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body composition and DXA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204901/the-effect-of-hydration-status-on-the-measurement-of-lean-tissue-mass-by-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry
#1
Clodagh M Toomey, William G McCormack, Phil Jakeman
PURPOSE: Athletes cycle between exercise and recovery. Exercise invokes changes in total body water from thermal sweating, muscle and hepatic glycogen depletion and metabolic water loss. Recovery from exercise results in rehydration, substrate repletion, and possible glycogen supercompensation. Such changes may corrupt the measurement of hydrated tissues, such as lean tissue mass (LTM), by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of exercise and thermal dehydration and subsequent glycogen supercompensation on DXA-based measurement of body composition...
February 16, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181695/later-age-at-onset-of-independent-walking-is-associated-with-lower-bone-strength-at-fracture-prone-sites-in-older-men
#2
Alex Ireland, Stella Muthuri, Joern Rittweger, Judith E Adams, Kate A Ward, Diana Kuh, Rachel Cooper
Later age at onset of independent walking is associated with lower leg bone strength in childhood and adolescence. However it is unknown whether these associations persist into older age, or whether they are evident at axial (central) or upper limb sites. Therefore we examined walking age obtained at 2y and bone outcomes obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) scans at 60-64y in a nationally-representative cohort study of British people, the MRC National Survey of Health and Development...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177368/nursery-pig-growth-performance-and-tissue-accretion-modulation-due-to-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-or-porcine-deltacoronavirus-challenge
#3
S M Curry, K A Gibson, E R Burrough, K J Schwartz, K J Yoon, N K Gabler
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) are both members of the family which induce clinical signs of diarrhea, dehydration, and in some circumstances, mortality. Most research has been focused on isolation, genome sequencing, pathogenicity, and virulence of these viruses, but there is little information on long-term growth performance and tissue accretion of pigs inoculated with PEDV or PDCoV. Therefore, our objective was to determine the effect of PEDV or PDCoV infection on growth performance and tissue accretion over 42 d following inoculation...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158304/validation-of-two-portable-bioelectrical-impedance-analyses-for-the-assessment-of-body-composition-in-school-age-children
#4
Li-Wen Lee, Yu-San Liao, Hsueh-Kuan Lu, Pei-Lin Hsiao, Yu-Yawn Chen, Ching-Chi Chi, Kuen-Chang Hsieh
BACKGROUND: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a convenient and child-friendly method for longitudinal analysis of changes in body composition. However, most validation studies of BIA have been performed on adult Caucasians. The present cross-sectional study investigated the validity of two portable BIA devices, the Inbody 230 (BIA8MF) and the Tanita BC-418 (BIA8SF), in healthy Taiwanese children. METHODS: Children aged 7-12 years (72 boys and 78 girls) were recruited...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150034/association-of-dpp-4-activity-with-bmd-body-composition-and-incident-hip-fracture-the-cardiovascular-health-study
#5
L D Carbone, P Bůžková, H A Fink, J A Robbins, M Bethel, C M Isales, W D Hill
: There was no association of plasma DPP-4 activity levels with bone mineral density (BMD), body composition, or incident hip fractures in a cohort of elderly community-dwelling adults. INTRODUCTION: Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-4) inactivates several key hormones including those that stimulate postprandial insulin secretion, and DPP-4 inhibitors (gliptins) are approved to treat diabetes. While DPP-4 is known to modulate osteogenesis, the relationship between DPP-4 activity and skeletal health is uncertain...
February 2, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142049/gender-differences-in-the-associations-between-urinary-bisphenol-a%C3%A2-and-body-composition-among-american-children-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2003-2006
#6
Ji Li, Hong Lai, Shaoguang Chen, Hong Zhu, Shenghan Lai
BACKGROUND: As an endocrine disruptor, bisphenol A (BPA) exposure has been implicated as a potential risk factor in childhood obesity, which is defined using percentiles of body mass index for age. We aimed to examine the associations between BPA exposure, reflected by urinary BPA concentration, and body composition in American children. METHODS: Data of 1860 children aged 8-19 years who participated in the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were analyzed in this study...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139941/polymorphism-in-lrp5-rs556442-is-associated-with-higher-tg-levels-in-iranian-children
#7
Nima Montazeri-Najafabady, Mohammad Hossein Dabbaghmanesh, Gholamhossein Ranjbar Omrani, Forough Saki, Marzieh Bakhshayeshkaram
BACKGROUND: Wnt signaling/LRP5 is involved in adipogenesis by down-regulating adipogenic transcription factors. Therefore polymorphisms in components of this pathway may lead to metabolic disorders. AIM: In this study, we tested the impact of LRP5 polymorphism on lipid profile in Iranian children. METHODS: The study population was comprised of 9-18 year old children (125 boys, 137 girls). Total cholesterol (TC), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL), Non HDL cholesterol and Triglyceride (TG) levels were checked...
January 31, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122662/validity-of-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-in-estimation-of-fat-free-mass-in-colorectal-cancer-patients
#8
Hanna Ræder, Ane Sørlie Kværner, Christine Henriksen, Geir Florholmen, Hege Berg Henriksen, Siv Kjølsrud Bøhn, Ingvild Paur, Sigbjørn Smeland, Rune Blomhoff
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is an accessible and cheap method to measure fat-free mass (FFM). However, BIA estimates are subject to uncertainty in patient populations with altered body composition and hydration. The aim of the current study was to validate a whole-body and a segmental BIA device against dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, and to investigate the ability of different empiric equations for BIA to predict DXA FFM (FFMDXA)...
January 12, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120855/the-beneficial-effects-of-aerobic-and-concurrent-training-on-metabolic-profile-and-body-composition-after-detraining-a-1-year-follow-up-in-postmenopausal-women
#9
F E Rossi, T A Diniz, L M Neves, A C S Fortaleza, J Gerosa-Neto, D S Inoue, C Buonani, J M Cholewa, F S Lira, I F Freitas
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Aerobic and concurrent training (CT, aerobic and strength training) improves body composition and metabolic profile; however, it is not known whether these positive outcomes acquired after aerobic or CT are maintained long term (⩾6 months) after program interruption in postmenopausal women. This study investigated the changes in total and appendicular body composition, bone mineral density and metabolic profile following 16 weeks of aerobic or CT, and through 6 months and 1 year of detraining in postmenopausal women...
January 25, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115977/efficacy-of-a-novel-formulation-of-l-carnitine-creatine-and-leucine-on-lean-body-mass-and-functional-muscle-strength-in-healthy-older-adults-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#10
Malkanthi Evans, Najla Guthrie, John Pezzullo, Toran Sanli, Roger A Fielding, Aouatef Bellamine
BACKGROUND: Progressive decline in skeletal muscle mass and function are growing concerns in an aging population. Diet and physical activity are important for muscle maintenance but these requirements are not always met. This highlights the potential for nutritional supplementation. As a primary objective, we sought to assess the effect of a novel combination of L-Carnitine, creatine and leucine on muscle mass and performance in older subjects. METHOD: Forty-two healthy older adults aged 55-70 years were randomized to receive either a novel L-Carnitine (1500 mg), L-leucine (2000 mg), creatine (3000 mg), Vitamin D3 (10 μg) (L-Carnitine-combination) product (n = 14), L-Carnitine (1500 mg) (n = 14), or a placebo (n = 14) for eight weeks...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107038/prevalence-of-and-factors-associated-with-sarcopenia-in-korean-cancer-survivors-based-on-data-obtained-by-the-korea-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-knhanes-2008-2011
#11
Eun Young Kim, Kirang Kim, Young Saing Kim, Hee Kyung Ahn, Yu Mi Jeong, Jeong Ho Kim, Won-Jun Choi
Using a representative dataset from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2008 to 2011, we analyzed anthropometric and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-determined body composition findings for 493 cancer survivors (mean age a61.1 ± 12.6 years; 35.7% male). A much higher proportion of men (30.1%) than women (0.6%) met the criteria of sarcopenia. Subjects with a history of lung cancer, genitourinary cancer, or gastric cancer were prone to develop sarcopenia (31.6%, 26...
January 20, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096757/effects-of-ingesting-a-pre-workout-dietary-supplement-with-and-without-synephrine-for-8%C3%A2-weeks-on-training-adaptations-in-resistance-trained-males
#12
Y Peter Jung, Conrad P Earnest, Majid Koozehchian, Minye Cho, Nick Barringer, Dillon Walker, Christopher Rasmussen, Mike Greenwood, Peter S Murano, Richard B Kreider
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine whether ingesting a pre-workout dietary supplement (PWS) with and without synephrine (S) during training affects training responses in resistance-trained males. METHODS: Resistance-trained males (N = 80) were randomly assigned to supplement their diet in a double-blind manner with either a flavored placebo (PLA); a PWS containing beta-alanine (3 g), creatine nitrate as a salt (2 g), arginine alpha-ketoglutarate (2 g), N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine (300 mg), caffeine (284 mg), Mucuna pruiriens extract standardized for 15% L-Dopa (15 mg), Vitamin C as Ascorbic Acid (500 mg), niacin (60 mg), folate as folic acid (50 mg), and Vitamin B12 as Methylcobalamin (70 mg); or, the PWS supplement with Citrus aurantium extract containing 20 mg of synephrine (PWS + S) once per day for 8-weeks during training...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096530/associations-between-body-mass-index-related-genetic-variants-and-adult-body-composition-the-fenland-cohort-study
#13
E A D Clifton, F R Day, E De Lucia Rolfe, N G Forouhi, S Brage, S J Griffin, N J Wareham, K K Ong
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Body mass index (BMI) is a surrogate measure of adiposity but does not distinguish fat from lean or bone mass. The genetic determinants of BMI are thought to predominantly influence adiposity but this has not been confirmed. Here we characterise the association between BMI-related genetic variants and body composition in adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Among 9667 adults aged 29-64 years from the Fenland study, a genetic risk score for BMI (BMI-GRS) was calculated for each individual as the weighted sum of BMI-increasing alleles across 96 reported BMI-related variants...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090145/total-body-composition-estimated-by-standing-posture-8-electrode-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-in-male-wrestlers
#14
M-F Cheng, Y-Y Chen, T-R Jang, W-L Lin, J Chen, K-C Hsieh
Standing-posture 8-electrode bioelectrical impedance analysis is a fast and practical method for evaluating body composition in clinical settings, which can be used to estimate percentage body fat (BF%) and skeletal muscle mass in a subject's total body and body segments. In this study, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used as a reference method for validating the standing 8-electrode bioelectrical impedance analysis device BC-418 (BIA8, Tanita Corp., Tokyo, Japan). Forty-eight Taiwanese male wrestlers aged from 17...
December 2016: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067890/validity-of-visceral-adiposity-estimates-from-dxa-against-mri-in-kuwaiti-men-and-women
#15
A Mohammad, E De Lucia Rolfe, A Sleigh, T Kivisild, K Behbehani, N J Wareham, S Brage, T Mohammad
OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the Middle East is among the highest in the world. Valid measures of abdominal adiposity are essential to understanding the metabolic consequences of obesity. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is increasingly being utilised to assess body composition in population studies, and has recently been used to estimate visceral adipose tissue (VAT). The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of DXA-derived VAT in a Middle Eastern population using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the criterion measure...
January 9, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034589/bone-variables-in-active-overweight-obese-men-and-sedentary-overweight-obese-men
#16
Georges El Khoury, Hassane Zouhal, Geneviève Cabagno, César El Khoury, Maroun Rizkallah, Ghassan Maalouf, Rawad El Hage
The aim of this study was to compare bone variables in active overweight/obese men and sedentary overweight/obese men. Thirty-seven active overweight/obese men and 45 sedentary overweight/obese men participated in this study. Weight and height were measured, and body mass index was calculated. Body composition and bone variables (bone mineral content [BMC], bone mineral density [BMD], geometric indices of hip bone strength, and trabecular bone score) were measured by DXA. Physical activity level, daily calcium intake, daily protein intake, and sleep duration were measured by validated questionnaires...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031025/estimation-of-prevalence-of-sarcopenia-by-using-a-new-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-in-chinese-community-dwelling-elderly-people
#17
Hui Wang, Shan Hai, Li Cao, Jianghua Zhou, Ping Liu, Bi-Rong Dong
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to validate the usefulness of the new octapolar multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) for assessment of appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) by comparing it with that of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and to investigate the prevalence of sarcopenia in Chinese community-dwelling elderly according to Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) definition. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in communities of Chengdu, China...
December 28, 2016: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027608/portable-a-mode-ultrasound-for-body-composition-assessment-in-adolescents
#18
Wagner Luis Ripka, Leandra Ulbricht, Lucas Menghin, Pedro Miguel Gewehr
OBJECTIVES: Ultrasound (US) imaging is a low-cost, highly feasible alternative method for monitoring the nutritional status of a population; however, only a few studies have tested the body composition agreement between US and reference standard methods, especially in adolescents. The purposes of this study were to assess the agreement of portable US with a reference standard method, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), for body fat percentage (BF%) in adolescents and to verify whether the use of a new mathematical model, based on the anatomic thickness obtained by US, is capable of improving BF% prediction...
April 2016: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009530/maternal-cortisol-during-pregnancy-and-infant-adiposity-a-prospective-investigation
#19
Sonja Entringer, Claudia Buss, Jerod M Rasmussen, Karen Lindsay, Daniel L Gillen, Dan M Cooper, Pathik D Wadhwa
CONTEXT: Glucocorticoids play a key role during intrauterine development in cellular growth and differentiation. Evidence suggests that exposure to inappropriate concentrations of glucocorticoids during sensitive developmental periods may produce alterations in physiological systems that impact obesity risk. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the magnitude and stage-of-gestation specific association of maternal cortisol concentrations during pregnancy with infant adiposity...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005466/seasonal-changes-in-body-composition-of-inter-county-gaelic-athletic-association-hurlers
#20
Robert W Davies, Clodagh Toomey, William McCormack, Cian O'Neill, Katie Hughes, Philip Jakeman
Longitudinal change in body composition for elite-level inter-county hurlers was reported over a single season and four consecutive seasons. Body composition measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of 66 senior, male, outfield players was obtained. Four successive measurements were taken: off-season (OFF1), pre-season (PRE), mid-season (MID) and the off-season of the following season (OFF2). A subsample of 11 hurlers were measured at all time points over 4 consecutive seasons. DXA-derived estimates of fat and lean mass were normalised to stature for analysis (kg∙m(‒2)); data are (mean [lower: upper, 95% confidence interval])...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
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