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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025111/protective-effects-of-household-based-tb-interventions-are-robust-to-neighbourhood-level-variation-in-exposure-risk-in-lima-peru-a-model-based-analysis
#1
Jon Zelner, Megan Murray, Mercedes Becerra, Jerome Galea, Leonid Lecca, Roger Calderon, Rosa Yataco, Zibiao Zhang, Ted Cohen
Background: Untargeted active screening and treatment programmes for tuberculosis (TB) have not been shown to be more effective than passive screening and isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for reducing TB incidence. In this manuscript, we compare the efficacy of targeting screening and IPT on high-risk household contacts of diagnosed TB cases, with less-targeted active screening approaches in Lima, Peru. Methods: We conducted a population-based prospective cohort study within households of TB cases in Lima...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020308/management-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-among-healthcare-workers-10-year-experience-at-a-single-center
#2
Esther Arguello Perez, Susan K Seo, William J Schneider, Cynthia Eisenstein, Arthur E Brown
Background: The risk of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis among healthcare workers (HCWs) is estimated to be higher than the general population. However, HCW acceptance and compliance with available latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) treatment regimens has been problematic. Recently, regimens have become available that might improve HCW acceptance and compliance with LTBI treatment. Methods: A retrospective single-center review of Employee Health &Wellness Services records of all HCWs diagnosed with LTBI was conducted...
August 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018769/homeless-shelter-context-and-tuberculosis-illness-experiences-during-a-large-outbreak-in-atlanta-georgia
#3
W J Connors, S A Hussen, D P Holland, O Mohamed, K L Andes, N D Goswami
Setting: Persons experiencing homelessness (PEH) represent a population at high risk for tuberculosis (TB). While quantitative studies have characterized some important features of this key group, less has been captured directly from PEH about how they experience TB illness itself and the prevention and control measures implemented in response to an outbreak. This qualitative study aimed to explore PEH's TB disease experiences in the context of a large TB outbreak involving homeless shelters in Atlanta, Georgia, USA...
September 21, 2017: Public Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016903/screening-for-latent-tuberculosis-in-uk-health-care-workers
#4
M Henderson, S J Howard
Background: Active tuberculosis (TB) infection was diagnosed in two health care workers (HCWs) originally from high-incidence countries at a National Health Service (NHS) hospital trust in Northern England. In response, the trust screened current clinical employees from countries with a high TB prevalence for active and latent TB infection (LTBI). Aims: To identify the number of HCWs, within the organization, who are at risk of TB infection. Methods: Clinical employees from countries with a high TB prevalence (those described by the World Health Organization as having an incidence of >40 cases per 100000 populations) were reviewed...
August 9, 2017: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977039/host-transcriptional-responses-following-ex-vivo-re-challenge-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-vary-with-disease-status
#5
Elaine A Yu, Serene H John, Elizabeth C Tablante, Christine A King, John Kenneth, David G Russell, Saurabh Mehta
The identification of immune correlates that are predictive of disease outcome for tuberculosis remains an ongoing challenge. To address this issue, we evaluated gene expression profiles from peripheral blood mononuclear cells following ex vivo challenge with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, among participants with active TB disease (ATBD, n = 10), latent TB infection (LTBI, n = 10), and previous active TB disease (after successful treatment; PTBD, n = 10), relative to controls (n = 10). Differential gene expression profiles were assessed by suppression-subtractive hybridization, dot blot, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the comparative cycle threshold methods...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968052/assessment-and-management-of-active-and-latent-tb
#6
James G Shepherd, Ann L N Chapman
More than 25% of the world population has been infected with tuberculosis (TB), however only 10% of those infected will ever develop active disease. Clinically significant disease occurs through progression of primary infection or through later reactivation of latent TB infection (LTBI); this is most likely to occur in the first few years following infection, although late reactivation can occur several decades later, particularly in individuals who become immunosuppressed. Risk of TB acquisition is increased in people who have come to the UK from high incidence countries or who are born in the UK but come from high-risk ethnic minority groups...
November 2016: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956536/tuberculosis-in-the-immigrant-population-in-italy-state-of-the-art-review
#7
Gaetano Scotto, Vincenzina Fazio, Lorenzo Lo Muzio
Although the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has been decreasing in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) in recent decades, specific subgroups of the population, such as immigrants, remain at high risk of the disease. Immigration from areas of high incidence is thought to have fuelled the resurgence of TB in areas of low incidence. Indeed, while immigrants have a high risk of acquiring TB prior to migration, after migration they are exposed to additional risk factors for acquiring or reactivating TB infection, such as poverty, stressful living conditions, social inequalities, overcrowded housing, malnutrition, substance abuse and limited access to health care...
September 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931830/circulating-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-dosr-latency-antigen-specific-polyfunctional-regulatory-il10-th17-cd4-t-cells-differentiate-latent-from-active-tuberculosis
#8
Srabanti Rakshit, Vasista Adiga, Soumya Nayak, Pravat Nalini Sahoo, Prabhat Kumar Sharma, Krista E van Meijgaarden, Anto Jesuraj Uk J, Chirag Dhar, George D Souza, Greg Finak, Stephen C De Rosa, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Annapurna Vyakarnam
The functional heterogeneity of T cell responses to diverse antigens expressed at different stages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, in particular early secreted versus dormancy related latency antigens expressed later, that distinguish subjects with latent (LTBI), pulmonary (PTB) or extrapulmonary (EPTB) tuberculosis remains unclear. Here we show blood central memory CD4 T-cell responses specific to Mtb dormancy related (DosR) latency, but not classical immunodominant secretory antigens, to clearly differentiate LTBI from EPTB and PTB...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928738/age-stratified-t-cell-responses-in-children-infected-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#9
Alexandra Dreesman, Véronique Corbière, Violette Dirix, Kaat Smits, Sara Debulpaep, Iris De Schutter, Myriam Libin, Mahavir Singh, Anne Malfroot, Camille Locht, Françoise Mascart
Tuberculosis (TB) in young children differs from adult TB in that the risk of rapid progression to active TB (aTB) is higher in children than in adults. The reasons for this increased risk are not fully understood. Early differentiation remains difficult between children at risk to develop aTB from those who will remain healthy and develop a latent TB infection (LTBI). Biomarkers to differentiate aTB from LTBI in children, especially in very young children, are urgently needed. To identify M. tuberculosis-specific functional T cell subsets related to clinical manifestations in children, we enrolled 87 children exposed to M...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918407/burden-of-non-adherence-to-latent-tuberculosis-infection-drug-therapy-and-the-potential-cost-effectiveness-of-adherence-interventions-in-canada-a-simulation-study
#10
Anik R Patel, Jonathon R Campbell, Mohsen Sadatsafavi, Fawziah Marra, James C Johnston, Kirsten Smillie, Richard T Lester
OBJECTIVE: Pharmaceutical treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) reduces the risk of progression to active tuberculosis (TB); however, poor adherence tempers the protective effect. We aimed to estimate the health burden of non-adherence, the maximum allowable cost of hypothetical new adherence interventions to be cost-effective and the potential value of existing adherence interventions for patients with low-risk LTBI in Canada. DESIGN: A microsimulation model of LTBI progression over 25 years...
September 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911979/opening-pandora-s-box-mechanisms-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-resuscitation
#11
REVIEW
Ashley V Veatch, Deepak Kaushal
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) characteristically causes an asymptomatic infection. While this latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is not contagious, reactivation to active tuberculosis disease (TB) causes the patient to become infectious. A vaccine has existed for TB for a century, while drug treatments have been available for over 70 years; despite this, TB remains a major global health crisis. Understanding the factors which allow the bacillus to control responses to host stress and mechanisms leading to latency are critical for persistence...
September 11, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911355/latent-tuberculous-infection-testing-among-hiv-infected-persons-in-clinical-care-united-states-2010-2012
#12
E J Reaves, N S Shah, A M France, S B Morris, S Kammerer, J Skarbinski, H Bradley
SETTING: Current guidelines recommend latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) testing at the time of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis and annually thereafter for persons at high risk of LTBI. OBJECTIVES: To estimate LTBI testing prevalence and describe the characteristics of HIV-infected persons who would benefit from annual LTBI testing. DESIGN: We estimated the proportions of LTBI testing among a nationally representative sample of HIV-infected adults in care between 2010 and 2012, and compared the patient characteristics of those with a positive LTBI test result to those with a negative result using χ2 tests...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886099/serial-quantiferon-tb-gold-testing-in-patients-with-psoriasis-treated-with-ustekinumab
#13
Chuan-Yu Hsiao, Hsien-Yi Chiu, Ting-Shun Wang, Tsen-Fang Tsai
BACKGROUND: There is increasing concern about the risk of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) reactivation during the use of biologics for psoriasis. Although ustekinumab had been documented with low risk of tuberculosis, the long-term follow-up of LTBI as determined by QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QFT-G) testing in patients treated with ustekinumab is limited. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to use serial QFT-G testing as a screening method for detecting LTBI in patients with psoriasis from an intermediate tuberculosis burden country...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885972/use-of-rifapentine-and-isoniazid-directly-observed-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-a-military-clinic
#14
Janelle Jinbo, Michael Lustik, Gordon F West, Megan Kloetzel
BACKGROUND: There are 8.6 million cases of active tuberculosis (TB) worldwide, and an estimated one-third of the world population has latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). In the United States, up to 80% of active cases may be caused by untreated reactivated latent infection. A case of TB can spread rapidly impacting the readiness of a unit. To prevent the development of TB, it is critical that active duty service members with LTBI complete treatment. The use of isoniazid (INH) and rifapentine (RPT) as a directly observed therapy (DOT) treatment option was recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in late 2011...
September 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881482/altered-expression-of-antigen-specific-memory-and-regulatory-t-cell-subsets-differentiate-latent-and-active-tuberculosis
#15
Balaji Pathakumari, Santhi Devasundaram, Alamelu Raja
Though one-third of the world population is infected with M. tuberculosis, only 5-10% of the infected individuals will develop active TB disease and rest will remain infected with no symptoms known as latent TB infection (LTBI). Identifying biomarkers that differentiate latent and active TB disease enables effective TB control, since early detection, treatment of active TB and preventive treatment of LTBI individuals are crucial steps involved in TB control. Here, we have evaluated the frequency of antigen specific memory and regulatory T cells (Tregs) in 15 healthy household contacts (HHC) and 15 pulmonary TB patients (PTB) to identify biomarkers for differential diagnosis of LTBI and active TB...
September 7, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875155/risk-of-tuberculosis-infection-and-disease-for-health-care-workers-an-updated-meta-analysis
#16
Lydia Uden, Ella Barber, Nathan Ford, Graham S Cooke
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major challenge to global health. Healthcare workers (HCWs) appear to be at increased risk of TB compared with the general population, despite efforts to scale up infection control and reduce nosocomial TB transmission. This review aims to provide an updated estimate of the occupational risk of latent TB infection (LTBI) and active TB among HCWs compared with the general population. METHODS: A systematic review was performed to identify studies published over the last 10 years reporting TB prevalence or incidence among HCWs and a control group...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868144/inhibition-of-il-17a-by-secukinumab-shows-no-evidence-of-increased-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infections
#17
Michael Kammüller, Tsen-Fang Tsai, Christopher Em Griffiths, Nidhi Kapoor, Pappachan E Kolattukudy, Dominique Brees, Salah-Dine Chibout, Jorge Safi, Todd Fox
Secukinumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody that selectively neutralizes interleukin-17A (IL-17A), has been shown to have significant efficacy in the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. Blocking critical mediators of immunity may carry a risk of increased opportunistic infections. Here we present clinical and in vitro findings examining the effect of secukinumab on Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. We re-assessed the effect of secukinumab on the incidence of acute tuberculosis (TB) and reactivation of latent TB infection (LTBI) in pooled safety data from five randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 clinical trials in subjects with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis...
August 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856068/sero-diagnosis-of-active-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-disease-among-hiv-co-infected-persons-using-thymidylate-kinase-based-antigen-and-antibody-capture-enzyme-immuno-assays
#18
Misaki Wayengera, Ivan Mwebaza, Johnson Welishe, Cynthia Nakimuli, David P Kateete, Eddie Wampande, Samuel Kirimunda, Lois Bayigga, Carol Musubika, Peace Babirye, Benon Asiimwe, Moses L Joloba
BACKGROUND: Clinical and laboratory diagnosis of Active Tuberculosis (ATB) and latent Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) infections (LTBI) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) presents formidable challenges. In the past, WHO issued an advisory against the use of existing TB sero-diagnostics. Emerging evidence, however, points to a precision of TB sero-diagnostics based on secretory rather than structural M. tuberculosis antigens. We hypothesized that secretory levels of M...
June 2017: Mycobacterial Diseases: Tuberculosis & Leprosy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840843/interferon-gamma-release-assay-in-response-to-pe35-ppe68-proteins-a-promising-diagnostic-method-for-diagnosis-of-latent-tuberculosis
#19
Shima Mahmoudi, Babak Pourakbari, Setareh Mamishi
Tuberculosis control relies on the identification and preventive treatment of people who are latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). PE/PPE proteins have been reported to elicit CD4 and/or CD8 responses either in the form of whole recombinant proteins or as individual peptides. Very few of the PE and PPE proteins have been previously tested for responses in patients with TB and healthy donors. This is the first study to evaluate the Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA) after stimulation with PE35 and PPE68...
March 1, 2017: European Cytokine Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838977/risk-of-tuberculosis-in-patients-with-solid%C3%A2-cancers-and-haematological-malignancies-a-systematic-review-and%C3%A2-meta-analysis
#20
Claudia C Dobler, Kelvin Cheung, John Nguyen, Andrew Martin
There is uncertainty regarding whether patients with cancer should be screened for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the relative incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in cancer.We searched MEDLINE and Embase for studies published before December 21, 2016. We included studies that evaluated the incidence of TB in patients with solid cancers and haematological malignancies relative to a reference group (study control or general population). A pooled estimate of the incidence rate ratio (IRR) was obtained using standard meta-analysis methods...
August 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
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