in the Bhadohi district of U.P., India. Among the isolated species best one was selected on the basis of its capability to degrade Congo red in batch experiments using NaCl-Yeast as the nutrient media and further it was identified as Brevibacillus parabrevis using 16S rDNA sequencing. The process parameters were optimized for maximum degradation in batch experiments and found out to be: Inoculum size: 3 ml, Temperature: 30 °C, Time: 6 days leading to a removal of 95...
December 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Deepika Kaushal, Ajay Kumar, Shweta Yadav, Ankit Tandon, Arun K Attri
Carbonaceous aerosols play an important role in affecting human health, radiative forcing, hydrological cycle, and climate change. As our current understanding about the carbonaceous aerosols, the source(s) and process(es) associated with them in the ecologically sensitive North-Western Himalayas are limited; this systematic study was planned to understand inherent dynamics in the mass concentration and source contribution of carbonaceous aerosols in the Dhauladhar region. During four winter months (January 2015-April 2015), 24-h PM10 samples were collected every week simultaneously at the rural site of Pohara (32...
January 6, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Wenyi Deng, Andong Yin, Jingchen Ma, Yaxin Su
Different types of sludge chars, i.e. the original (S1), HNO3 washed (S2), KOH activated (S3), and H2 reduced chars, were prepared to investigate their performances for NO conversion under low temperature. Results indicated that the surface area of the sludge chars did not play key role on NO conversion. S1 showed the higher NO conversion performance than S2 and S3, due to the reducing effect of iron components in S1 (mainly FeS and Fe2P). Both H2 reduction at high temperature and the followed cooling atmosphere (H2 or N2) have great influences on the activity of S1...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Jonathan J Crook, Charly Brouillard, Pedro Irazoqui, Thelma Lovick
Objective Neuromodulation of autonomic nerve activity to regulate physiological processes is an emerging field. Vagal stimulation has received most attention whereas the potential of modulate visceral function by targeting autonomic nerves within the abdominal cavity remains under-exploited. Surgery to locate intra-abdominal targets is inherently more stressful than for peripheral nerves. Electrode leads risk becoming entrapped by intestines and loss of functionality in the nerve-target organ connection could result from electrode migration or twisting...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Carmalin Sophia Ayyappan, V M Bhalambaal, Sunil Kumar
The effect of coconut shell biochar on dye degradation in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) was investigated in the present study. Two different doses of biochar (0.5 g and 1 g) and one control without bio-char were studied. The highest COD removal efficiency was about 77.7% (0.5 g biochar), maximum current (1.07 mA) and voltage (722 mV) were obtained with 1 g biochar. Biofilm optical microscopy characterization revealed the micro colonies intricate plate-like structures. High adsorbent dosage might provide a high surface area for biofilm to generate electricity...
December 16, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Charlis Raineki, Linda Ellis, Joanne Weinberg
Many functions of the hippocampus are affected by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). In particular, dysregulation of the stress response is especially important because individuals with PAE carry increased risks for exposure to stressful environments throughout life. Little is known, though, about how adolescent stress in the context of PAE-related stress system dysregulation may further alter hippocampal development. Here we investigate the short- and long-term effects of adolescent chronic mild stress (CMS) on mRNA expression of stress-related mineralocorticoid (MR), glucocorticoid (GR), and type 1 CRH (CRHR1) receptors in the dorsal and ventral hippocampal formation of PAE and control rats...
December 18, 2017: Hippocampus
Suzana Madžarić, Monika Kos, Damjana Drobne, Matej Hočevar, Anita Jemec Kokalj
We investigated how different carbonized materials, or chars (olive mill pomace biochar (BC) and urban greens pruning residues hydrochar (HC)) affect an important member of soil fauna, the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber. The selection behavior of isopods towards chars after a 48 h exposure was studied in (i) soil-char amended tests with single and multiple choices, and (ii) tests with chars offered as pure material. Finally, we exposed the isopods to char-amended soils for a period of 14 days to follow the effect on food consumption, body mass and activities of enzymes that are commonly altered upon stressor exposure (acetylcholinesterase, AChE, and glutathione S-transferase, GST)...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Pawan Kumar, Sushil Kumar, Sudesh Yadav
Size distribution, water-soluble inorganic ions (WSII), and organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in size-segregated aerosols were investigated during a year-long sampling in 2010 over New Delhi. Among different size fractions of PM10, PM0.95 was the dominant fraction (45%) followed by PM3-7.2 (20%), PM7.2-10 (15%), PM0.95-1.5 (10%), and PM1.5-3 (10%). All size fractions exceeded the ambient air quality standards of India for PM2.5. Annual average mass size distributions of ions were specific to size and ion(s); Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, NO3-, and Cl- followed bimodal distribution while SO42- and NH4+ ions showed one mode in PM0...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Dean J Miller, Charli Sargent, Grace E Vincent, Gregory D Roach, Shona L Halson, Michele Lastella
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Abdol Ghaffar Ebadi, Hikmat Hisoriev, Mohammad Zarnegar, Hamed Ahmadi
The steam gasification of algal biomass (Cladophora glomerata L.) in presence of alkali and alkaline-earth metal compounds (AAEM) catalysts was studied to enhance the yield of syngas and reduce its tar content through craking and reforming of condensable fractions. The commercial catalysts used include NaOH, KHCO3, Na3PO4 and MgO. The gasification runs carried out with a research scale, biomass gasification unit, show that the NaOH has a strong potential for production of hydrogen, along with the added advantages of char converting and tar destruction, allowing enhancement of produced syngas caloric value...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Technology
Peter J Goadsby, Ilse F de Coo, Nicholas Silver, Alok Tyagi, Fayyaz Ahmed, Charly Gaul, Rigmor H Jensen, Hans-Christoph Diener, Kasia Solbach, Andreas Straube, Eric Liebler, Juana Ca Marin, Michel D Ferrari
Background Clinical observations and results from recent studies support the use of non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation (nVNS) for treating cluster headache (CH) attacks. This study compared nVNS with a sham device for acute treatment in patients with episodic or chronic CH (eCH, cCH). Methods After completing a 1-week run-in period, subjects were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive nVNS or sham therapy during a 2-week double-blind period. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of all treated attacks that achieved pain-free status within 15 minutes after treatment initiation, without rescue treatment...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
J Viljanen, T Sorvajärvi, J Toivonen
Combustion research requires detailed localized information on the dynamic combustion conditions to improve the accuracy of the simulations and, hence, improve the performance of the combustion processes. We have applied chemical reaction kinetics of potassium to measure the local temperature and O2 concentration in flue gas. An excess of free atomic potassium is created in the measurement volume by a photofragmenting precursor molecule such as potassium chloride or KOH which are widely released from solid fuels...
December 1, 2017: Optics Letters
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