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hiv optic

Subrahmanyam Sappati, Ali Hassanali, Ralph Gebauer, Prasenjit Ghosh
Ellipticine is a natural product that is currently being actively investigated for its inhibitory cancer and HIV properties. Here we use path-integral molecular dynamics coupled with excited state calculations to characterize the role of nuclear quantum effects on the structural and electronic properties of ellipticine in water, a common biological solvent. Quantum effects collectively enhance the fluctuations of both light and heavy nuclei of the covalent and hydrogen bonds in ellipticine. In particular, for the ellipticine-water system, where the proton donor and acceptor have different proton affinities, we find that nuclear quantum effects (NQEs) strengthen both the strong and the weak H bonds...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Marco Rusnati, Antonella Bugatti
Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is an optical technique to evaluate biomolecular interactions. Briefly, SPR measures the capacity of two molecules to bind each other by detecting reflected light from a prism-gold film interface. One of the two putative interactants (called ligand) is chemically immobilized onto the gold film. When the sensor is exposed to a sample containing the second interactant (called analyte), its binding to the immobilized ligand causes a change of the refractive index of the material above the gold surface that is monitored as a real-time graph of the response units against time, producing a real-time graph called sensorgram...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
M Oette, U Wieland, M Schünemann, J Haes, S Reuter, B Jensen, A Sagir, H Pfister, D Häussinger
Introduction: Anal carcinoma represents an increasing problem in HIV-infected patients. Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), the precursor lesion, is currently diagnosed by high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) using optical magnification derived from gynecological colposcopy. This prospective study evaluates anal chromoendoscopy (ACE) using standard gastroenterological video-endoscopes in diagnosing AIN. Methods: After clinical examination, proctoscopy and surface staining with acetic acid followed by Lugol's solution, ACE was performed with a mucosectomy cap on the tip of the endoscope...
November 2, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
G K Nikolopoulos, A Katsoulidou, M Kantzanou, C Rokka, C Tsiara, V Sypsa, D Paraskevis, M Psichogiou, S Friedman, A Hatzakis
This analysis assessed the utility of the limiting antigen avidity assay (LAg). Samples of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Greece with documented duration of HIV-1 infection were tested by LAg. A LAg-normalized optical density (ODn) ⩽1·5 corresponds to a recency window period of 130 days. The proportion true recent (PTR) and proportion false recent (PFR) were estimated in 28 seroconverters and in 366 samples collected >6 months after HIV diagnosis, respectively. The association between LAg ODn and HIV RNA level was evaluated in 232 persons...
October 26, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Fatemeh Nooshabadi, Hee-Jeong Yang, Yunfeng Cheng, Madeleine S Durkee, Hexin Xie, Jianghong Rao, Jeffrey D Cirillo, Kristen C Maitland
Tuberculosis is a pulmonary disease with an especially high mortality rate in immuno-compromised populations, specifically children and HIV positive individuals. The causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is a very slow growing and difficult organism to work with, making both diagnosis and development of effective treatments cumbersome. We utilize a fiber-optic fluorescence microendoscope integrated with a whole-body imaging system for in vivo Mtb detection. The system exploits an endogenous enzyme of Mtb (β-lactamase, or BlaC) using a BlaC-specific NIR fluorogenic substrate...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Biophotonics
Y Wang, L Yang, Z L Zhang
Here we reported two patients who presented with panuveitis and were transferred from ophthalmologists to rheumatologists, for both the patients had oral and genital ulcers. They were misdiagnosed with Behcet's disease at first glance. Two young males presented with acute uveitis with history of recurrent oral and genital ulcers. They initially presented with symptoms and signs resembling Behcet's disease and were treated with systemic steroids with suboptimal responses. Routine laboratory test revealed syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection...
October 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Ximiao Hou, Michael C DeSantis, Chunjuan Tian, Wei Cheng
Although Ashkin and Dziedzic first demonstrated optical trapping of individual tobacco mosaic viruses in suspension as early as 1987, this pioneering work has not been followed up only until recently. Using human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) as a model virus, we have recently demonstrated that a single HIV-1 virion can be stabled trapped, manipulated and measured in physiological media with high precision. The capability to optically trap a single virion in suspension not only allows us to determine, for the first time, the refractive index of a single virus with high precision, but also quantitate the heterogeneity among individual virions with single-molecule resolution, the results of which shed light on the molecular mechanisms of virion infectivity...
August 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
Yonguk Kim, Seung-Young Yu, Hyung Woo Kwak
PURPOSE: To describe the clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes of ocular syphilis in patients without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. METHODS: A total of 45 eyes from 39 patients with ocular syphilis confirmed by serologic tests were reviewed retrospectively. The included cases were all non-HIV-infected patients presenting with intraocular inflammation from 2002 to 2014 at Kyung Hee University Hospital. Medical records of 45 eyes were analyzed and included best-corrected visual acuity and ophthalmologic examination findings of the anterior and posterior segments to determine the focus of inflammation...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Ophthalmology: KJO
Salil Mehta, Mrinalini Das, Chinmay Laxmeshwar, Sylvie Jonckheere, Sein Sein Thi, Petros Isaakidis
BACKGROUND: Patients on linezolid-containing drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) regimen often develop adverse-events, particularly peripheral and optic neuropathy. Programmatic data and experiences of linezolid-associated optic neuropathy from high DR-TB burden settings are lacking. The study aimed to determine the frequency of and risk-factors associated with linezolid-associated optic neuropathy and document the experiences related to treatment/care of DR-TB patients on linezolid-containing regimens...
2016: PloS One
S Carinelli, C Xufré, S Alegret, M Martí, M I Pividori
The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) affects the life of millions of people around the world. Although rapid and low cost screening tests are widely available for the diagnosis of HIV infection, the count of CD4+ T lymphocytes remains a drawback in the areas mostly affected by the HIV, being this control imperative for assessing the deterioration of the immunological system and the progression towards AIDS, when the counting of cells falls down 200cellsμL(-1). This paper describes a high-throughput, simple and rapid method for CD4+ T lymphocytes quantification, directly in whole blood, based on a magneto ELISA...
November 1, 2016: Talanta
Janina Hanne, Fabian Göttfert, Jiří Schimer, Maria Anders-Össwein, Jan Konvalinka, Johann Engelhardt, Barbara Müller, Stefan W Hell, Hans-Georg Kräusslich
Concomitant with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) budding from a host cell, cleavage of the structural Gag polyproteins by the viral protease (PR) triggers complete remodeling of virion architecture. This maturation process is essential for virus infectivity. Electron tomography provided structures of immature and mature HIV-1 with a diameter of 120-140 nm, but information about the sequence and dynamics of structural rearrangements is lacking. Here, we employed super-resolution STED (stimulated emission depletion) fluorescence nanoscopy of HIV-1 carrying labeled Gag to visualize the virion architecture...
September 27, 2016: ACS Nano
Charlotte Blokhuis, Nazli Demirkaya, Sophie Cohen, Ferdinand W N M Wit, Henriëtte J Scherpbier, Peter Reiss, Michael D Abramoff, Matthan W A Caan, Charles B L M Majoie, Frank D Verbraak, Dasja Pajkrt
PURPOSE: Despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), perinatal HIV-infection can cause decreased gray and white matter volume, microstructural white matter injury, and retinal structural abnormalities. As neuroretinal tissue is directly connected to the brain, these deficits may have a shared pathogenesis. We aimed to assess associations between neuroretinal thickness and cerebral injury in cART-treated perinatally HIV-infected children and healthy controls. METHODS: This cross-sectional observational study included 29 cART-treated perinatally HIV-infected children and 35 matched healthy controls...
July 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Agostino Riva, Alessandro Invernizzi, Chiara Resnati, Valeria Micheli, Dario Cattaneo, Cristina Gervasoni
Ocular toxicity may not only be caused by medication overdoses and drug-drug interactions, but also by the chronic administration of medications at recommended doses. We describe the case of an HIV-infected patient who experienced significant and sustained bilateral visual loss two months after starting treatment with elvitegravir/cobicistat/tenofovir/emtricitabine. Given the absence of any evidence of tenofovir- or emtricitabine-induced optical neuropathy after several years of clinical use, the antiretroviral therapy was promptly changed to tenofovir/emtricitabine plus atazanavir/ritonavir, which led to a progressive improvement in visual acuity...
June 22, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
Evangelia Papavasileiou, Saad Younis, Vasiliki Zygoura, Claudia Quijano, Timothy L Jackson
PURPOSE: To report ritonavir-associated retinal pigment epithelium toxicity in a patient infected with the HIV on highly active antiretroviral therapy including ritonavir. METHODS: Retrospective single case report. The authors describe a case of gradual onset of blurry vision in both eyes in an HIV-positive male. Visual acuity, clinical examination findings, and functional testing (electroretinogram and Goldmann perimetry) were reviewed. Diagnostic imaging, including fundus photography, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, and fundus autofluorescence were assessed...
June 9, 2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Claudio A M Leal, Daniela B R Leal, Stephen A Adefegha, Vera M Morsch, José E P da Silva, João F P Rezer, Clarissa M L Schrekker, Faida H Abdalla, Maria R C Schetinger
Platelet aggregation and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity were evaluated in pregnant women living with some disease conditions including hypertension, diabetes mellitus and human immunodeficiency virus infection. The subject population is consisted of 15 non-pregnant healthy women [control group (CG)], 15 women with normal pregnancy (NP), 7 women with hypertensive pregnancy (HP), 10 women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 12 women with human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnancy (HIP) groups...
July 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Ting Dai, Xinjun Wu, Shaona Zhou, Qianqiu Wang, Daning Li
BACKGROUND: Syphilis with ocular involvement has reemerged as a critical health problem. The aim of the present study was to explore the clinical manifestations and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) status in ocular syphilis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients. METHODS: The clinical records of patients with ocular syphilis presenting to the Shanghai Xuhui Central Hospital in the period from January 2011 to December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Anna B Cope, Kimberly A Powers, Marc L Serre, Veronica Escamilla, Michael E Emch, Peter A Leone, Victoria L Mobley, William C Miller
Early HIV diagnosis enables prompt treatment initiation, thereby contributing to decreased morbidity, mortality, and transmission. We aimed to describe the association between distance from residence to testing sites and HIV disease stage at diagnosis. Using HIV surveillance data, we identified all new HIV diagnoses made at publicly funded testing sites in central North Carolina during 2005-2013. Early-stage HIV was defined as acute HIV (antibody-negative test with a positive HIV RNA) or recent HIV (normalized optical density <0...
November 2016: AIDS Care
Yuanjie Pang, Hanna Song, Wei Cheng
The refractive index (RI) is a fundamental parameter of materials that can be used to distinguish and sort materials of different nature. Although the RI of a virus is required for many optics-based biosensing applications, RIs of animal viruses have never been measured. Here we have developed a technique that can measure the RI of individual viruses in aqueous media with high precision. This technique is based on optical trapping of single virions and works by relating the size and RI of a single virus to the stiffness of an optical trap...
May 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
Yan Tong Koh, Bryan Chin-Hou Ang, Su Ling Ho, Stephen Charn Beng Teoh, Rupesh Agrawal
PURPOSE: To report two cases of young immunocompetent males with herpes simplex acute retinal necrosis (HSV ARN) with initial diagnosis of unilateral disc swelling. METHODS: Retrospective case series. RESULTS: Two young immunocompetent males who were diagnosed to have unilateral disc swelling were treated as presumed optic neuritis and started on systemic steroids. On dilated fundal examination, unilateral retinitis and vasculitis was found after 2-3 days of systemic steroids and the diagnosis of ARN was made...
May 26, 2016: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Bouchra Serhir, Denis Hamel, Florence Doualla-Bell, Jean Pierre Routy, Sylvie-Nancy Beaulac, Mario Legault, Micheline Fauvel, Cécile Tremblay
BACKGROUND: Accurate and practical biologic tools to estimate HIV incidence is crucial to better monitor the epidemic and evaluate the effectiveness of HIV prevention and treatment programs. METHODS: We evaluated two avidity assays to measure recent HIV infection: the Sedia HIV-1 LAg-Avidity EIA (Sedia Biosciences, Portland) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-modified Bio-Rad-Avidity assay (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Mississauga, ON). Longitudinal specimens (n = 473) obtained from 123 treatment-naive seroconverted individuals enrolled in the Primary HIV-1 Infection (PHI) cohort of Quebec were used to determine the average time an individual is considered to be recently infected (mean duration of recent infection; MDRI), for the two avidity assays alone and in combination using a nonparametric survival method analysis...
2016: PloS One
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