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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444122/latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-foreign-born-communities-import-vs-transmission-in-the-netherlands-derived-through-mathematical-modelling
#1
Hester Korthals Altes, Serieke Kloet, Frank Cobelens, Martin Bootsma
While tuberculosis (TB) represents a significant disease burden worldwide, low-incidence countries strive to reach the WHO target of pre-elimination by 2035. Screening for TB in immigrants is an important component of the strategy to reduce the TB burden in low-incidence settings. An important option is the screening and preventive treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI). Whether this policy is worthwhile depends on the extent of transmission within the country, and introduction of new cases through import...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442397/tuberculin-skin-test-versus-interferon-gamma-release-assay-in-refugee-children-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#2
Chris Elliot, Ben Marais, Phoebe Williams, Paul Joshua, Sherri Towle, Graham Hart, Karen Zwi
AIM: The aim of this study was to assist clinicians evaluating refugee children for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) by comparing paired tuberculin skin test (TST) and Quantiferon Gold In-Tube (QGIT) test results with clinical management decisions and follow-up data in a large cohort of newly arrived refugee children. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of all refugee children (<15 years of age) evaluated for LTBI with both TST and interferon-γ release assay between 2007 and 2010 in the Illawarra-Shoalhaven region of New South Wales, Australia...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438524/elevated-cyclic-amp-inhibits-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-stimulated-t-cell-ifn-%C3%AE-secretion-through-type-i-protein-kinase-a
#3
Yoon-Tae Chung, Virginia Pasquinelli, Javier O Jurado, Xisheng Wang, Na Yi, Peter F Barnes, Veronica E Garcia, Buka Samten
cAMP is critical in immune regulation, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) intoxicates macrophages through cAMP secretion. To examine the role of cAMP in the immune response to Mtb infection, we determined cAMP levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from tuberculosis patients and the mechanisms for cAMP suppression of T cell IFN-γ production. PBMC from tuberculosis patients contained significantly higher cAMP levels than latent tuberculosis infected subjects (LTBI), with an inverse correlation with Mtb-stimulated IFN-γ production...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437940/the-effect-of-text-messaging-on-latent-tuberculosis-treatment-adherence-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
James C Johnston, Mia L van der Kop, Kirsten Smillie, Gina Ogilvie, Fawziah Marra, Mohsen Sadatsafavi, Kamila Romanowski, Matthew A Budd, Jan Hajek, Victoria Cook, Richard T Lester
There is limited high-quality evidence available to inform the use of text messaging to improve latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) treatment adherence.We performed a parallel, randomised controlled trial at two sites to assess the effect of a two-way short message service on LTBI adherence. We enrolled adults initiating LTBI therapy from June 2012 to September 2015 in British Columbia, Canada. Participants were randomised in a 1:1 ratio to standard LTBI treatment (control) or standard LTBI treatment plus two-way weekly text messaging (intervention)...
February 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431235/barriers-to-treatment-adherence-for-individuals-with-latent-tuberculosis-infection-a-systematic-search-and-narrative-synthesis-of-the-literature
#5
REVIEW
Yisi Liu, Stephen Birch, K Bruce Newbold, Beverley M Essue
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the rates of initiation and completion of treatment for latent TB infection (LTBI), factors explaining nonadherence and interventions to improve treatment adherence in countries with low TB incidence. DESIGN: A systematic search was performed in PubMed and Embase. All included articles were assessed for risk of bias. A narrative synthesis of the results was conducted. RESULTS: There were 54 studies included in this review...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427966/do-higher-cut-off-values-for-tuberculin-skin-test-increase-the-specificity-and-diagnostic-agreement-with-interferon-gamma-release-assays-in-immunocompromised-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-vaccinated-patients
#6
Serhat Erol, Fatma Arslan Ciftci, Aydin Ciledag, Akin Kaya, Ozlem Ozdemir Kumbasar
PURPOSE: Immunocompromised patients with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) are at high risk of progression to active tuberculosis. Detection and treatment of LTBI in this group of patients are very important to control active tuberculosis. Tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) are two methods for detection of LTBI. Diagnostic agreement between two tests are poor especially in Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccinated immunocompromised patients. In this study, we tried to figure out if the use of a higher cut-off for TST increases diagnostic agreement with IGRAs and TST specificity and or not...
February 7, 2018: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426597/determinants-of-tuberculosis-trends-in-six-indigenous-populations-of-the-usa-canada-and-greenland-from-1960-to-2014-a-population-based-study
#7
Kianoush Dehghani, Zhiyi Lan, Peizhi Li, Sascha Wilk Michelsen, Sean Waites, Andrea Benedetti, Pierre Lejeune, Jill Torrie, Elizabeth Robinson, Berenica Vejvoda, Muhammad Mullah, Diana Redwood, Michael Cooper, Anne Fanning, Wadieh Yacoub, Gonzalo G Alvarez, Bolette Søborg, Richard Long, Dick Menzies
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis continues to disproportionately affect many Indigenous populations in the USA, Canada, and Greenland. We aimed to investigate whether population-based tuberculosis-specific interventions or changes in general health and socioeconomic indicators, or a combination of these factors, were associated with changes in tuberculosis incidence in these Indigenous populations. METHODS: For this population-based study we examined annual tuberculosis notification rates between 1960 and 2014 in six Indigenous populations of the USA, Canada, and Greenland (Inuit [Greenland], American Indian and Alaska Native [Alaska, USA], First Nations [Alberta, Canada], Cree of Eeyou Istchee [Quebec, Canada], Inuit of Nunavik [Quebec, Canada], and Inuit of Nunavut [Canada]), as well as the general population of Canada...
February 6, 2018: Lancet. Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425052/regulatory-t-cells-subvert-mycobacterial-containment-in-patients-failing-extensively-drug-resistant-tb-treatment
#8
Malika Davids, Anil S Pooran, Elize Pietersen, Helen C Wainwright, Anke Binder, Robin Warren, Keertan Dheda
RATIONALE: The advent of extensively (XDR-TB) and totally drug-resistant TB, with limited or no treatment options, has facilitated renewed interest in host directed immunotherapy, particularly for therapeutically destitute patients. However, the selection and utility of such approaches depend upon understanding the host immune response in XDR-TB, which hitherto remains unexplored. OBJECTIVES: To determine the host immunological profile in patients with XDR-TB, compared to drug-sensitive TB, using peripheral blood and explanted lung tissue...
February 9, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410147/evaluation-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-specific-antibody-responses-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#9
Sen Wang, Jing Wu, Jiazhen Chen, Yan Gao, Shu Zhang, Zumo Zhou, Heqing Huang, Lingyun Shao, Jialin Jin, Ying Zhang, Wenhong Zhang
OBJECTIVES: The serological antibody detection tests offer several advantages for rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) specific antibody responses associated with different stages of TB infection remain to be investigated. METHODS: The PATHOZYME-MYCO IgG (Myco G), the PATHOZYME TB complex plus (TB complex), the IBL M. tuberculosis IgG ELISA (IBL), the Anda Biologicals TB IgG (Anda-TB) and the T-SPOT.TB (T-SPOT) tests were performed in 133 active TB patients (ATB group), 131 controls (CON group) and 95 subjects with latent TB infection (LTBI group)...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404180/evaluation-of-treatment-indications-tuberculin-skin-test-and-bacillus-calmette-guerin-vaccination-scars-in-the-cases-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-treatment
#10
Beyhan Çakar
OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to evaluate the latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) treatment application and to investigate if there is change between tuberculin skin test (TST) results according to bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) scar numbers after LTBI treatment with isoniazid (INH). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were collected from the LTBI treatment files from the dispensary of 2006. The results were statistically evaluated. RESULTS: Latent tuberculosis infection was administered to 253 cases in 2006...
January 2018: Turkish Thoracic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393655/exposure-to-latent-tuberculosis-treatment-during-pregnancy-the-prevent-tb-and-the-iadhere-trials
#11
Ruth N Moro, Nigel A Scott, Andrew Vernon, Naomi K Tepper, Stefan V Goldberg, Kevin Schwartzman, Chi-Chiu Leung, Neil W Schluger, Robert W Belknap, Richard E Chaisson, Masahiro Narita, Elizabeth S Machado, Marta Lopez, Jorge Sanchez, Margarita E Villarino, Timothy R Sterling
RATIONALE: Data are limited regarding the safety of 12-dose once-weekly isoniazid (900 mg) plus rifapentine (900 mg) (3HP) for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) treatment during pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: To assess safety and pregnancy outcomes among pregnant women who were inadvertently exposed to study medications in two LTBI trials (PREVENT TB or iAdhere) evaluating 3HP and 9 months of daily isoniazid (300 mg) (9H). METHODS: Data from reproductive age (15-51 years) women who received ≥1 study dose of 3HP or 9H in either trial were analyzed...
February 2, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390153/il-21-regulates-nk-cell-responses-during-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#12
Padmaja Paidipally, Deepak Tripathi, Abhinav Van, Rajesh Kumar Radhakrishnan, Rohan Dhiman, Sambasivan Venkatasubramanian, Kamakshi P Devalraju, Amy R Tvinnereim, Vijaya Lakshmi Valluri, Ramakrishna Vankayalapati
In the current study, we determined the effects of interleukin (IL)-21 on human natural killer (NK) cells and monocyte responses during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. We found that Mtb stimulated CD4+ and NKT cells from healthy individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI+) are major sources of IL-21. CD4+ cells from tuberculosis patients secreted less IL-21 than did CD4+ cells from healthy LTBI+ individuals. IL-21 had no direct effect on Mtb stimulated monocytes. IL-21 activated NK cells produced IFN-γ, perforin, granzyme B and granulysin; lysed Mtb infected monocytes; and reduced Mtb growth...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388291/comparison-of-tuberculin-skin-test-and-interferon-gamma-release-assay-for-diagnosis-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-pediatric-candidates-of-renal-transplantation
#13
Shirin Sayyahfar, Faranak Davoodzadeh, Rozita Hoseini, Nahid Rahimzadeh, Hasan Otukesh
IGRA has been approved as an alternative in vitro test to diagnose Mycobacterium TB infection. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic value of TST in comparison with QFT assay to detect LTBI among Iranian children candidate for renal transplantation. This cross-sectional study was performed on 31 children who were candidate for renal transplantation admitted to Ali Asghar Children's Hospital and Rasoul Akram Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from 2013 to 2014. TST and QFT were performed for all patients. QFT was negative in all patients, while TST was positive only in one case...
February 1, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378859/high-prevalence-of-latent-tuberculosis-and-bloodborne-virus-infection-in-a-homeless-population
#14
Robert W Aldridge, Andrew C Hayward, Sara Hemming, Susan K Yates, Gloria Ferenando, Lucia Possas, Elizabeth Garber, John M Watson, Anna Maria Geretti, Timothy Daniel McHugh, Marc Lipman, Alistair Story
INTRODUCTION: Urban homeless populations in the UK have been shown to have high rates of active tuberculosis, but less is known about the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of LTBI among individuals using homeless hostels in London. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional survey with outcome follow-up in homeless hostels in London. Our primary outcome was prevalence of LTBI. Recruitment for the study took place between May 2011 and June 2013...
January 29, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359834/tuberculosis-tb-after-liver-transplantation-in-a-large-center-in-new-york-city-quantiferon%C3%A2-tb-gold-based-pre-transplant-screening-performance-and-active-tb-post-transplant
#15
Jonathan Hand, Keith Sigel, Shirish Huprikar, Camille Hamula, Meena Rana
INTRODUCTION: Pre-transplant screening for latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) is a complex consideration that varies by institution. Inconsistent performance of interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) further complicates screening. Data regarding LTBI screening outcomes and test characteristics in large, foreign-born pre-transplant populations within the United States (US) is limited. METHODS: In this retrospective study, patients who received QuantiFERON® -TB Gold (QFT) prior to liver transplantation (LT) were included...
January 23, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348876/genome-wide-transcriptional-profiling-identifies-potential-signatures-in-discriminating-active-tuberculosis-from-latent-infection
#16
Liping Pan, Na Wei, Hongyan Jia, Mengqiu Gao, Xiaoyou Chen, Rongrong Wei, Qi Sun, Shuxiang Gu, Boping Du, Aiying Xing, Zongde Zhang
To better understand the host immune response involved in the progression from latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) to active tuberculosis (TB) and identify the potential signatures for discriminating TB from LTBI, we performed a genome-wide transcriptional profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.TB)-specific antigens-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with TB, LTBI individuals and healthy controls (HCs). A total of 209 and 234 differentially expressed genes were detected in TB vs...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345081/screening-for-latent-tuberculosis-infection-among-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-in-the-era-of-biologics-and-targeted-synthetic-disease-modifying-anti-rheumatic-drugs-in-india-a-high-burden-tb-country-the-importance-of-mantoux-and-quantiferon-tb-gold-tests
#17
Anand N Malaviya, Vishal K Aggarwal, Roopa Rawat, Sadhana Baghel, Ravita Thakran, Qamar Zaheer, Shriram Garg, Sanjiv Kapoor
AIM: To test the validity of an augmented tuberculosis skin test (a-TST) combined with Quantiferon TB-gold® (QFTG) test for the screening of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) being considered for treatment with biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs or targeted synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. METHOD: Standard TST using 1 tuberculin unit (TU) of purified protein derivative (PPD, RT23 strain) was carried out...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340489/tuberculosis-infection-among-primary-health-care-workers
#18
Thamy Carvalho Lacerda, Fernanda Mattos de Souza, Thiago Nascimento do Prado, Rodrigo Leite Locatelli, Geisa Fregona, Rita de Cássia Duarte Lima, Ethel Leonor Maciel
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of and determine the risk factors associated with latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among primary health care workers in the city of Vitória, Brazil. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study with data collected through a survey regarding socio-demographic, occupational, clinical, and exposure characteristics, as well as knowledge about tuberculosis, conducted between 2011 and 2012. All participants underwent a tuberculin skin test (TST), and TSTs were read at 72 h by a trained professional...
November 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332319/treatment-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-and-its-clinical-efficacy
#19
REVIEW
Hyung Woo Kim, Ju Sang Kim
The role of the treatment for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) has been underscored in the intermediate tuberculosis (TB) burden countries like South Korea. LTBI treatment is recommended only for patients at risk for progression to active TB-those with frequent exposure to active TB cases, and those with clinical risk factors (e.g., immunocompromised patients). Recently revised National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline recommended that close contacts of individuals with active pulmonary or laryngeal TB, aged between 18 and 65 years, should undergo LTBI treatment...
January 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326327/national-roll-out-of-latent-tuberculosis-testing-and-treatment-for-new-migrants-in-england-a-retrospective-evaluation-in-a-high-incidence-area
#20
Miranda G Loutet, Matthew Burman, Nivenka Jayasekera, Duncan Trathen, Susan Dart, Heinke Kunst, Dominik Zenner
Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) screening is an important intervention for tuberculosis (TB) elimination in low-incidence countries and is, therefore, a key component of England's TB control strategy. This study describes outcomes from a LTBI screening programme in a high-incidence area to inform national LTBI screening in England and other low-incidence countries.We conducted a retrospective cohort study of LTBI screening among eligible migrants (from high-incidence countries and entered the UK within the last 5 years), who were identified at primary-care clinics in Newham, London between August 2014 and August 2015...
January 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
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