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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634531/smallpox-vaccination-an-early-start-of-modern-medicine-in-america
#1
Dan Liebowitz
Smallpox was eradicated by the World Health Organization in 1980. Before its eradication thedisease had a mortality rate upwards of 50% and had a significant impact on society. During theAmerican Revolutionary war, smallpox outbreaks were impeding the American war effort until1777 when George Washington carried out a mass inoculation campaign in the ContinentalArmy that reduced the mortality from smallpox to less than 2%. Inoculation was an early formof vaccination that used live virus from active pustules to induce a milder, but still sometimesdeadly, case of disease...
January 2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633990/cellular-gauge-symmetry-and-the-li-organization-principle-a-mathematical-addendum-quantifying-energetic-dynamics-in-physical-and-biological-systems-through-a-simple-geometric-tool-and-geodetic-curves
#2
REVIEW
Alexander Yurkin, Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters, Pedro C Marijuán
The present Addendum complements the accompanying paper "Cellular Gauge Symmetry and the Li Organization Principle"; it illustrates a recently-developed geometrical physical model able to assess electronic movements and energetic paths in atomic shells. The model describes a multi-level system of circular, wavy and zigzag paths which can be projected onto a horizontal tape. This model ushers in a visual interpretation of the distribution of atomic electrons' energy levels and the corresponding quantum numbers through rather simple tools, such as compasses, rulers and straightforward calculations...
June 17, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633508/rescue-of-peripheral-vestibular-function-in-usher-syndrome-mice-using-a-splice-switching-antisense-oligonucleotide
#3
Sarath Vijayakumar, Frederic F Depreux, Francine M Jodelka, Jennifer J Lentz, Frank Rigo, Timothy A Jones, Michelle L Hastings
Usher syndrome type 1C (USH1C/harmonin) is associated with profound retinal, auditory and vestibular dysfunction. We have previously reported on an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO-29) that dramatically improves auditory function and balance behavior in mice homozygous for the harmonin mutation Ush1c c.216G>A following a single systemic administration. The findings were suggestive of improved vestibular function; however, no direct vestibular assessment was made. Here, we measured vestibular sensory evoked potentials (VsEPs) to directly assess vestibular function in Usher mice...
June 19, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632987/the-usher-syndrome-type-iiib-histidyl-trna-synthetase-mutation-confers-temperature-sensitivity
#4
Jamie A Abbott, Ethan Guth, Cindy Kim, Cathy Regan, Victoria M Siu, Charles Anthony Rupar, Borries Demeler, Christopher S Francklyn, Susan M Robey-Bond
Histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HARS) is a highly conserved translation factor that plays an essential role in protein synthesis. HARS has been implicated in the human syndromes Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) Type 2W and Type IIIB Usher (USH3B). The USH3B mutation, which encodes an Y454S substitution in HARS, is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion and associated with childhood deafness, blindness and episodic hallucinations during acute illness. The biochemical basis of the pathophysiologies linked to USH3B is currently unknown...
June 20, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622433/research-on-genodermatoses-using-novel-genome-editing-tools
#5
REVIEW
Janin Lehmann, Christina Seebode, Steffen Emmert
Genodermatoses comprise a clinically heterogeneous group of mostly devastating disorders affecting the skin. To date, treatment options have in general been limited to symptom relief. However, the recent technical evolution in genome editing has ushered in a new era in the development of causal therapies for rare monogenetic diseases such as genodermatoses. The present review revisits the advantages and drawbacks of engineered nuclease tools currently available: zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), meganucleases, and - the most innovative - clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated (Cas) nuclease 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system...
June 16, 2017: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620110/predicting-survival-in-patients-with-colorectal-cancer
#6
EDITORIAL
Juliet Usher-Smith, Richard Miller, Simon Griffin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 15, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614296/selective-depletion-of-uropathogenic-e-coli-from-the-gut-by-a-fimh-antagonist
#7
Caitlin N Spaulding, Roger D Klein, Ségolène Ruer, Andrew L Kau, Henry L Schreiber, Zachary T Cusumano, Karen W Dodson, Jerome S Pinkner, Daved H Fremont, James W Janetka, Han Remaut, Jeffrey I Gordon, Scott J Hultgren
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) affect 150 million people annually. Despite effective antibiotic therapy, 30-50% of patients experience recurrent UTIs. In addition, the growing prevalence of UPEC that are resistant to last-line antibiotic treatments, and more recently to carbapenems and colistin, make UTI a prime example of the antibiotic-resistance crisis and emphasize the need for new approaches to treat and prevent bacterial infections. UPEC strains establish reservoirs in the gut from which they are shed in the faeces, and can colonize the periurethral area or vagina and subsequently ascend through the urethra to the urinary tract, where they cause UTIs...
June 14, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611506/indian-science-culture-needs-a-paradigm-shift
#8
Om P Sharma
There is a general impression in the scientific community in our country that the way science is taught, leant and the work culture of research and management of academic and research institutions is not conducive to cutting edge research, innovation and making world leaders. Mentoring continues to be poor with some exceptions. Very often, senior scientists with long innings in science teaching and research express anguish at the status quo in spite of a number of policy documents and recommendations for change...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609872/review-of-continental-north-and-central-american-paracloeodes-day-1955-ephemeroptera-baetidae-including-description-of-a-new-species-from-minnesota-u-s-a
#9
Paulo Vilela Cruz, Andrew K Usher, Luke M Jacobus
Paracloeodes Day is a western hemisphere genus with 20 species, but only three of these valid species are known from continental North and Central America. Based on available literature comparisons, species-level identifications of these three species can be difficult. Considering the apparent similarity between them, the main objective of this study was to examine type and other material housed in the Purdue Entomological Research Collection and the University of Minnesota in order to evaluate species status and to elucidate additional diagnostic characters...
May 9, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609682/cryo-em-of-bacterial-pili-and-archaeal-flagellar-filaments
#10
REVIEW
Edward H Egelman
Recent advances in cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) have opened up the possibility that a large class of biological structures, helical polymers, may now be readily reconstructed at near-atomic resolution. This will have a huge impact, since most of these structures are unlikely to be crystallized. This review focuses on new cryo-EM studies involving three classes of bacterial pili (chaperone-usher, mating, and Type IV) as well as on archaeal flagellar filaments. While it has long been known that one domain within archaeal flagellar filaments is homologous to a domain within bacterial Type IV pilins, the new studies shed light on how homologous and even highly conserved subunits can pack together in different ways with only small changes in sequence...
June 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609113/novel-approaches-to-purifying-bacteriocin-a-review
#11
Norfariza Jamaluddin, David C Stuckey, Arbakariya B Ariff, Fadzlie Wong Faizal Wong
Bacteriocin is a proteinaceous biomolecule produced by bacteria (both Gram-positive and Gram-negative) that exhibits antimicrobial activity against closely related species, and food-borne pathogens. It has recently gained importance and attracted the attention of several researchers looking to produce it from various substrates and bacterial strains. This ushers in a new era of food preservation where the use of bacteriocin in food products will be an alternative to chemical preservatives, and heat treatment which are understood to cause unwanted side effects, and reduce sensory and nutritional quality...
June 13, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598446/construction-of-multiple-choice-questions-before-and-after-an-educational-intervention
#12
K Tenzin, T Dorji, T Tenzin
INTRODUCTION: Khesar Gyalpo University of Medical Sciences of Bhutan, established in 2014, has ushered in a new era in medical education in Bhutan. Multiple Choice Questions are a common means of written assessment in medical education. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental study conducted at the Faculty of Postgraduate Medicine, KGUMSB, Thimphu in December 2016. A total of 8 MCQs were prepared by four teaching faculties from different fields who had no prior training on construction of MCQs...
January 2017: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598280/pathogens-and-glioma-a-history-of-unexpected-discoveries-ushering-in-novel-therapy
#13
Ashish H Shah, Ignacio Jusué-Torres, Michael E Ivan, Ricardo J Komotar, Noriyuki Kasahara
In the late 19th century, Dr. William B. Coley introduced the theory that infections may aid in the treatment of malignancy. With the creation of Coley's toxin, reports of remission during viral illnesses for systemic malignancies soon emerged. A few decades after this initial discovery, Austrian physicians performed intravascular injections of Clostridium to induce oncolysis in patients with glioblastoma. Since then, suggestions between improved survival and infectious processes have been reported in several patients with glioma, which ultimately marshaled the infamous use of intracerebral Enterobacter...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596597/smart-microparticles-with-a-ph-responsive-macropore-for-targeted-oral-drug-delivery
#14
Ankit Kumar, Carlo Montemagno, Hyo-Jick Choi
The development of a smart microencapsulation system programmed to actively respond to environmental pH change has long been recognized a key technology in pharmaceutical and food sciences. To this end, we developed hollow microparticles (MPs) with self-controlled macropores that respond to environmental pH change, using an Oil-in-Water emulsion technique, for oral drug delivery. We observed that freeze-drying of MPs induced closure of macropores. The closing/opening behavior of macropores was confirmed by exposing MPs encapsulating different ingredients (sulforhodamine b, fluorescent nanoparticles, and lactase) to simulated gastrointestinal (GI) fluids...
June 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590314/novel-imaging-in-advanced-prostate-cancer
#15
Hanan Goldberg, Robert J Hamilton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed noncutaneous cancer and second leading cause of death in men. Imaging evaluation of PCa is challenging because of the prostate's deep pelvic location, its complex zonal anatomy and its multifocal nature. Novel imaging modalities are needed to improve detection, reassessment in biochemical relapse, and disease progression in advanced metastatic stages. RECENT FINDINGS: Current imaging modalities have distinct strengths...
June 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580609/speaking-to-children-and-their-families-about-congenital-heart-disease-ushering-in-a-new-era-of-healthcare-literacy
#16
EDITORIAL
Daniel J Penny
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576601/linc-ing-the-noncoding-genome-to-heart-function-beating-hypertrophy
#17
Shambhabi Chatterjee, Christian Bär, Thomas Thum
The principal event of aberrant gene expression occurs in numerous disorders and syndromes, including heart failure. LncRNAs may constitute powerful treatment targets because they intensively interact with their genetic environment, as they are important regulators of genetic networks. Recent advances on the functional roles of lncRNAs in cardiac hypertrophy are expected to usher improved therapeutic strategies.
May 30, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575659/catch-and-release-of-cytokines-mediated-by-tumor-phosphatidylserine-converts-transient-exposure-into-long-lived-inflammation
#18
Jennifer Oyler-Yaniv, Alon Oyler-Yaniv, Mojdeh Shakiba, Nina K Min, Ying-Han Chen, Sheue-Yann Cheng, Oleg Krichevsky, Nihal Altan-Bonnet, Grégoire Altan-Bonnet
Immune cells constantly survey the host for pathogens or tumors and secrete cytokines to alert surrounding cells of these threats. In vivo, activated immune cells secrete cytokines for several hours, yet an acute immune reaction occurs over days. Given these divergent timescales, we addressed how cytokine-responsive cells translate brief cytokine exposure into phenotypic changes that persist over long timescales. We studied melanoma cell responses to transient exposure to the cytokine interferon γ (IFNγ) by combining a systems-scale analysis of gene expression dynamics with computational modeling and experiments...
June 1, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571719/blockade-of-chondroitin-sulfate-proteoglycans-induced-axonal-growth-inhibition-by-lotus
#19
Yuji Kurihara, Yu Saito, Kohtaro Takei
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are axon growth inhibitors in the glial scar, and restrict axon regeneration following damage to the adult mammalian central nervous system. CSPGs have recently been identified as functional ligands for Nogo receptor-1 (NgR1), which is the common receptor for Nogo proteins, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), oligodendrocyte myelin glycoprotein (OMgp) and B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS). We have previously reported that through its binding to NgR1, lateral olfactory tract usher substance (LOTUS) suppresses Nogo, MAG, OMgp, and BLyS-induced axon growth inhibition...
May 30, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559460/development-of-a-cancer-risk-prediction-tool-for-use-in-the-uk-primary-care-and-community-settings
#20
Artitaya Lophatananon, Juliet A Usher-Smith, Jackie Campbell, Joanne Warcaba, Barbora Silarova, Erika A Waters, Graham A Colditz, Kenneth Muir
Several multivariable risk prediction models have been developed to asses an individual's risk of developing specific cancers. Such models can be used in a variety of settings for prevention, screening and guiding investigations and treatments. Models aimed at predicting future disease risk that contains lifestyle factors may be of particular use for targeting health promotion activities at an individual level. This type of cancer risk prediction is not yet available in the UK. We have adopted the approach used by the well-established U...
May 30, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
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