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Ana F Miranda, Bijoy Biswas, Narasimhan Ramkumar, Rawel Singh, Jitendra Kumar, Anton James, Felicity Roddick, Banwari Lal, Sanjukta Subudhi, Thallada Bhaskar, Aidyn Mouradov
BACKGROUND: The quest for sustainable production of renewable and cheap biofuels has triggered an intensive search for domestication of the next generation of bioenergy crops. Aquatic plants which can rapidly colonize wetlands are attracting attention because of their ability to grow in wastewaters and produce large amounts of biomass. Representatives of Azolla species are some of the fastest growing plants, producing substantial biomass when growing in contaminated water and natural ecosystems...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Zhi-Wei Tan, Jian Sun, Cheng-Yan Wu, Jin-Jun Qiu, Cheng-Mei Liu
A convenient route to convert the highly toxic phosphine (PH3) tail gas into high-performance polybenzoxazines was first described in this paper. Two aliphatic polyamines, namely tris(aminomethyl)phosphine oxide and bis(aminomethyl)phenylphosphine oxide, were synthesized from tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulfate (THPS), a green derivative of PH3 tail gas. And then two novel phosphorus-containing benzoxazine monomers, tris(3,4-dihydro-2H-1,3-benzoxazin-3-yl-methyl)phosphine oxide (TBOz) and benzylbis(3,4-dihydro-2H-1,3-benzoxazin-3-yl-methyl) phosphine oxide (BBOz) were prepared by three-steps procedure...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
R Rohaizu, W D Wanrosli
Highly stable and dispersible nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) was successfully isolated from oil palm empty fruit bunch microcrystalline cellulose (OPEFB-MCC), with yields of 93% via a sono-assisted TEMPO-oxidation and a subsequent sonication process. The sono-assisted treatment has a remarkable effect, resulting in an increase of more than 100% in the carboxylate content and a significant increase of approximately 39% in yield compared with the non-assisted process. TEM images reveal the OPEFB-NCC to have rod-like crystalline morphology with an average length and width of 122 and 6nm, respectively...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Zhengbin He, Zhenyu Wang, Zijian Zhao, Songlin Yi, Jun Mu, Xiaoxu Wang
As an initial step to increase the use of renewable biomass resources, this study was aimed at investigating the effects of ultrasound pretreatment on structural changes of wood. Samples were pretreated by ultrasound with the power of 300W and frequency of 28kHz in aqueous soda solution, aqueous acetic acid, or distilled water, then pretreated and control samples were characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Eric Capo, Didier Debroas, Fabien Arnaud, Typhaine Guillemot, Vincent Bichet, Laurent Millet, Emilie Gauthier, Charly Massa, Anne-Lise Develle, Cécile Pignol, Franck Lejzerowicz, Isabelle Domaizon
Assessing the extent to which changes in lacustrine biodiversity are affected by anthropogenic or climatic forces requires extensive paleolimnological data. We used high-throughput sequencing to generate time-series data encompassing over 2200 years of microbial eukaryotes (protists and Fungi) diversity changes from the sedimentary DNA record of 2 lakes (Lake Bourget in French Alps and Lake Igaliku in Greenland). From 176 samples, we sequenced a large diversity of microbial eukaryotes, with a total 16 386 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) distributed within 50 phylogenetic groups...
October 20, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Charli S Davies, Kendra N Smyth, Lydia K Greene, Debbie A Walsh, Jessica Mitchell, Tim Clutton-Brock, Christine M Drea
In vertebrates, reproductive endocrine concentrations are strongly differentiated by sex, with androgen biases typifying males and estrogen biases typifying females. These sex differences can be reduced in female-dominant species; however, even the most masculinised of females have less testosterone (T) than do conspecific males. To test if aggressively dominant, female meerkats (Suricata suricatta) may be hormonally masculinised, we measured serum androstenedione (A4), T and estradiol (E2) in both sexes and social classes, during both 'baseline' and reproductive events...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
S Vichaphund, V Sricharoenchaikul, D Atong
Fly ash-derived HZSM-5 catalyst was first applied in the catalytic pyrolysis of Jatropha residues in a semi-continuous fixed-bed reactor. The catalytic performance of HZSM-5 catalysts prepared from chemicals including conventional hydrothermal HZSM-5, Ni/HZSM-5 by ion exchange, and commercial HZSM-5 (Si/Al = 30) was evaluated for comparison. Catalytic pyrolysis of Jatropha residues with HZSM-5 catalysts was investigated in terms of product yields and qualities of bio-oil and bio-char. The liquid yield produced from fly ash-derived HZSM-5 was 29...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Technology
Zhe He, Neil Charness, Jiang Bian, William R Hogan
Well-designed and well-conducted clinical studies represent gold standard approaches for generating medical evidence. However, elderly populations are systematically underrepresented in studies across major chronic medical conditions, which has hampered the generalizability (external validity) of studies to the real-world patient population. It is the norm that intervention studies often require a homogeneous cohort to test their hypotheses; therefore older adults with co-medications and comorbidities are often excluded...
February 2016: ... IEEE-EMBS International Conference on Biomedical and Health Informatics. IEEE-EMBS International Conference on Biomedical and Health Informatics
Vijay Sundaram, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Stephen Gent
Lignocellulosic feedstocks corn stover, prairie cord grass, and switchgrass were subjected to ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX™) pretreatment and densified using extrusion pelleting and ComPAKco densification technique. The effects of AFEX™ pretreatment and densification were studied on the fast pyrolysis product yields. Feedstocks were milled in a hammer mill using three different screen sizes (2, 4, and 8 mm) and were subjected to AFEX™ pretreatment. The untreated and AFEX™-pretreated feedstocks were moisture adjusted at three levels (5, 10, and 15 % wb) and were extruded using a lab-scale single screw extruder...
October 8, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
R Miandad, A S Nizami, M Rehan, M A Barakat, M I Khan, A Mustafa, I M I Ismail, J D Murphy
This paper aims to investigate the effect of temperature and reaction time on the yield and quality of liquid oil produced from a pyrolysis process. Polystyrene (PS) type plastic waste was used as a feedstock in a small pilot scale batch pyrolysis reactor. At 400°C with a reaction time of 75min, the gas yield was 8% by mass, the char yield was 16% by mass, while the liquid oil yield was 76% by mass. Raising the temperature to 450°C increased the gas production to 13% by mass, reduced the char production to 6...
October 4, 2016: Waste Management
Richard Gordon, Matthew L Neal, Jie Luo, Monica R Langley, Dilshan S Harischandra, Nikhil Panicker, Adhithiya Charli, Huajun Jin, Vellareddy Anantharam, Trent M Woodruff, Qun-Yong Zhou, Anumantha G Kanthasamy, Arthi Kanthasamy
Prokineticin-2 (PK2), a recently discovered secreted protein, regulates important physiological functions including olfactory biogenesis and circadian rhythms in the CNS. Interestingly, although PK2 expression is low in the nigral system, its receptors are constitutively expressed on nigrostriatal neurons. Herein, we demonstrate that PK2 expression is highly induced in nigral dopaminergic neurons during early stages of degeneration in multiple models of Parkinson's disease (PD), including PK2 reporter mice and MitoPark mice...
October 5, 2016: Nature Communications
Daniel J Simons, Walter R Boot, Neil Charness, Susan E Gathercole, Christopher F Chabris, David Z Hambrick, Elizabeth A L Stine-Morrow
In 2014, two groups of scientists published open letters on the efficacy of brain-training interventions, or "brain games," for improving cognition. The first letter, a consensus statement from an international group of more than 70 scientists, claimed that brain games do not provide a scientifically grounded way to improve cognitive functioning or to stave off cognitive decline. Several months later, an international group of 133 scientists and practitioners countered that the literature is replete with demonstrations of the benefits of brain training for a wide variety of cognitive and everyday activities...
October 2016: Psychological Science in the Public Interest: a Journal of the American Psychological Society
Byeong Guk Jeong, Young-Shin Park, Jun Hyuk Chang, Ikjun Cho, Jai Kyeong Kim, Heesuk Kim, Kookheon Char, Jinhan Cho, Victor I Klimov, Philip Park, Doh C Lee, Wan Ki Bae
Thick inorganic shell endows colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) with enhanced photochemical stability and suppression of photoluminescence intermittency (also known as blinking). However, the progress of using thick-shell heterostructure NCs in applications has been limited, due to low photoluminescence quantum yield (PL QY  60%) at room temperature. Here, we demonstrate thick-shell NCs with CdS/CdSe/CdS seed/spherical quantum well/shell (SQW) geometry that exhibit near-unity PL QY at room temperature and suppression of blinking...
October 2, 2016: ACS Nano
Riyang Shu, Qi Zhang, Longlong Ma, Ying Xu, Pengru Chen, Chenguang Wang, Tiejun Wang
The aim of this study is to explore the reaction mediums and conditions for producing high yield of valuable monomers from concentrated sulfuric acid hydrolyzed lignin. The solvent, temperature and time effects on the hydrogenolysis of hydrolyzed lignin were investigated under the catalysis of Pd/C and CrCl3. Supercritical methanol exhibits the best depolymerization performance, because of its unique diffusion, dissolution and acid-base properties. Afterwards, the influence of reaction temperature and time on depolymerization, repolymerization and coking during hydrogenolysis was examined in methanol...
December 2016: Bioresource Technology
Charli Dominguez, Kwong-Yok Tsang, Claudia Palena
The epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) erlotinib has been approved for years as a first-line therapy for patients harboring EGFR-sensitizing mutations. With the promising implementation of immunotherapeutic strategies for the treatment of lung cancer, there is a growing interest in developing combinatorial therapies that could utilize immune approaches in the context of conventional or targeted therapies. Tumor cells are known to evade immune attack by multiple strategies, including undergoing phenotypic plasticity via a process designated as the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
2016: Cell Death & Disease
L Courty, J P Garo
Electric cables are now extensively used for both residential and industrial applications. During more than twenty years, multi-scale approaches have been developed to study fire behavior of such cables that represents a serious challenge. Cables are rather complicated materials because they consist of an insulated part and jacket of polymeric materials. These polymeric materials can have various chemical structures, thicknesses and additives and generally have a char-forming tendency when exposed to heat source...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Uğur Moralı, Nazan Yavuzel, Sevgi Şensöz
Slow pyrolysis of hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) sawdust was performed to produce bio-oil and bio-char. The operational variables were as follows: pyrolysis temperature (400-600°C), heating rate (10-50°Cmin(-1)) and nitrogen flow rate (50-150cm(3)min(-1)). Physicochemical and thermogravimetric characterizations of hornbeam sawdust were performed. The characteristics of bio-oil and bio-char were analyzed on the basis of various spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques such as FTIR, GC-MS, 1H NMR, SEM, BET...
December 2016: Bioresource Technology
Trisha E Wong, Thuan Nguyen, Samir S Shah, Thomas V Brogan, Char M Witmer
OBJECTIVE: To describe antithrombin concentrate use and to compare thrombotic and hemorrhagic outcomes throughout the hospital stay in pediatric subjects who received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in a Pediatric Health Information System-participating children's hospital. DESIGN: Retrospective, multi-center, cohort study. SETTING: Forty-three free-standing children's hospitals participating in Pediatric Health Information System. SUBJECTS: Children older than or equal to 18 years of age who underwent extracorporeal membrane oxygenation between 2003 and 2012...
September 22, 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Lin Mu, Jianbiao Chen, Pikai Yao, Dapeng Zhou, Liang Zhao, Hongchao Yin
Co-pyrolysis characteristics of petrochemical wastewater sludge and Huolinhe lignite were investigated using thermogravimetric analyzer and packed-bed reactor coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and gas chromatography. The pyrolysis characteristics of the blends at various sludge blending ratios were compared with those of the individual materials. Thermogravimetric experiments showed that the interactions between the blends were beneficial to generate more residues. In packed-bed reactor, synergetic effects promoted the release of gas products and left less liquid and solid products than those calculated by additive manner...
December 2016: Bioresource Technology
M Valix, S Katyal, W H Cheung
Dry and chemical torrefaction of sugar cane bagasse was examined in this study with the aim of stabilising and upgrading the fuel properties of bagasse. Dry torrefaction was conducted at temperatures from 160°C to 300°C under inert conditions, whilst chemical torrefaction incorporated a H2SO4 pre-treatment of bagasse. Chemical torrefaction imparted superior chemical and physical properties inducing morphological transformation and textural development with the potential to address issues in handling, feeding and processing bagasse...
October 11, 2016: Environmental Technology
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