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body composition and DXA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921453/upper-and-lower-limbs-composition-a-comparison-between-anthropometry-and-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-in-healthy-people
#1
Danila Diano, Federico Ponti, Sara Guerri, Daniele Mercatelli, Michele Amadori, Maria Pilar Aparisi Gómez, Giuseppe Battista, Giuseppe Guglielmi, Alberto Bazzocchi
The detection of changes in lean mass (LM) distribution can help to prevent disability. This study assessed the degree of association between anthropometric measurements and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) body composition (BC) parameters of the upper and lower limbs in a healthy general population and collected DXA age- and sex-specific values of BC that can be useful to build a reference standard. PURPOSE: The primary aim of this study was to investigate the reliability of some widely available anthropometric measurements in the assessment of body composition (BC) at the limbs, especially in terms of muscle mass, in a large sample of healthy subjects of different age bands and sex, using fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) parameters derived by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the gold standard...
September 18, 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910398/body-composition-and-prediction-equations-using-skinfold-thickness-for-body-fat-percentage-in-southern-brazilian-adolescents
#2
Wagner Luis Ripka, Leandra Ulbricht, Pedro Miguel Gewehr
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to: a) determine the nutritional status of Brazilian adolescents, and; b) present a skinfold thickness model (ST) to estimate body fat developed with Brazilian samples, using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method. METHODS: The main study group was composed of 374 adolescents, and further 42 adolescents for the validation group. Weight, height, waist circumference measurements, and body mass index (BMI) were collected, as well as nine ST-biceps (BI), triceps (TR), chest (CH), axillary (AX) subscapularis (SB), abdominal (AB), suprailiac (SI), medial thigh (TH), calf (CF), and fat percentage (%BF) obtained by DXA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901657/longitudinal-patterns-in-bmi-and-percent-total-body-fat-from-peak-height-velocity-through-emerging-adulthood-into-young-adulthood
#3
Erin Barbour-Tuck, Marta Erlandson, Nazeem Muhajarine, Heather Foulds, Adam Baxter-Jones
OBJECTIVES: Emerging adulthood, a potential critical period, is an understudied period of fat mass accrual. The aim of this study was to describe patterns of fat mass accrual, and weight status, from adolescence, through emerging adulthood, into young adulthood. METHODS: One-hundred-eighteen participants (59 male) were measured repeatedly for 20 years. Annual measures of height, weight, and body composition (DXA) were taken. Calculated measures included: peak height velocity (PHV), biological age (BA; years from PHV), body mass index (BMI), and percent total body fat (%TBF)...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884881/effects-of-a-randomized-weight-loss-intervention-trial-in-obese-adolescents-on-tibia-and-radius-bone-geometry-and-volumetric-density
#4
Jennifer C Kelley, Nicolas Stettler-Davis, Mary B Leonard, Douglas Hill, Brian H Wrotniak, Justine Shults, Virginia A Stallings, Robert Berkowitz, Melissa S Xanthopoulos, Elizabeth Prout-Parks, Sarah B Klieger, Babette S Zemel
Obese adolescents have increased fracture risk, but effects of alterations in adiposity on bone accrual and strength in obese adolescents are not understood. We evaluated 12-month changes in trabecular and cortical volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and cortical geometry in obese adolescents undergoing a randomized weight management program, and investigated the effect of body composition changes on bone outcomes. Peripheral quantitative CT of the radius and tibia, and whole body DXA scans were obtained at baseline, six and 12 months in 91 obese adolescents randomized to standard care versus behavioral intervention for weight loss...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871851/reliability-and-precision-of-the-nana-protocol-to-assess-body-composition-using-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry
#5
Flinn Shiel, Carl Persson, Vini Simas, James Furness, Mike Climstein, Rod Pope, Ben Schram
The Nana positioning protocol is widely used to position participants to minimise technical error when undertaking body composition scanning and analysis with a Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) machine. Once biological and technical errors are accounted for, the only variation in test re-test results is from statistical fluctuation or machine error. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the test re-test reliability of the Nana positioning protocol, and establish the smallest real difference percentage (SRD%)...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871849/resistance-training-combined-with-diet-decreases-body-fat-while-preserving-lean-mass-independent-of-resting-metabolic-rate-a-randomized-trial
#6
Todd Miller, Stephanie Mull, Alan Albert Aragon, James Krieger, Brad Jon Schoenfeld
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of resistance training only (RT n=10), dietary intervention only (DIET n=10), resistance training plus diet (RT+DIET n=10) and control (CON n=10) on body composition and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a cohort of 40 premenopausal female volunteers. Subjects in DIET and RT+DIET were provided with daily macronutrient and calorie goals based on DXA and RMR tests, with protein maintained at 1.4 g/kg/day. Subjects in the RT and RT+DIET groups performed a supervised progressive RT program consisting of exercises for all the major muscle groups of the body...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853029/effect-of-high-intensity-interval-training-on-fitness-fat-mass-and-cardiometabolic-biomarkers-in-children-with-obesity-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#7
Katrin A Dias, Charlotte B Ingul, Arnt E Tjønna, Shelley E Keating, Sjaan R Gomersall, Turid Follestad, Mansoureh S Hosseini, Siri M Hollekim-Strand, Torstein B Ro, Margrete Haram, Else Marie Huuse, Peter S W Davies, Peter A Cain, Gary M Leong, Jeff S Coombes
BACKGROUND: Paediatric obesity significantly increases the risk of developing cardiometabolic diseases across the lifespan. Increasing cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) could mitigate this risk. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves CRF in clinical adult populations but the evidence in paediatric obesity is inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine the efficacy of a 12-week, HIIT intervention for increasing CRF and reducing adiposity in children with obesity...
August 29, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846611/high-intensity-exercise-can-it-protect-you-from-a-fast-food-diet
#8
Christian Duval, Marc-Antoine Rouillier, Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret, Antony D Karelis
The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of high intensity exercise to counteract the deleterious effects of a fast food diet on the cardiometabolic profile of young healthy men. Fifteen men were subjected to an exclusive fast food diet from a popular fast food restaurant chain (three extra value meals/day + optional snack) for 14 consecutive days. Simultaneously, participants were asked to perform each day high intensity interval training (HIIT) (15 × 60 sec sprint intervals (~90% of maximal heart rate)) on a treadmill...
August 26, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841397/changes-in-hdl-c-concentrations-after-16-weeks-of-combined-training-in-postmenopausal-women-characteristics-of-positive-and-negative-responders
#9
Tiego A Diniz, Fabrício E Rossi, Ana Claudia Souza Fortaleza, Lucas Melo Neves, Diego Giulliano Destro Christofaro, Camila Buonani, Fábio S Lira, Eduardo Z Campos, Wagner Luiz do Prado, Ismael Forte Freitas
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the individual characteristics of body composition and metabolic profile that could explain interindividual variation in HDL-c concentrations in response to 16-weeks of combined strength plus aerobic (combined) training in postmenopausal women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The participants were divided into tertiles based on percentage of changes in HDL-c concentrations after combined training. Only women in the upper tertile (positive responders [PR]: Δ >10...
August 25, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832428/functional-capacity-depends-on-lower-limb-muscle-strength-rather-than-on-abdominal-obesity-in-active-postmenopausal-women
#10
Maude C Dulac, Livia Pinheiro Carvalho, Mylène Aubertin-Leheudre
OBJECTIVE: An association has been found between abdominal obesity and functional capacity (FC) in the literature where waist circumference has been used to infer abdominal obesity. However, most studies focused on evaluating predictors of FC and functional disabilities only in sedentary people. This study aimed to examine whether abdominal obesity is associated with FC in physically active postmenopausal women. METHODS: Forty-four active (>7,500 steps/d) postmenopausal women were recruited...
August 21, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827604/sarcopenia-is-independently-associated-with-diabetic-foot-disease
#11
Qingfeng Cheng, Jinbo Hu, Ping Yang, Xueting Cao, Xuefeng Deng, Qin Yang, Zhiping Liu, Shumin Yang, Richa Goswami, Yue Wang, Ting Luo, Kun Liao, Qifu Li
The aim of this study was to investigate the association of sarcopenia and diabetic foot disease (DFD) in a cross-sectional study. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray-absorptiometry (DXA) among 1105 patients with type 2 diabetes (120 patients with newly diagnosed DFD [DFD duration less than 3 months]). Severity of DFD was assessed, referring to foot ulcers, Wagner grade and the percentage of amputation. Skeletal muscle index (SMI) was calculated, and sarcopenia was defined as SMI less than 7...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827206/relationship-between-gonadal-function-and-cardiometabolic-risk-in-young-men-with-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#12
Shannon D Sullivan, Mark S Nash, Eshetu Tefara, Emily Tinsley, Suzanne Groah
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that young men with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) have a higher prevalence of testosterone deficiency when compared to an age-matched healthy control population. Young men with SCI are also at increased risk for developing cardiometabolic dysfunction after injury. It is unclear whether or not testosterone deficiency is associated with heightened cardiometabolic risk in men with SCI. OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations among levels of testosterone in young men with chronic SCI and surrogate markers of cardiometabolic risk...
August 18, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814982/cord-blood-dna-methylation-and-adiposity-measures-in-early-and-mid-childhood
#13
Jacob K Kresovich, Yinan Zheng, Andres Cardenas, Brian T Joyce, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Emily Oken, Matthew W Gillman, Marie-France Hivert, Andrea A Baccarelli, Lifang Hou
BACKGROUND: Excess adiposity in childhood is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes. As this condition is difficult to treat once present, identification of risk early in life can help inform and implement strategies to prevent the onset of the condition. We performed an epigenome-wide association study to prospectively investigate the relationship between cord blood DNA methylation and adiposity measurements in childhood. METHODS: We measured genome-wide DNA methylation from 478 children in cord blood and measured overall and central adiposity via skinfold caliper measurements in early (range 3...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799180/accuracy-of-octa-polar-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-for-the-assessment-of-total-and-appendicular-body-composition-in-children-and-adolescents-with-hiv-comparison-with-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-and-air-displacement-plethysmography
#14
J A C de Castro, L R A de Lima, D A S Silva
BACKGROUND: Body composition analysis has been used to investigate fat mass (FM) and bone mineral content (BMC) in children and adolescents diagnosed with HIV. Investigating the validity of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is interesting with respect to testing useful techniques for monitoring body composition in children and adolescents in clinical practice. The present study aimed to determine the validity of body composition analysis by BIA compared to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) in children and adolescents an HIV diagnosis...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799060/association-between-anthropometric-indices-body-composition-and-bone-parameters-in-thai-female-adolescents
#15
Rapheeporn Khwanchuea, Chuchard Punsawad
OBJECTIVE: To investigate correlations between anthropometrics and body composition with bone parameters of the whole-body and lumbar spine in non-obese and obese Thai female adolescents. METHODS: This study was performed in 135 female adolescents aged 15 to 18 y enrolled in secondary schools in southern Thailand. Subjects were grouped into non-obesity (underweight and normal-to-overweight) (BMI < 25) and obesity (BMI ≥ 25) groups. Anthropometric indices for obesity [body weight (BW), waist circumference (WC), and body mass index (BMI)] were recorded...
August 11, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770669/case-study-unfavorable-but-transient-physiological-changes-during-contest-preparation-in-a-drug-free-male-bodybuilder
#16
Andrew Pardue, Eric T Trexler, Lisa K Sprod
Extreme body composition demands of competitive bodybuilding have been associated with unfavorable physiological changes, including alterations in metabolic rate and endocrine profile. The current case study evaluated the effects of contest preparation (8 months), followed by recovery (5 months), on a competitive drug-free male bodybuilder over 13 months (M1-M13). Serum testosterone, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), cortisol, leptin, and ghrelin were measured throughout the study. Body composition (BodPod, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry [DXA]), anaerobic power (Wingate test), and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were assessed monthly...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763926/-analysis-of-association-between-appendicular-skeletal-muscle-mass-index-and-main-anthropometric-parameters-among-overweight-and-obese-adults-in-china
#17
Z H Wang, Y D Yang, S Wang, Y H Dong, X J Wang, J Ma
Objective: To investigate the associations between the appendicular skeletal muscle mass index and main anthropometric parameters, and to provide clues for preventing the reduction of skeletal muscle mass among overweight and obese adults in China. Methods: 1 488 volunteered participants who resided in Beijing longer than one year, between 22 and 55 years old, with self-report BMI ≥24 kg/m(2) were recruited from April to May 2014. 171 participants whose BMI ≤24 kg/m(2) or with organic diseases at the first physical examination were excluded, finally 1 317 overweight/obese participants (male and female were 507, and 810, respectively) were enrolled into the present study...
August 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756995/an-investigation-into-the-differences-in-bone-density-and-body-composition-measurements-between-2-ge-lunar-densitometers-and-their-comparison-to-a-4-component-model
#18
Laura P E Watson, Michelle C Venables, Peter R Murgatroyd
We describe a study to assess the precision of the GE Lunar iDXA and the agreement between the iDXA and GE Lunar Prodigy densitometers for the measurement of regional- and total-body bone and body composition in normal to obese healthy adults. We compare the whole-body fat mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to measurements by a 4-component (4-C) model. Sixty-nine participants, aged 37 ± 12 yr, with a body mass index of 26.2 ± 5.1 kg/cm(2), were measured once on the Prodigy and twice on the iDXA...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755448/short-term-in%C3%A2-vivo-precision-of-whole-body-composition-measurements-on-the-horizon-a-densitometer
#19
Michael Nowitz, Paula Monahan
INTRODUCTION: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is increasingly being used to assess abnormalities in body composition associated with a wide variety of conditions including obesity, sarcopenia, diabetes, anorexia, human immunodeficiency virus lipodystrophy, malabsorption and neuromuscular disorders. The objective of this study was to determine the short-term in vivo precision and least significant change in serial body composition measurements provided by the Hologic Horizon A densitometer as there is no published, peer reviewed body composition precision data on Horizon scanners in the medical literature...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751679/conjugated-linoleic-acid-supplementation-improves-maternal-high-fat-diet-induced-programming-of-metabolic-dysfunction-in-adult-male-rat-offspring
#20
Stephanie A Segovia, Mark H Vickers, Clint Gray, Xiaoyuan D Zhang, Clare M Reynolds
The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis proposes that an adverse early life environment, including in utero exposure to a maternal obesogenic environment, can lead to an increased long-term risk of obesity and related metabolic complications in offspring. We assessed whether maternal supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) could prevent some of these adverse effects in offspring exposed to a maternal high fat diet. Sprague-Dawley dams consumed either a: control (CD), control with CLA (CLA), high fat (HF) or high fat with CLA (HFCLA) diet 10 days prior to mating and throughout pregnancy/lactation...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
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