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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904647/prevalence-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-healthcare-workers-at-a-hospital-in-naples-italy-a-low-incidence-country
#1
Monica Lamberti, Mariarosaria Muoio, Antonio Arnese, Sharon Borrelli, Teresa Di Lorenzo, Elpidio Maria Garzillo, Giuseppe Signoriello, Stefania De Pascalis, Nicola Coppola, Albert Nienhaus
BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at higher risk than the general population of contracting tuberculosis (TB). Moreover, although subjects with latent TB infection (LTBI) are asymptomatic and are not infectious, they may eventually develop active disease. Thus, a fundamental tool of TB control programs for HCWs is the screening and treatment of LTBI. METHODS: From January 2014 to January 2015, hospital personnel at Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria, Naples, Italy, were screened for TB...
2016: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888179/predicting-tuberculosis-risk-in-the-foreign-born-population-of-british-columbia-canada-study-protocol-for-a-retrospective-population-based-cohort-study
#2
Lisa A Ronald, Jonathon R Campbell, Robert F Balshaw, David Z Roth, Kamila Romanowski, Fawziah Marra, Victoria J Cook, James C Johnston
INTRODUCTION: Improved understanding of risk factors for developing active tuberculosis (TB) will better inform decisions about diagnostic testing and treatment for latent TB infection (LTBI) in migrant populations in low-incidence regions. We aim to examine TB risk factors among the foreign-born population in British Columbia (BC), Canada, and to create and validate a clinically relevant multivariate risk score to predict active TB. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This retrospective population-based cohort study will include all foreign-born individuals who acquired permanent resident status in Canada between 1 January 1985 and 31 December 2013 and acquired healthcare coverage in BC at any point during this period...
November 25, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872018/preventive-therapy-for-latent-tuberculosis-infection-the-promise-and-the-challenges
#3
REVIEW
G J Fox, C C Dobler, B J Marais, J T Denholm
Around one third of the world's population may harbour latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), an asymptomatic immunological state that confers a heightened risk of subsequently developing tuberculosis (TB). Effectively treating LTBI will be essential if the End TB Strategy is to be realised This review evaluates the evidence the effectiveness preventive antibiotic therapy to treat LTBI due to both drug susceptible and drug resistant bacteria. We summarise current national and international preventive therapy guidelines, as well as ongoing randomised trials evaluating regimen to prevent drug resistant TB...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871809/biomarkers-for-discrimination-between-latent-tuberculosis-infection-and-active-tuberculosis-disease
#4
Eun-Jeong Won, Jung-Ho Choi, Young-Nan Cho, Hye-Mi Jin, Hae Jin Kee, Yong-Wook Park, Yong-Soo Kwon, Seung-Jung Kee
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether combinations of multiplex cytokine responses could differentiate Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection states. METHODS: Mtb-specific antigen-induced and unstimulated cytokines were measured by Luminex assay in supernatants of QuantiFERON(®) Gold In-Tube assay (QFT) in 48 active pulmonary TB patients (TB), 15 latent TB infection subjects (LTBI), and 13 healthy controls (HCs). RESULTS: Among the 29 cytokines, eight Mtb antigen-specific biomarkers (GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-1RA, IL-2, IL-3, IL-13, IP-10, and MIP-1β) in the Mtb-infected group were significantly different from those of the HCs...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866367/risk-for-latent-and-active-tuberculosis-in-germany
#5
Christian Herzmann, Giovanni Sotgiu, Oswald Bellinger, Roland Diel, Silke Gerdes, Udo Goetsch, Helga Heykes-Uden, Tom Schaberg, Christoph Lange
PURPOSE: Few individuals that are latently infected with M. tuberculosis latent tuberculosis infection(LTBI) progress to active disease. We investigated risk factors for LTBI and active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Germany. METHODS: Healthy household contacts (HHCs), health care workers (HCWs) exposed to M. tuberculosis and PTB patients were recruited at 18 German centres. Interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) testing was performed. LTBI risk factors were evaluated by comparing IGRA-positive with IGRA-negative contacts...
November 19, 2016: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853753/elevated-circulating-concentrations-of-interferon-gamma-in-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#6
Moises A Huaman, George S Deepe, Carl J Fichtenbaum
BACKGROUND: Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) has been associated with increased immune activation. We assessed circulating concentrations of interferon-gamma in persons with LTBI. METHODS: We used the 2011-2012 National Health Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) to identify adults with and without LTBI by QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) results. Non-LTBI persons were 1:1 age-, gender-, and race-matched to LTBI persons using propensity scores. We compared the plasma concentrations of interferon-gamma measured from the unstimulated, negative control QFT tube between LTBI and non-LTBI persons...
October 2016: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852671/highly-multiplexed-proteomic-analysis-of-quantiferon-supernatants-to-identify-biomarkers-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#7
Mary Ann De Groote, Michael Higgins, Thomas Hraha, Kirsten Wall, Michael L Wilson, David G Sterling, Nebojsa Janjic, Randall Reves, Urs A Ochsner, Robert Belknap
The tests for diagnosing latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) are limited by poor predictive value for identifying people at highest risk for progression to active TB, and have varying sensitivity and specificity in different populations. The identification of a more robust signature for LTBI is important for TB prevention and elimination. A pilot study was conducted with samples from immigrants to the U.S. that were screened for LTBI by the three commercially approved tests: Tuberculin Skin Test (TST), QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT), and T-SPOT...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836953/correlates-of-tuberculosis-risk-predictive-biomarkers-for-progression-to-active-tuberculosis
#8
REVIEW
Elisa Petruccioli, Thomas J Scriba, Linda Petrone, Mark Hatherill, Daniela M Cirillo, Simone A Joosten, Tom H Ottenhoff, Claudia M Denkinger, Delia Goletti
New approaches to control the spread of tuberculosis (TB) are needed, including tools to predict development of active TB from latent TB infection (LTBI). Recent studies have described potential correlates of risk, in order to inform the development of prognostic tests for TB disease progression. These efforts have included unbiased approaches employing "omics" technologies, as well as more directed, hypothesis-driven approaches assessing a small set or even individual selected markers as candidate correlates of TB risk...
December 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836793/european-policies-in-the-management-of-tuberculosis-among-migrants
#9
Lia D'Ambrosio, Rosella Centis, Masoud Dara, Ivan Solovic, Giorgia Sulis, Alimuddin Zumla, Giovanni Battista Migliori
Globally 10.4 million new TB incident cases were estimated to have occurred in 2015, of which 3% were reported in the European Region of the World Health Organization. Importantly, about 25% of the global multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases are reported in the European Region, representing one of the greatest challenges of TB control particularly in Former Soviet Union Countries. Over a quarter of TB cases in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA) are reported among foreign-born individuals...
November 8, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825307/prevalence-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-and-predictive-factors-in-an-urban-informal-settlement-in-johannesburg-south-africa-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Jabulani R Ncayiyana, Jean Bassett, Nora West, Daniel Westreich, Eustasius Musenge, Michael Emch, Audrey Pettifor, Colleen F Hanrahan, Sheree R Schwartz, Ian Sanne, Annelies van Rie
BACKGROUND: South Africa has one of the highest burdens of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in high-risk populations such as young children, adolescents, household contacts of TB cases, people living with HIV, gold miners and health care workers, but little is known about the burden of LTBI in its general population. METHODS: Using a community-based survey with random sampling, we examined the burden of LTBI in an urban township of Johannesburg and investigated factors associated with LTBI...
November 8, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817127/the-conversion-rate-of-tuberculosis-screening-tests-during-biological-therapies-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#11
Giovanna Cuomo, Virginia D'Abrsca, Daniela Iacono, Ilenia Pantano
Screening for active tuberculosis (TB) and latent TB infection (LTBI) is mandatory to the initiation of biological therapy in patients with rheumatic diseases. To determine the prevalence of LTBI in patients with rheumatoid arthritis before treatment with biological therapy (anti-TNF, abatacept, and tocilizumab) and the rate of TB conversion during treatment in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, we evaluated the file of 275 patients with RA treated with biological agents. We considered patients with negative baseline TB screening (tuberculin skin test (TST); quantiferon TB gold in tube (QFT-GIT); chest x-ray) and with rescreening for a TB assay every year...
November 5, 2016: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812634/prevalence-of-latent-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-prisoners
#12
Pedro Daibert de Navarro, Isabela Neves de Almeida, Afrânio Lineu Kritski, Maria das Graças Ceccato, Mônica Maria Delgado Maciel, Wânia da Silva Carvalho, Silvana Spindola de Miranda
Objective: To determine the prevalence of and the factors associated with latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in prisoners in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods: This was a cross-sectional cohort study conducted in two prisons in Minas Gerais. Tuberculin skin tests were performed in the individuals who agreed to participate in the study. Results: A total of 1,120 individuals were selected for inclusion in this study...
September 2016: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809805/detection-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-among-migrant-farmworkers-along-the-us-mexico-border
#13
E Oren, M H Fiero, E Barrett, B Anderson, M Nuῆez, F Gonzalez-Salazar
BACKGROUND: Migrant farmworkers are among the highest-risk populations for latent TB infection (LTBI) in the United States with numerous barriers to healthcare access and increased vulnerability to infectious diseases. LTBI is usually diagnosed on the border using the tuberculin skin test (TST). QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) also measures immune response against specific Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens. The objective of this study is to assess the comparability of TST and QFT-GIT to detect LTBI among migrant farmworkers on the border, as well as to examine the effects of various demographic and clinical factors on test positivity...
November 3, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799389/risk-of-developing-tuberculosis-disease-among-persons-diagnosed-with-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-the-netherlands
#14
Connie G M Erkens, Erika Slump, Maurits Verhagen, Henrieke Schimmel, Frank Cobelens, Susan van den Hof
Diagnosis and preventive treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among high-risk groups is recommended to achieve tuberculosis (TB) elimination in low-incidence countries.We studied TB incidence rates among those notified with LTBI in the Netherlands from 2005 to 2013 and analysed associated risk factors. We stratified analyses by target group for screening, and by initiation and completion of preventive treatment.The incidence for those completing, stopping and not receiving preventive treatment was 187, 436 and 355 per 100 000 person-years for contacts of TB patients, respectively, and 63, 96 and 110 per 100 000 person-years for other target groups...
November 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793104/n-acetyl-cysteine-exhibits-potent-anti-mycobacterial-activity-in-addition-to-its-known-anti-oxidative-functions
#15
Eduardo P Amaral, Elisabete L Conceição, Diego L Costa, Michael S Rocha, Jamocyr M Marinho, Marcelo Cordeiro-Santos, Maria Regina D'Império-Lima, Theolis Barbosa, Alan Sher, Bruno B Andrade
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is thought to induce oxidative stress. N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) is widely used in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases including tuberculosis due to its mucolytic and anti-oxidant activities. Here, we tested whether NAC exerts a direct antibiotic activity against mycobacteria. METHODS: Oxidative stress status in plasma was compared between pulmonary TB (PTB) patients and those with latent M. tuberculosis infection (LTBI) or healthy uninfected individuals...
October 28, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790271/tuberculosis-infection-and-latent-tuberculosis
#16
REVIEW
Seung Heon Lee
Active tuberculosis (TB) has a greater burden of TB bacilli than latent TB and acts as an infection source for contacts. Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is the state in which humans are infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis without any clinical symptoms, radiological abnormality, or microbiological evidence. TB is transmissible by respiratory droplet nucleus of 1-5 µm in diameter, containing 1-10 TB bacilli. TB transmission is affected by the strength of the infectious source, infectiousness of TB bacilli, immunoresistance of the host, environmental stresses, and biosocial factors...
October 2016: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783642/prevalence-and-diagnosis-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-young-children-in-the-absence-of-a-gold-standard
#17
Tomas Maria Perez-Porcuna, Hélio Doyle Pereira-da-Silva, Carlos Ascaso, Adriana Malheiro, Samira Bührer, Flor Martinez-Espinosa, Rosa Abellana
INTRODUCTION: For adequate disease control the World Health Organization has proposed the diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) in groups of risk of developing the disease such as children. There is no gold standard (GS) test for the diagnosis of LTBI. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of LTBI in young children in contact with a household case of tuberculosis (TB-HCC) and determine the accuracy and precision of the Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) and QuantiFERON-TB Gold in-tube (QFT) used in the absence of a GS...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780211/the-global-burden-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-a-re-estimation-using-mathematical-modelling
#18
Rein M G J Houben, Peter J Dodd
BACKGROUND: The existing estimate of the global burden of latent TB infection (LTBI) as "one-third" of the world population is nearly 20 y old. Given the importance of controlling LTBI as part of the End TB Strategy for eliminating TB by 2050, changes in demography and scientific understanding, and progress in TB control, it is important to re-assess the global burden of LTBI. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We constructed trends in annual risk in infection (ARI) for countries between 1934 and 2014 using a combination of direct estimates of ARI from LTBI surveys (131 surveys from 1950 to 2011) and indirect estimates of ARI calculated from World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates of smear positive TB prevalence from 1990 to 2014...
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777875/predictors-of-low-prevalence-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-among-egyptian-health-care-workers-at-intensive-care-and-bronchoscopy-units
#19
Enas Mamdouh Hefzy, Ahmed Ashraf Wegdan, Radwa Ahmed Elhefny, Samar Hassan Nasser
Aim: Latent tuberculosis infections (LTBI) contain a significant reservoir for future epidemics. Screening of health care workers (HCWs) in a high-risk tuberculosis (TB) environment is an important strategy in TB control. The study aimed to assess the prevalence of LTBI among high risk Egyptian HCWs and to assess infection associated risk factors. Methods: Fifty-two HCWs who work at intensive care unit (ICU), bronchoscopy unit, and chest diseases department were tested for LTBI using both tuberculin skin test (TST) and Quantiferon TB Gold in-tube test (QFT)...
2016: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776599/comparative-utility-of-interferon-%C3%AE-release-assay-quantiferon-%C3%A2-tb-git-and-t-spot-%C3%A2-tb-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#20
R Matsumura, H Igari, T Nakazawa, S Ishikawa, M Tsuyuzaki, K Suzuki, F Yamagishi
SETTING: National hospital for tuberculosis (TB) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Japan. OBJECTIVE: To compare two interferon-γ release assays (IGRAs), QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) and T-SPOT(®).TB (T-SPOT), in RA patients for detecting latent tuberculous infection (LTBI). DESIGN: QFT and T-SPOT were conducted concurrently in 230 prospectively enrolled RA patients. RESULTS: There were no active TB patients...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
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