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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237764/evaluation-of-a-novel-multi-immunogen-vaccine-strategy-for-targeting-4e10-10e8-neutralizing-epitopes-on-hiv-1-gp41-membrane-proximal-external-region
#1
Saikat Banerjee, Heliang Shi, Marisa Banasik, Hojin Moon, William Lees, Yali Qin, Andrew Harley, Adrian Shepherd, Michael W Cho
The membrane proximal external region (MPER) of HIV-1 gp41 is targeted by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) 4E10 and 10E8. In this proof-of-concept study, we evaluated a novel multi-immunogen vaccine strategy referred to as Incremental, Phased Antigenic Stimulation for Rapid Antibody Maturation (IPAS-RAM) to induce 4E10/10E8-like bnAbs. Rabbits were immunized sequentially, but in a phased manner, with three immunogens that are progressively more native (gp41-28×3, gp41-54CT, and rVV-gp160DH12). Although nAbs were not induced, epitope-mapping analyses indicated that IPAS-RAM vaccination was better able to target antibodies towards the 4E10/10E8 epitopes than homologous prime-boost immunization using gp41-28×3 alone...
February 23, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236307/stabilization-of-activated-fragments-by-shell-wise-construction-of-an-embedding-environment
#2
Florian Krausbeck, Jan-Grimo Sobez, Markus Reiher
An activated fragment which is structurally unstable when considered isolated can be stabilized through binding to a suitable molecular environment; for instance, to a transition-metal fragment. The metal fragment may be designed in a shell-wise build-up of a surrounding molecular environment. However, adding more and more atoms in a consecutive fashion soon leads to a combinatorial explosion of structures, which is unfeasible to handle without automation. Here, we present a fully automated and parallelized framework that constructs such an embedding environment atom-wise...
February 25, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228471/novel-layers-of-rna-polymerase-iii-control-affecting-trna-gene-transcription-in-eukaryotes
#3
REVIEW
Ewa Leśniewska, Magdalena Boguta
RNA polymerase III (Pol III) transcribes a limited set of short genes in eukaryotes producing abundant small RNAs, mostly tRNA. The originally defined yeast Pol III transcriptome appears to be expanding owing to the application of new methods. Also, several factors required for assembly and nuclear import of Pol III complex have been identified recently. Models of Pol III based on cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of distinct Pol III conformations reveal unique features distinguishing Pol III from other polymerases...
February 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227754/brain-heart-linear-and-nonlinear-dynamics-during-visual-emotional-elicitation-in-healthy-subjects
#4
G Valenza, A Greco, C Gentili, A Lanata, N Toschi, R Barbieri, L Sebastiani, D Menicucci, A Gemignani, E P Scilingo, G Valenza, A Greco, C Gentili, A Lanata, N Toschi, R Barbieri, L Sebastiani, D Menicucci, A Gemignani, E P Scilingo, A Lanata, A Gemignani, E P Scilingo, A Greco, D Menicucci, L Sebastiani, C Gentili, N Toschi, R Barbieri, G Valenza
This study investigates brain-heart dynamics during visual emotional elicitation in healthy subjects through linear and nonlinear coupling measures of EEG spectrogram and instantaneous heart rate estimates. To this extent, affective pictures including different combinations of arousal and valence levels, gathered from the International Affective Picture System, were administered to twenty-two healthy subjects. Time-varying maps of cortical activation were obtained through EEG spectral analysis, whereas the associated instantaneous heartbeat dynamics was estimated using inhomogeneous point-process linear models...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227101/high-density-penetrating-electrode-arrays-for-autonomic-nerves
#5
John Burns, Yee-Hsee Hsieh, Andrew Mueller, Juliette Chevallier, T S Sriram, Stephen J Lewis, Daniel Chew, Anil Achyuta, Jason Fiering, John Burns, Yee-Hsee Hsieh, Andrew Mueller, Juliette Chevallier, T S Sriram, Stephen J Lewis, Daniel Chew, Anil Achyuta, Jason Fiering, Daniel Chew, Yee-Hsee Hsieh, Andrew Mueller, Jason Fiering, T S Sriram, Juliette Chevallier, Stephen J Lewis, Anil Achyuta
Electrode arrays for recording and stimulation in the central nervous system have enabled numerous advances in basic science and therapeutic strategies. In particular, micro-fabricated arrays with precision size and spacing offer the benefit of accessing single neurons and permit mapping of neuronal function. Similar advances are envisioned toward understanding the autonomic nervous system and developing therapies based on its modulation, but appropriate electrode arrays are lacking. Here, we present for the first time, a multi-channel electrode array suitable for penetration of peripheral nerves having diameters as small as 0...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227041/deformable-resection-process-map-for-intraoperative-cutting-guides
#6
Megumi Nakao, Kojiro Taura, Tetsuya Matsuda, Megumi Nakao, Kojiro Taura, Tetsuya Matsuda, Megumi Nakao, Kojiro Taura, Tetsuya Matsuda
In this paper, we will introduce the concept of deformable resection process mapping as a time-varying geometric guide for soft tissue tumor resection procedures. The deformable resection process map (RPM) estimates the local appearance of vascular structures after cuts as a novel guide. The RPM can be directly generated from patient-specific medical images using volumetric resampling techniques. Since user input of some cutting points is the only requirement for generating the RPM, the developed software will be directly available for clinical use to preview surgical procedures and intraoperative workflow management without time-consuming setups or additional workloads...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226701/an-image-resolution-perspective-on-functional-activity-mapping
#7
Keith Dillon, Yu-Ping Wang, Keith Dillon, Yu-Ping Wang, Yu-Ping Wang, Keith Dillon
In this paper we apply techniques for numerical estimation of system resolution from imaging, to the regression problem of relating biological data to phenotypes. Our approach can be viewed as an extension of Backus-Gilbert theory, which attempts to find the most concentrated estimator that may be reliably computed in an inverse problem. Applied to a regression model, we estimate a minimal combination of collinear variables that may be found in a predictor, which gives a robust multivariable estimate of the network relationships in the data...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226696/divergence-map-from-diffusion-tensor-imaging-concepts-and-application-to-corpus-callosum
#8
Gustavo R Pinheiro, Guilherme S Soares, Andre Luis Costa, Roberto A Lotufo, Leticia Rittner, Gustavo R Pinheiro, Guilherme S Soares, Andre Luis Costa, Roberto A Lotufo, Leticia Rittner, Leticia Rittner, Gustavo R Pinheiro, Roberto A Lotufo, Andre Luis Costa, Guilherme S Soares
This work proposes a novel approach to the analysis of Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) by applying the mathematical concept of divergence, used in vector analysis. This is achieved by choosing an arbitrary direction of analysis and using this direction to transform the diffusion tensor field into an oriented vector field. The method was inspired by the idea of imposing a liquid flow inside the biological tissues, oriented in the direction of analysis, and watching the direction it would be expected to take as it flows through the paths created by the fibers...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222351/the-land-morphology-approach-to-flood-risk-mapping-an-application-to-portugal
#9
N S Cunha, M R Magalhães, T Domingos, M M Abreu, C Küpfer
In the last decades, the increasing vulnerability of floodplains is linked to societal changes such as population density growth, land use changes, water use patterns, among other factors. Land morphology directly influences surface water flow, transport of sediments, soil genesis, local climate and vegetation distribution. Therefore, the land morphology, the land used and management directly influences flood risks genesis. However, attention is not always given to the underlying geomorphological and ecological processes that influence the dynamic of rivers and their floodplains...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220199/-novel-pharmaceutical-treatment-approaches-for-gastric-cancer
#10
F Lordick
This review article delineates novel approaches for the pharmaceutical treatment of gastric cancer. A newly developed molecular classification of gastric cancer based on histology, genetic, epigenetic and proteomic characteristics has evolved. It provides a road map for development of new drugs and combinations as well as for patient stratification in clinical research and it is expected to be introduced into clinical practice in the near future. Anti-HER2 targeted treatment is a validated strategy for treatment of metastatic gastric cancer and is now also being studied in the perioperative setting to increase response rates and ultimately survival in patients undergoing curative surgery; however, the resistance mechanisms of HER2-targeted treatment are poorly understood and optimal patient selection remains challenging...
February 20, 2017: Der Pathologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219775/topographic-organization-of-the-cerebral-cortex-and-brain-cartography
#11
Simon B Eickhoff, R Todd Constable, B T Thomas Yeo
One of the most specific but also challenging properties of the brain is its topographic organization into distinct modules or cortical areas. In this paper, we first review the concept of topographic organization and its historical development. Next, we provide a critical discussion of the current definition of what constitutes a cortical area, why the concept has been so central to the field of neuroimaging and the challenges that arise from this view. A key aspect in this discussion is the issue of spatial scale and hierarchy in the brain...
February 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219417/documenting-research-with-transgender-and-gender%C3%A2-diverse-people-protocol-for-an-evidence-map-and-thematic-analysis
#12
Zack Marshall, Vivian Welch, James Thomas, Fern Brunger, Michelle Swab, Ian Shemilt, Chris Kaposy
BACKGROUND: There is limited information about how transgender, gender diverse, and Two-Spirit (trans) people have been represented and studied by researchers. The objectives of this study are to (1) map and describe trans research in the social sciences, sciences, humanities, health, education, and business, (2) identify evidence gaps and opportunities for more responsible research with trans people, (3) assess the use of text mining for study identification, and (4) increase access to trans research for key stakeholders through the creation of a web-based evidence map...
February 20, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215389/dissemination-and-implementation-science-training-needs-insights-from-practitioners-and-researchers
#13
Rachel G Tabak, Margaret M Padek, Jon F Kerner, Kurt C Stange, Enola K Proctor, Maureen J Dobbins, Graham A Colditz, David A Chambers, Ross C Brownson
INTRODUCTION: Dissemination and implementation research training has great potential to improve the impact and reach of health-related research; however, research training needs from the end user perspective are unknown. This paper identifies and prioritizes dissemination and implementation research training needs. METHODS: A diverse sample of researchers, practitioners, and policymakers was invited to participate in Concept Mapping in 2014-2015. Phase 1 (Brainstorming) gathered participants' responses to the prompt: To improve the impact of research evidence in practice and policy settings, a skill in which researchers need more training is… The resulting statement list was edited and included subsequent phases...
March 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208786/policy-research-and-residents-perspectives-on-built-environments-implicated-in-heart-disease-a-concept-mapping-approach
#14
Ivana Stankov, Natasha J Howard, Mark Daniel, Margaret Cargo
An underrepresentation of stakeholder perspectives within urban health research arguably limits our understanding of what is a multi-dimensional and complex relationship between the built environment and health. By engaging a wide range of stakeholders using a participatory concept mapping approach, this study aimed to achieve a more holistic and nuanced understanding of the built environments shaping disease risk, specifically cardiometabolic risk (CMR). Moreover, this study aimed to ascertain the importance and changeability of identified environments through government action...
February 9, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208285/determining-gender-by-raman-spectroscopy-of-a-bloodstain
#15
Aliaksandra Sikirzhytskaya, Vitali Sikirzhytski, Igor K Lednev
The development of novel methods for forensic science is a constantly growing area of modern analytical chemistry. Raman spectroscopy is one of a few analytical techniques capable of nondestructive and nearly instantaneous analysis of a wide variety of forensic evidence, including body fluid stains, at the scene of a crime. In this proof-of-concept study, Raman microspectroscopy was utilized for gender identification based on dry bloodstains. Raman spectra were acquired in mapping mode from multiple spots on a bloodstain to account for intrinsic sample heterogeneity...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204846/regulation-of-end-binding-protein-eb1-in-the-control-of-microtubule-dynamics
#16
REVIEW
Anne Nehlig, Angie Molina, Sylvie Rodrigues-Ferreira, Stéphane Honoré, Clara Nahmias
The regulation of microtubule dynamics is critical to ensure essential cell functions, such as proper segregation of chromosomes during mitosis or cell polarity and migration. End-binding protein 1 (EB1) is a plus-end-tracking protein (+TIP) that accumulates at growing microtubule ends and plays a pivotal role in the regulation of microtubule dynamics. EB1 autonomously binds an extended tubulin-GTP/GDP-Pi structure at growing microtubule ends and acts as a molecular scaffold that recruits a large number of regulatory +TIPs through interaction with CAP-Gly or SxIP motifs...
February 15, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203220/proof-of-concept-of-an-online-emg-based-decoding-of-hand-postures-and-individual-digit-forces-for-prosthetic-hand-control
#17
Alycia Gailey, Panagiotis Artemiadis, Marco Santello
INTRODUCTION: Options currently available to individuals with upper limb loss range from prosthetic hands that can perform many movements, but require more cognitive effort to control, to simpler terminal devices with limited functional abilities. We attempted to address this issue by designing a myoelectric control system to modulate prosthetic hand posture and digit force distribution. METHODS: We recorded surface electromyographic (EMG) signals from five forearm muscles in eight able-bodied subjects while they modulated hand posture and the flexion force distribution of individual fingers...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202727/monkeys-choose-as-if-maximizing-utility-compatible-with-basic-principles-of-revealed-preference-theory
#18
Alexandre Pastor-Bernier, Charles R Plott, Wolfram Schultz
Revealed preference theory provides axiomatic tools for assessing whether individuals make observable choices "as if" they are maximizing an underlying utility function. The theory evokes a tradeoff between goods whereby individuals improve themselves by trading one good for another good to obtain the best combination. Preferences revealed in these choices are modeled as curves of equal choice (indifference curves) and reflect an underlying process of optimization. These notions have far-reaching applications in consumer choice theory and impact the welfare of human and animal populations...
February 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197403/network-plasticity-and-intraoperative-mapping-for-personalized-multimodal-management-of-diffuse-low-grade-gliomas
#19
REVIEW
Cristina Diana Ghinda, Hugues Duffau
Gliomas are the most frequent primary brain tumors and include a variety of different histological tumor types and malignancy grades. Recent achievements in terms of molecular and imaging fields have created an unprecedented opportunity to perform a comprehensive interdisciplinary assessment of the glioma pathophysiology, with direct implications in terms of the medical and surgical treatment strategies available for patients. The current paradigm shift considers glioma management in a comprehensive perspective that takes into account the intricate connectivity of the cerebral networks...
2017: Frontiers in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196672/a-study-on-uterine-lymphatic-anatomy-for-standardization-of-pelvic-sentinel-lymph-node-detection-in-endometrial-cancer
#20
Barbara Geppert, Céline Lönnerfors, Michele Bollino, Anastasija Arechvo, Jan Persson
OBJECTIVE: To describe the anatomy of uterine lymphatic drainage following cervical or fundal tracer injection to enable standardization of a pelvic sentinel lymph node (SLN) concept in endometrial cancer (EC). METHODS: A prospective consecutive study of women with EC was conducted. A fluorescent dye (Indocyanine green) was injected into the cervix (n=60) or the uterine fundus (n=30). A systematic trans- and retroperitoneal mapping of uterine lymphatic drainage was performed...
February 10, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
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