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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933894/category-structure-determines-the-relative-attractiveness-of-global-versus-local-averages
#1
Tobias Vogel, Evan W Carr, Tyler Davis, Piotr Winkielman
Stimuli that capture the central tendency of presented exemplars are often preferred-a phenomenon also known as the classic beauty-in-averageness effect. However, recent studies have shown that this effect can reverse under certain conditions. We propose that a key variable for such ugliness-in-averageness effects is the category structure of the presented exemplars. When exemplars cluster into multiple subcategories, the global average should no longer reflect the underlying stimulus distributions, and will thereby become unattractive...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931039/abnormalities-in-substance-p-neurokinin-1-receptor-binding-in-key-brainstem-nuclei-in-sudden-infant-death-syndrome-related-to-prematurity-and-sex
#2
Fiona M Bright, Robert Vink, Roger W Byard, Jhodie R Duncan, Henry F Krous, David S Paterson
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) involves failure of arousal to potentially life threatening events, including hypoxia, during sleep. While neuronal dysfunction and abnormalities in neurotransmitter systems within the medulla oblongata have been implicated, the specific pathways associated with autonomic and cardiorespiratory failure are unknown. The neuropeptide substance P (SP) and its tachykinin neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) have been shown to play an integral role in the modulation of homeostatic function in the medulla, including regulation of respiratory rhythm generation, integration of cardiovascular control, and modulation of the baroreceptor reflex and mediation of the chemoreceptor reflex in response to hypoxia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924579/memory-integration-constructs-maps-of-space-time-and-concepts
#3
Neal W Morton, Katherine R Sherrill, Alison R Preston
Recent evidence demonstrates that new events are learned in the context of their relationships to existing memories. Within the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex, related memories are represented by integrated codes that connect events experienced at different times and places. Integrated codes form the basis of spatial, temporal, and conceptual maps of experience. These maps represent information that goes beyond direct experience and support generalization behaviors that require knowledge be used in new ways...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921882/recommendations-for-obesity-prevention-among-adolescents-from-disadvantaged-backgrounds-a-concept-mapping-study-among-scientific-and-professional-experts
#4
D A Kornet-van der Aa, C H van Randeraad-van der Zee, J Mayer, J M Borys, M J M Chinapaw
The present study aimed to enrich the scientific evidence on obesity prevention programmes for adolescents from socio-economically disadvantaged backgrounds with practice-based experiences from both scientific and professional experts in the field of youth obesity prevention. We used the participatory method of concept mapping. Two concept mapping sessions were conducted: one with programme coordinators of national/regional obesity prevention programmes across Europe (n = 8) and one with scientists participating in European obesity prevention projects (n = 5)...
September 18, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921711/foxp-expression-identifies-a-kenyon-cell-subtype-in-the-honeybee-mushroom-bodies-linking-them-to-fruitfly-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-c-neurons
#5
Adriana Schatton, Constance Scharff
The arthropod mushroom bodies (MB) are a higher order sensory integration center. In insects, they play a central role in associative olfactory learning and memory. In Drosophila melanogaster (Dm), the highly ordered connectivity of heterogeneous MB neuron populations has been mapped using sophisticated molecular genetic and anatomical techniques. The MB-core subpopulation was recently shown to express the transcription factor FoxP with relevance for decision-making. Here we report the development and adult distribution of a FoxP-expressing neuron population in the MB of honeybees (Apis mellifera, Am) using in situ hybridization and a custom-made antiserum...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917636/parallel-approach-on-sorting-of-genes-in-search-of-optimal-solution
#6
Pranav Kumar, G Sahoo
An important tool for comparing genome analysis is the rearrangement event that can transform one given genome into other. For finding minimum sequence of fission and fusion, we have proposed here an algorithm and have shown a transformation example for converting the source genome into the target genome. The proposed algorithm comprises of circular sequence i.e. "cycle graph" in place of mapping. The main concept of algorithm is based on optimal result of permutation. These sorting processes are performed in constant running time by showing permutation in the form of cycle...
September 13, 2017: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916804/mapping-the-atomistic-structure-of-graded-core-shell-colloidal-nanocrystals
#7
Maksym Yarema, Yunhua Xing, Rainer T Lechner, Lukas Ludescher, Nikola Dordevic, Weyde M M Lin, Olesya Yarema, Vanessa Wood
Engineering the compositional gradient for core/shell semiconductor nanocrystals improves their optical properties. To date, however, the structure of graded core/shell nanocrystal emitters has only been qualitatively described. In this paper, we demonstrate an approach to quantify nanocrystal structure, selecting graded Ag-In-Se/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystals as a proof-of-concept material. A combination of multi-energy small-angle X-ray scattering and electron microscopy techniques enables us to establish the radial distribution of ZnSe with sub-nanometer resolution...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915670/prostate-cancer-diagnosis-using-epigenetic-biomarkers-3d-high-content-imaging-and-probabilistic-cell-by-cell-classifiers
#8
Darko Stefanovski, George Tang, Kolja Wawrowsky, Raymond C Boston, Nils Lambrecht, Jian Tajbakhsh
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) management can benefit from novel concepts/biomarkers for reducing the current 20-30% chance of false-negative diagnosis with standard histopathology of biopsied tissue. METHOD: We explored the potential of selected epigenetic markers in combination with validated histopathological markers, 3D high-content imaging, cell-by-cell analysis, and probabilistic classification in generating novel detailed maps of biomarker heterogeneity in patient tissues, and PCa diagnosis...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913163/general-and-selective-brain-connectivity-alterations-in-essential-tremor-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#9
Karsten Mueller, Robert Jech, Martina Hoskovcová, Olga Ulmanová, Dušan Urgošík, Josef Vymazal, Evžen Růžička
Although essential tremor is the most common movement disorder, there is little knowledge about the pathophysiological mechanisms of this disease. Therefore, we explored brain connectivity based on slow spontaneous fluctuations of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal in patients with essential tremor (ET). A cohort of 19 ET patients and 23 healthy individuals were scanned in resting condition using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). General connectivity was assessed by eigenvector centrality (EC) mapping...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912929/student-misconceptions-about-plants-a-first-step-in-building-a-teaching-resource
#10
April N Wynn, Irvin L Pan, Elizabeth E Rueschhoff, Maryann A B Herman, E Kathleen Archer
Plants are ubiquitous and found in virtually every ecosystem on Earth, but their biology is often poorly understood, and inaccurate ideas about how plants grow and function abound. Many articles have been published documenting student misconceptions about photosynthesis and respiration, but there are substantially fewer on such topics as plant cell structure and growth; plant genetics, evolution, and classification; plant physiology (beyond energy relations); and plant ecology. The available studies of misconceptions held on those topics show that many are formed at a very young age and persist throughout all educational levels...
2017: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902197/fast-and-reproducible-isers-microscopy-of-single-her2-positive-breast-cancer-cells-using-gold-nanostars-as-sers-nanotags
#11
Xin-Ping Wang, Bernd Walkenfort, Matthias König, Lisa König, Sabine Kasimir-Bauer, Sebastian Schlücker
Speed is often a bottleneck in conventional Raman microscopy on biological specimens. In immuno-Raman microspectroscopy, or for short iSERS microscopy, the acquisition times per pixel have been reduced by more than one order of magnitude over the past decade since its proof of concept. Typically rather high laser power densities are employed with the intention of compensating for the shorter acquisition times, without checking the reproducibility of the results in repeated experiments on the same sample. Here, we systematically analyze this aspect at the single-cell level since it forms the basis of quantification and is very important for reinspection of the same specimen...
September 13, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899624/desiring-assemblages-a-case-for-desire-over-pleasure-in-critical-drug-studies
#12
Peta Malins
While critical drug researchers have long pushed for an acknowledgement of pleasure in discourses of drug use, few have explored the alternative possibilities offered by Deleuze and Guattari's concept of desire. In this paper I map out some of the conceptual differences between pleasure and desire and explore the opportunities opened up by attending more closely to desire in critical drug studies. I suggest that while discourses of pleasure do make an important intervention into and against dominant narratives of risk, harm, and addiction, they may inadvertently be working to keep in place the very binaries and forms of neoliberal western subjectivity that support those narratives...
September 9, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899576/neuroscience-and-everyday-life-facing-the-translation-problem
#13
Jolien C Francken, Marc Slors
To enable the impact of neuroscientific insights on our daily lives, careful translation of research findings is required. However, neuroscientific terminology and common-sense concepts are often hard to square. For example, when neuroscientists study lying to allow the use of brain scans for lie-detection purposes, the concept of lying in the scientific case differs considerably from the concept in court. Furthermore, lying and other cognitive concepts are used unsystematically and have an indirect and divergent mapping onto brain activity...
September 10, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898084/asymmetric-nanoantennas-for-ultrahigh-angle-broadband-visible-light-bending
#14
Egor Khaidarov, Hanfang Hao, Ramón Paniagua-Domínguez, Ye Feng Yu, Yuan Hsing Fu, Vytautas Valuckas, Sherry Lee Koon Yap, Yeow Teck Toh, Jeff Siu Kit Ng, Arseniy I Kuznetsov
Wavefront manipulation in metasurfaces typically relies on phase mapping with a finite number of elements. In particular, a discretized linear phase profile may be used to obtain a beam bending functionality. However, discretization limits the applicability of this approach for high angle bending due to the drastic efficiency drop when the phase is mapped by a small number of elements. In this work, we discuss a novel concept for energy redistribution in diffraction gratings and its application in the visible spectrum range, which helps overcome the constraints of ultrahigh angle (above 80°) beam bending...
September 18, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893455/-enjoying-the-kick-locating-pleasure-within-the-drug-consumption-room
#15
Tristan Duncan, Cameron Duff, Bernadette Sebar, Jessica Lee
BACKGROUND: Harm reduction policy and praxis has long struggled to accommodate the pleasures of alcohol and other drug use. Whilst scholars have consistently highlighted this struggle, how pleasure might come to practically inform the design and delivery of harm reduction policies and programs remains less clear. The present paper seeks to move beyond conceptual critiques of harm reduction's 'pleasure oversight' to more focused empirical analysis of how flows of pleasure emerge, circulate and, importantly, may be reoriented in the course of harm reduction practice...
September 8, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893273/food-parenting-practices-for-5-to-12%C3%A2-year-old-children-a-concept-map-analysis-of-parenting-and-nutrition-experts-input
#16
Teresia M O'Connor, Louise C Mâsse, Andrew W Tu, Allison W Watts, Sheryl O Hughes, Mark R Beauchamp, Tom Baranowski, Truc Pham, Jerica M Berge, Barbara Fiese, Rebecca Golley, Melanie Hingle, Stef P J Kremers, Kyung E Rhee, Helen Skouteris, Amber Vaughn
BACKGROUND: Parents are an important influence on children's dietary intake and eating behaviors. However, the lack of a conceptual framework and inconsistent assessment of food parenting practices limits our understanding of which food parenting practices are most influential on children. The aim of this study was to develop a food parenting practice conceptual framework using systematic approaches of literature reviews and expert input. METHOD: A previously completed systematic review of food parenting practice instruments and a qualitative study of parents informed the development of a food parenting practice item bank consisting of 3632 food parenting practice items...
September 11, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891116/measuring-treatment-outcomes-in-gambling-disorders-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Dylan Pickering, Brittany Keen, Gavin Entwistle, Alex Blaszczynski
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Considerable variation of outcome variables used to measure recovery in the gambling treatment literature has precluded effective cross-study evaluations and hindered the development of best-practice treatment methodologies. The aim of this systematic review was to describe current diffuse concepts of recovery in the gambling field by mapping the range of outcomes and measurement strategies used to evaluate treatments, and to identify more commonly accepted indices of recovery...
August 5, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886415/burden-of-higher-lead-exposure-in-african-americans-starts-in-utero-and-persists-into-childhood
#18
Andrea E Cassidy-Bushrow, Alexandra R Sitarik, Suzanne Havstad, Sung Kyun Park, Lawrence F Bielak, Christine Austin, Christine Cole Johnson, Manish Arora
BACKGROUND: Recent public health lead crises in urban areas emphasize the need to better understand exposure to environmental toxicants, particularly in higher risk groups. Although African-American children have the highest prevalence of elevated blood lead levels in the United States, little is known about when this trajectory of disproportionate burden of lead exposure first emerges. OBJECTIVES: Using tooth-matrix biomarkers that directly measure fetal and early childhood metal levels, the primary goal of this study was to determine if there were racial disparities in lead levels during fetal development and early childhood...
September 5, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883195/mapping-equivalence-of-german-emergency-department-medical-record-concepts-with-snomed-ct-after-implementation-with-hl7-cda
#19
Dominik Brammen, Heike Dewenter, Kai U Heitmann, Volker Thiemann, Raphael W Majeed, Felix Walcher, Rainer Röhrig, Sylvia Thun
INTRODUCTION: The German Emergency Department Medical Record (GEDMR) was created by medical domain experts and healthcare providers providing a dataset as well as a form. The trauma module of GEDMR was syntactically standardized using HL7 CDA and semantically standardized using different terminologies including SNOMED CT, LOINC and proprietary coding systems. This study depicts the mapping accuracy with aforementioned syntactical and semantical standards in general and especially the content coverage of SNOMED CT...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883194/light-weighted-automatic-import-of-standardized-ontologies-into-the-content-management-system-drupal
#20
Christoph Beger, Alexandr Uciteli, Heinrich Herre
The amount of ontologies, which are utilizable for widespread domains, is growing steadily. BioPortal alone, embraces over 500 published ontologies with nearly 8 million classes. In contrast, the vast informative content of these ontologies is only directly intelligible by experts. To overcome this deficiency it could be possible to represent ontologies as web portals, which does not require knowledge about ontologies and their semantics, but still carries as much information as possible to the end-user. Furthermore, the conception of a complex web portal is a sophisticated process...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
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