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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342799/lost-in-processing-perceived-healthfulness-taste-and-caloric-content-of-whole-and-processed-organic-food
#1
Marília Prada, Margarida V Garrido, David Rodrigues
The "organic" claim explicitly informs consumers about the food production method. Yet, based on this claim, people often infer unrelated food attributes. The current research examined whether the perceived advantage of organic over conventional food generalizes across different organic food types. Compared to whole organic foods, processed organic foods are less available, familiar and prototypical of the organic food category. In two studies (combined N = 258) we investigated how both organic foods types were perceived in healthfulness, taste and caloric content when compared to their conventional alternatives...
March 23, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338210/testing-food-related-inhibitory-control-to-high-and-low-calorie-food-stimuli-electrophysiological-responses-to-high-calorie-food-stimuli-predict-calorie-and-carbohydrate-intake
#2
Kaylie A Carbine, Edward Christensen, James D LeCheminant, Bruce W Bailey, Larry A Tucker, Michael J Larson
Maintaining a healthy diet has important implications for physical and mental health. One factor that may influence diet and food consumption is inhibitory control-the ability to withhold a dominant response in order to correctly respond to environmental demands. We examined how N2 amplitude, an ERP that reflects inhibitory control processes, differed toward high- and low-calorie food stimuli and related to food intake. A total of 159 participants (81 female; M age = 23.5 years; SD = 7.6) completed two food-based go/no-go tasks (one with high-calorie and one with low-calorie food pictures as no-go stimuli) while N2 amplitude was recorded...
March 24, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329397/resveratrol-improves-vascular-function-and-mitochondrial-number-but-not-glucose-metabolism-in-older-adults
#3
Rena M Pollack, Nir Barzilai, Valentin Anghel, Ameya S Kulkarni, Aaron Golden, Pilib O'Broin, David A Sinclair, Michael S Bonkowski, Alexander J Coleville, Danielle Powell, Sharon Kim, Ruin Moaddel, Daniel Stein, Kehao Zhang, Meredith Hawkins, Jill P Crandall
Background: Resveratrol, a plant-derived polyphenol, has been reported to improve glucose metabolism and vascular function and to extend life span in animal models, but studies in humans have been inconclusive. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind crossover study, we treated older glucose-intolerant adults (n = 30) with resveratrol (2-3 g/daily) or placebo, each for 6 weeks. A standard mixed-meal test was used to assess insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index) and secretion (C-peptide deconvolution) and vascular function by reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry...
March 16, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323907/resveratrol-inhibits-androgen-production-of-human-adrenocortical-h295r-cells-by-lowering-cyp17-and-cyp21-expression-and-activities
#4
Nesa Marti, Nadia Bouchoucha, Kay-Sara Sauter, Christa E Flück
Resveratrol, a natural compound found in grapes, became very popular for its suggested protective effects against aging. It was reported to have similar positive effects on the human metabolism as caloric restriction. Recently, positive effects of resveratrol on steroid biosynthesis in cell systems and in humans suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome have also been reported, but the exact mechanism of this action remains unknown. Sirtuins seem targeted by resveratrol to mediate its action on energy homeostasis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323487/pathological-eye-movements-influence-on-the-recordings-of-ocular-vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potential
#5
Ting-Hua Yang, Hsin-Lin Chen, Yi-Ho Young
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the influence of pathological eye movements on the recordings of ocular vestibulo-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP). METHODS: Ten patients with pathological eye movements of non-vestibular origin (nine congenital nystagmus and one opsoclonus) who had negative MRI result were assigned to Group A. Another 20 vestibular neuritis (VN) patients with spontaneous nystagmus were assigned to Group B. Both groups underwent audiometry, and caloric, oVEMP and cervical VEMP (cVEMP) tests...
March 21, 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319853/caloric-dose-responsive-genes-in-blood-cells-differentiate-the-metabolic-status-of-obese-men
#6
Doreen Gille, Nadine Zangger, Charlotte Soneson, Ueli Bütikofer, Mauro Delorenzi, Flurina Schwander, Katrin A Kopf-Bolanz, Magali Chollet, Barbara Walther, Kurt Laederach, Guy Vergères
We have investigated the postprandial transcriptional response of blood cells to increasing caloric doses of a meal challenge to test whether the dynamic response of the human organism to the ingestion of food is dependent on metabolic health. The randomized crossover study included seven normal weight and seven obese men consuming three doses (500/1000/1500 kcal) of a high-fat meal. The blood cell transcriptome was measured before and 2, 4, and 6 h after meal ingestion (168 samples). We applied univariate and multivariate statistics to investigate differentially expressed genes in both study groups...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314293/assessment-of-nutritional-and-inflammatory-status-to-determine-the-prevalence-of-malnutrition-in-patients-undergoing-surgery-for-colorectal-carcinoma
#7
Antonella Daniele, Rosa Divella, Ines Abbate, Addolorata Casamassima, Vito Michele Garrisi, Eufemia Savino, Porzia Casamassima, Eustachio Ruggieri, Raffaele DE Luca
BACKGROUND/AIM: Colorectal Cancer is the fourth most frequent cause of cancer death worldwide and its incidence increases from 50 years of age. It is often associated with protein-caloric malnutrition and 20% of cancer deaths occur due to this event. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of malnutrition and inflammatory status in 78 patients undergoing surgery for colorectal carcinoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Nutritional Status was assessed by Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA)...
March 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303049/chickpeas-suppress-postprandial-blood-glucose-concentration-and-appetite-and-reduce-energy-intake-at-the-next-meal
#8
Tasleem A Zafar, Yearul Kabir
The current study was designed to explore the beneficial properties of chickpeas consumption on suppressing appetite, excessive blood glucose excursions, and energy intake (EI) from a subsequent meal. Two caloric preloaded foods, chickpeas, and white bread were compared to water control, fed to healthy female subjects at equal energy density, volume, and available carbohydrate content in two experiments spanning over 60 and 120 min. Blood glucose was measured by a portable glucometer and satiety by using a visual analogue scale questionnaire at baseline and every 15 up to 60 min in both experiments and then every 30 until 120 min in Experiment 2 after the preloads ingestion...
March 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301599/exploring-the-role-of-locomotor-sensitization-in-the-circadian-food-entrainment-pathway
#9
Hanna Opiol, Nuria de Zavalia, Tara Delorme, Pavel Solis, Spencer Rutherford, Uri Shalev, Shimon Amir
Food entrainment is the internal mechanism whereby the phase and period of circadian clock genes comes under the control of daily scheduled food availability. Food entrainment allows the body to efficiently realign the internal timing of behavioral and physiological functions such that they anticipate food intake. Food entrainment can occur with or without caloric restriction, as seen with daily schedules of restricted feeding (RF) or restricted treat (RT) that restrict food or treat intake to a single feeding time...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293621/development-of-the-physical-activity-and-your-nutrition-for-cancer-pync-smartphone-app-for-preventing-breast-cancer-in-women
#10
Steven S Coughlin, Gina M Besenyi, Deborah Bowen, Gianluca De Leo
BACKGROUND: In the U.S., breast cancer accounts for more cancer deaths in women than any site other than lung cancer. Based upon attributable risks, about 30-35% of breast cancers could potentially be prevented by addressing obesity, physical inactivity, increased alcohol consumption, and carcinogenic exposures such as hormone replacement therapy (HRT). We need methods of reducing women's risks of this disease that are attractive and easy to use, widely accessible to diverse women, and able to be easily amended to account for new research...
2017: MHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288167/erythropoietin-epo-ameliorates-obesity-and-glucose-homeostasis-by-promoting-thermogenesis-and-endocrine-function-of-classical-brown-adipose-tissue-bat-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#11
Kazuki Kodo, Satoru Sugimoto, Hisakazu Nakajima, Jun Mori, Ikuyo Itoh, Shota Fukuhara, Keiichi Shigehara, Taichiro Nishikawa, Kitaro Kosaka, Hajime Hosoi
Erythropoietin (EPO), clinically used as a hematopoietic drug, has received much attention due to its nonhematopoietic effects. EPO reportedly has beneficial effects on obesity and diabetes mellitus. We investigated whether interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT: main part of classical BAT) could play a role in EPO's anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects in diet-induced obese mice. Four-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD-Con), and half were additionally given an intraperitoneal injection of recombinant human EPO (200 IU/kg) (HFD-EPO) thrice a week for four weeks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286339/gut-microbiome-diversity-and-high-fibre-intake-are-related-to-lower-long-term-weight-gain
#12
C Menni, M A Jackson, T Pallister, C J Steves, T D Spector, A M Valdes
BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies suggest that the microbes in the human gut play a role in obesity by influencing the human body's ability to extract and store calories. The aim of this study was to assess if there is a correlation between change in body weight over time and gut microbiome composition. METHODS: We analysed 16S rRNA gene sequence data derived from the faecal samples of 1632 healthy females from TwinsUK to investigate the association between gut microbiome measured cross-sectionally and longitudinal weight gain (adjusted for caloric intake and baseline BMI)...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284897/dietary-restriction-reduces-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-granule-cell-neuron-density-without-affecting-the-density-of-mossy-fibers
#13
Miranda C Staples, McKenzie J Fannon-Pavlich, Karthik K Mysore, Rahul R Dutta, Alexandria T Ongjoco, Leon W Quach, Khush M Kharidia, Sucharita S Somkuwar, Chitra D Mandyam
The hippocampal formation undergoes significant morphological and functional changes after prolonged caloric and dietary restriction (DR). In this study we tested whether prolonged DR results in deleterious alterations in hippocampal neurogenesis, density of granule cell neurons and mossy fibers, all of which support plasticity in the dentate gyrus. Young adult animals either experienced free access to food (control condition), or every-other-day feeding regimen (DR condition) for 3 months. The number of Ki-67 cells and 28-day old 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) cells were quantified in the dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus to determine the effect of DR on cellular proliferation and survival of neural progenitor cells in the anatomically defined regions of the dentate gyrus...
March 8, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265415/metabolic-improvements-following-roux-en-y-surgery-assessed-by-solid-meal-test-in-subjects-with-short-duration-type-2-diabetes
#14
Sudha S Shankar, Lori A Mixson, Manu Chakravarthy, Robin Chisholm, Anthony J Acton, RoseMarie Jones, Samer G Mattar, Deborah L Miller, Lea Petry, Chan R Beals, S Aubrey Stoch, David E Kelley, Robert V Considine
BACKGROUND: Glucose homeostasis improves within days following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. The dynamic metabolic response to caloric intake following RYGB has been assessed using liquid mixed meal tolerance tests (MMTT). Few studies have evaluated the glycemic and hormonal response to a solid mixed meal in subjects with diabetes prior to, and within the first month following RYGB. METHODS: Seventeen women with type 2 diabetes of less than 5 years duration participated...
2017: BMC Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264605/vestibular-dys-function-in-children-with-sensorineural-hearing-loss-a-systematic-review
#15
Evi Verbecque, Tessa Marijnissen, Niels De Belder, Vincent Van Rompaey, An Boudewyns, Paul Van de Heyning, Luc Vereeck, Ann Hallemans
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to provide an overview of the prevalence of vestibular dysfunction in children with SNHL classified according to the applied test and its corresponding sensitivity and specificity. DESIGN: Data were gathered using a systematic search query including reference screening. STUDY SAMPLE: Pubmed, Web of Science and Embase were searched. Strategy and reporting of this review was based on the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines...
February 13, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261476/menu-labeling-implementation-in-dine-in-restaurants-the-public-s-knowledge-attitude-and-practices
#16
Hadia Radwan, Eman M Faroukh, Reyad Shaker Obaid
BACKGROUND: The practice of menu labeling is gaining popularity worldwide as a potential policy to reduce energy intake as a means to decrease the prevalence of obesity. So the purpose of the present study is to identify the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of adults regarding the implementation of menu labeling in dine-in restaurants. METHODS: A cross sectional survey included 2020 male or female adults (aged ≥ 18 years old) participants was collected from two cities in the United Arab Emirates(UAE)...
2017: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259806/awake-long-term-intranasal-insulin-treatment-does-not-affect-object-memory-odor-discrimination-or-reversal-learning-in-mice
#17
Genevieve A Bell, Debra Ann Fadool
Intranasal insulin delivery is currently being used in clinical trials to test for improvement in human memory and cognition, and in particular, for lessening memory loss attributed to neurodegenerative diseases. Studies have reported the effects of short-term intranasal insulin treatment on various behaviors, but less have examined long-term effects. The olfactory bulb contains the highest density of insulin receptors in conjunction with the highest level of insulin transport within the brain. Previous research from our laboratory has demonstrated that acute insulin intranasal delivery (IND) enhanced both short- and long-term memory as well as increased two-odor discrimination in a two-choice paradigm...
March 2, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249783/diet-driven-microbiota-dysbiosis-is-associated-with-vagal-remodeling-and-obesity
#18
Tanusree Sen, Carolina R Cawthon, Benjamin Thomas Ihde, Andras Hajnal, Patricia M DiLorenzo, Claire B de La Serre, Krzysztof Czaja
Obesity is one of the major health issues in the United States. Consumption of diets rich in energy, notably from fats and sugars (high-fat/high-sugar diet: HF/HSD) is linked to the development of obesity and a popular dietary approach for weight loss is to reduce fat intake. Obesity research traditionally uses low and high fat diets and there has been limited investigation of the potential detrimental effects of a low-fat/high-sugar diet (LF/HSD) on body fat accumulation and health. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effects of HF/HSD and LF/HSD on microbiota composition, gut inflammation, gut-brain vagal communication and body fat accumulation...
February 26, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245284/metabolically-distinct-weight-loss-by-10-12-cla-and-caloric-restriction-highlight-the-importance-of-subcutaneous-white-adipose-tissue-for-glucose-homeostasis-in-mice
#19
Laura J den Hartigh, Shari Wang, Leela Goodspeed, Tomasz Wietecha, Barbara Houston, Mohamed Omer, Kayoko Ogimoto, Savitha Subramanian, G A Nagana Gowda, Kevin D O'Brien, Karl J Kaiyala, Gregory J Morton, Alan Chait
BACKGROUND: Widely used as a weight loss supplement, trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (10,12 CLA) promotes fat loss in obese mice and humans, but has also been associated with insulin resistance. OBJECTIVE: We therefore sought to directly compare weight loss by 10,12 CLA versus caloric restriction (CR, 15-25%), an acceptable healthy method of weight loss, to determine how 10,12 CLA-mediated weight loss fails to improve glucose metabolism. METHODS: Obese mice with characteristics of human metabolic syndrome were either supplemented with 10,12 CLA or subjected to CR to promote weight loss...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242634/ketone-body-infusion-with-3-hydroxybutyrate-reduces-myocardial-glucose-uptake-and-increases-blood-flow-in-humans-a-positron-emission-tomography-study
#20
Lars C Gormsen, Mads Svart, Henrik Holm Thomsen, Esben Søndergaard, Mikkel H Vendelbo, Nana Christensen, Lars Poulsen Tolbod, Hendrik Johannes Harms, Roni Nielsen, Henrik Wiggers, Niels Jessen, Jakob Hansen, Hans Erik Bøtker, Niels Møller
BACKGROUND: High levels of ketone bodies are associated with improved survival as observed with regular exercise, caloric restriction, and-most recently-treatment with sodium-glucose linked transporter 2 inhibitor antidiabetic drugs. In heart failure, indices of ketone body metabolism are upregulated, which may improve energy efficiency and increase blood flow in skeletal muscle and the kidneys. Nevertheless, it is uncertain how ketone bodies affect myocardial glucose uptake and blood flow in humans...
February 27, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
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