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Melissa M Blessing, Peter T Lin
Visual identification is the most common identification method used by medical examiners but is not always possible. Alternative methods include X-ray, fingerprint, or DNA comparison, but these methods require additional resources. Comparison of serial numbers on implanted medical devices is a rapid and definitive method of identification. To assess the practicality of using this method, we reviewed 608 consecutive forensic autopsies performed at a regional medical examiner office. Of these, 56 cases required an alternative method of identification due to decomposition (n = 35), gunshot wound (n = 9), blunt trauma (n = 6), or charring (n = 6)...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Sara Dawood, Tushar Kanti Sen, Chi Phan
Pine cone bio-char was synthesized through slow pyrolysis at 500°C, characterized and used as an effective adsorbent in the removal of organic Methylene Blue (MB) dye and inorganic nickel metal (Ni(II) ions from aqueous phase. Batch adsorption kinetic study was carried out by varying solution pH, dye concentration, temperature, adsorbent dose and contact time. Kinetic and isotherm models indicates that the adsorption of both adsorbates onto pine cone bio-char were mainly by chemisorption. Langmuir maximum adsorption capability was found to be 106...
July 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Ivy Ng, Char Loo Tan, Tseng Tsai Yeo, Balamurugan Vellayappan
Glioblastoma (GBM) typically occurs as a primary tumour (i.e., primary GBM) and predominantly affects elderly patients. The remaining ~10% occur as a result of malignant progression from lower grade astrocytic tumours (i.e., secondary GBM). Although there are no certain causative environmental agents, prior radiation exposure may play a role. We report on a patient who had been treated six years prior for a vestibular schwannoma with high-dose conventional radiotherapy and subsequently developed a rapidly fatal glioblastoma at the same location...
June 11, 2017: Curēus
Lara González Carretero, Michèle Wollstonecroft, Dorian Q Fuller
This paper presents an integrated methodology for the analysis of archaeological remains of cereal meals, based on scanning electronic microscopic analyses of microstructures of charred food fragments from Neolithic Çatalhöyük (Turkey). The remains of cereal foods as 'bread-like' or 'porridge-like' small charred lumps of various amalgamated plant materials are frequently recovered from Neolithic and later archaeological sites in southwest Asia and Europe. Cereal food remains have recently attracted interest because the identification of their plant contents, the forms of food that they represent and the methods used in their creation can provide unique information about ancient culinary traditions and routine food processing, preparation and cooking techniques...
2017: Vegetation History and Archaeobotany
Fang Liang, Ruijuan Wang, Changle Jiang, Xiaomeng Yang, Tao Zhang, Wanhe Hu, Bingbing Mi, Zhijia Liu
To investigate co-combustion characteristics of bamboo and wood, moso bamboo and masson pine were torrefied and mixed with different blend ratios. The combustion process was examined by thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The results showed the combustion process of samples included volatile emission and oxidation combustion as well as char combustion. The main mass loss of biomass blends occurred at volatile emission and oxidation combustion stage, while that of torrefied biomass occurred at char combustion stage...
July 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Charlis Raineki, Tamara S Bodnar, Parker J Holman, Samantha L Baglot, Ni Lan, Joanne Weinberg
The contribution of the early postnatal environment to the pervasive effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is poorly understood. Moreover, PAE often carries increased risk of exposure to adversity/stress during early life. Dysregulation of immune function may play a role in how pre- and/or postnatal adversity/stress alters brain development. Here, we combine two animal models to examine whether PAE differentially increases vulnerability to immune dysregulation in response to early-life adversity. PAE and control litters were exposed to either limited bedding (postnatal day [PN] 8-12) to model early-life adversity or normal bedding, and maternal behavior and pup vocalizations were recorded...
July 8, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
A Aboulkas, H Hammani, M El Achaby, E Bilal, A Barakat, K El Harfi
The aim of the present work is to develop processes for the production of bio-oil and bio-char from algae waste using the pyrolysis at controlled conditions. The pyrolysis was carried out at different temperatures 400-600°C and different heating rates 5-50°C/min. The algal waste, bio-oil and bio-char were successfully characterized using Elemental analysis, Chemical composition, TGA, FTIR, (1)H NMR, GC-MS and SEM. At a temperature of 500°C and a heating rate of 10°C/min, the maximum yield of bio-oil and bio-char was found to be 24...
June 23, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Jiakuan Yang, Jian Song, Sha Liang, Ruonan Guan, Yafei Shi, Wenbo Yu, Suiyi Zhu, Wei Fan, Huijie Hou, Jingping Hu, Huali Deng, Bo Xiao
This study investigated the synergistic effect of water content and a composite conditioner of Fenton's reagent combined with red mud (Fenton-RM) on the pyrolytic products (fuel gas, tar, and solid char) of deep-dewatered sludge. The catalytic effect of metal oxides in Fenton-RM could be promoted by the presence of water during sludge pyrolysis, showing higher gas yield with increased water content. Maximum gas outputs of the deep-dewatered sludge conditioned with Fenton-RM (S-Fenton-RM) and the conventional dewatered sludge conditioned with polyacrylamide (S-PAM), both appeared at 900 °C with a water content of 65 wt%, and were 0...
June 29, 2017: Water Research
Bing Zhao, Xinyang Xu, Shucong Xu, Xi Chen, Haibo Li, Fanqiang Zeng
Municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and hazelnut shell were used for co-pyrolysis by chemical activation with ZnCl2. The surface characteristics and potential ecological risk evaluation of heavy metals in the bio-char produced by co-pyrolysis were analyzed by surface analyzer and BCR sequential extraction. When raw materials with ZnCl2 (3mol/L) were co-pyrolyzed at 500°C for 90min, specific surface area of the bio-char is 598.73m(2)/g, and iodine absorption number is 607.85mg/g. For microcosmic surface of the bio-char, the ratio of micropore area is stabilized from 0...
June 19, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Jing Yang, Joseph J Pignatello, Bo Pan, Baoshan Xing
Chars and other black carbons are reactive towards certain compounds. Such reactivity has been attributed to reduction of O2 by persistent free radicals in the solid to H2O2, which then back-reacts with the solid to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS; especially HO). We studied the decomposition of p-nitrophenol (PNP) by pure lignin and cellulose chars aged in moist air or a vacuum at room temperature for up to a month. In air, the chars chemisorb oxygen, a portion of which is liberated as H2O2 when the char is submerged in water...
July 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Fabien Roch Niama, Nicole Vidal, Halimatou Diop-Ndiaye, Etienne Nguimbi, Gabriel Ahombo, Philippe Diakabana, Édith Sophie Bayonne Kombo, Pembe Issamou Mayengue, Simon-Charles Kobawila, Henri Joseph Parra, Coumba Toure-Kane
BACKGROUND: In this work, we investigated the genetic diversity of HIV-1 and the presence of mutations conferring antiretroviral drug resistance in 50 drug-naïve infected persons in the Republic of Congo (RoC). Samples were obtained before large-scale access to HAART in 2002 and 2004. METHODS: To assess the HIV-1 genetic recombination, the sequencing of the pol gene encoding a protease and partial reverse transcriptase was performed and analyzed with updated references, including newly characterized CRFs...
July 5, 2017: BMC Research Notes
Lorena Delgadillo-Velasco, Virginia Hernández-Montoya, Francisco J Cervantes, Miguel A Montes-Morán, Diana Lira-Berlanga
In the present work, it was established a new method for the preparation of bone chars with a double purpose, i.e., the removal of fluoride from water and the antibacterial character. These adsorbents were obtained by doping a commercial bone char with Ag using different reagents. The optimal conditions for the enrichment with silver were established by following the Taguchi method and using as response variable the removal of fluoride from water. Optimal bone chars were thus prepared and they were characterized using FT-IR spectroscopy, SEM/EDX analysis, adsorption isotherms of N2 at -196 °C and X-ray diffraction...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Jhonnah Mundike, François-Xavier Collard, Johann F Görgens
Pyrolysis of invasive non-indigenous plants, Lantana camara (LC) and Mimosa pigra (MP) was conducted at milligram-scale for optimisation of temperature, heating rate and hold time on char yield and higher heating value (HHV). The impact of scaling-up to gram-scale was also studied, with chromatography used to correlate gas composition with HHV evolution. Statistically significant effects of temperature on char yield and HHV were obtained, while heating rate and hold time effects were insignificant. Milligram-scale maximised HHVs were 30...
June 19, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Ian R Slade, Sara J Beck, C Bradley Kramer, Rebecca G Symons, Michael Cusumano, David R Flum, Thomas H Gallagher, Emily Beth Devine
OBJECTIVE: Washington State's HealthPact program was launched in 2011 as part of AHRQ's Patient Safety and Medical Liability Reform initiative. HealthPact delivered interdisciplinary communication training to health-care professionals with the goal of enhancing safety. We conducted 2 exploratory, retrospective database analyses to investigate training impact on the frequency of adverse events (AEs) and select quality measures across 3 time frames: pretraining (2009-2011), transition (2012), and posttraining (2013)...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Patient Safety
Nathalie Lagarde, Solenne Delahaye, Aurore Jérémie, Nesrine Ben Nasr, Hélène Guillemain, Charly Empereur-Mot, Vincent Laville, Taoufik Labib, Manon Réau, Florent Langenfeld, Jean-François Zagury, Matthieu Montes
Nuclear receptors (NRs) constitute an important class of therapeutic targets. During the last 4 years, we tackled the pharmacological profile assessment of NR ligands for which we constructed the NRLiSt BDB. We evaluated and compared the performance of different virtual screening approaches: mean of molecular descriptor distribution values, molecular docking and 3D pharmacophore models. The simple comparison of the distribution profiles of 4885 molecular descriptors between the agonist and antagonist datasets didn't provide satisfying results...
July 3, 2017: Molecular Informatics
Miloud Ouadi, Nils Jaeger, Charles Greenhalf, Joao Santos, Roberto Conti, Andreas Hornung
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) refers to a heterogeneous mixture composed of plastics, paper, metal, food and other miscellaneous items. Local authorities commonly dispose of this waste by either landfill or incineration which are both unsustainable practices. Disposing of organic wastes via these routes is also becoming increasingly expensive due to rising landfill taxes and transport costs. The Thermo-Catalytic Reforming (TCR®) process, is a proposed valorisation route to transform organic wastes and residues, such as MSW, into sustainable energy vectors including (H2 rich synthesis gas, liquid bio-oil and solid char)...
June 29, 2017: Waste Management
Peter Mühlschlegel, Armin Hauk, Ulrich Walter, Robert Sieber
Honey samples from Switzerland were investigated with regard to their microplastic particle burden. Five representative honey samples of different origin were processed following a standardized protocol to separate plastic-based microparticles from particles of natural origin, such as pollen, propolis, wax, and bee-related debris. The procedure was optimized to minimize post-sampling microplastic cross-contamination in the laboratory. The isolated microplastic particles were characterized and grouped by means of light microscopy as well as chemically characterized by microscopically coupled Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy...
July 10, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Zhengyu Jin, Fengmin Chang, Fanlin Meng, Cuiping Wang, Yao Meng, Xiaoji Liu, Jing Wu, Jiane Zuo, Kaijun Wang
Aiming at closed-loop sustainable sewage sludge treatment, an optimal and economical pyrolytic temperature was found at 400-450 °C considering its pyrolysis efficiency of 65%, fast cracking of hydrocarbons, proteins and lipids and development of aromatized porous structure. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) tests demonstrated the development of adsorptive functional groups and crystallographic phases of adsorptive minerals. The optimal sludge-char, with a medium specific surface area of 39...
June 9, 2017: Chemosphere
Oluwasola O D Afolabi, M Sohail
This paper compares conventional and microwave hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of human biowaste (HBW) at 160 °C, 180 °C and 200 °C as a potential technology to recover valuable carbonaceous solid fuel char and organic-rich liquor. Also discussed are the influence of HTC heating methods and temperature on HBW processing conversion into solid fuel char, i.e. yield and post-HTC management, dewaterability rates, particle size distribution and the carbon and energy properties of solid fuel char. While HTC temperatures influenced all parameters investigated, especially yield and properties of end products recovered, heating source effects were noticeable on dewatering rates, char particle sizes and HBW processing/end product recovery rate and, by extension, energy consumed...
June 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Laura Benestan, Jean-Sébastien Moore, Ben J G Sutherland, Jérémy Le Luyer, Halim Maaroufi, Clément Rougeux, Eric Normandeau, Nathan Rycroft, Jelle Atema, Les N Harris, Ross F Tallman, Spencer J Greenwood, K Fraser Clark, Louis Bernatchez
Using massively parallel sequencing data from two species with different life history traits, American lobster (Homarus americanus) and Arctic Char (Salvelinus alpinus), we highlight how an unbalanced sex ratio in the samples and a few sex-linked markers may lead to false interpretations of population structure and thus to potentially erroneous management recommendations. Here, multivariate analyses revealed two genetic clusters separating samples by sex instead of by expected spatial variation; inshore and offshore locations in lobster, or east and west locations in Arctic Char...
June 28, 2017: Molecular Ecology
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