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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199410/ultrasensitive-detection-of-hiv-1-p24-antigen-by-a-hybrid-nanomechanical-optoplasmonic-platform-with-potential-for-detecting-hiv-1-at-first-week-after-infection
#1
Priscila M Kosaka, Valerio Pini, Montserrat Calleja, Javier Tamayo
Early detection of HIV infection is the best way to prevent spread of the disease and to improve the efficiency of the antiretroviral therapy. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) have become the gold-standard for detecting low-concentrations of the virus in blood. However, these methods are technically demanding and cost-prohibitive in developing countries. Immunoassays are more affordable and can be more easily adapted for point-of-care diagnosis. However, the sensitivity so far of these methods has been too low...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101049/tuberculous-subretinal-abscess-in-a-non-hiv-patient-with-miliary-tuberculosis
#2
Eugenia Paez Soria, Paula Magnano, Ariel Schlaen, Paula Luvini, Gisela Arevalo Calderon, Mauricio Martinez Cartier, Pablo Chiaradía, Cristóbal Couto
This case report describes the features of a tuberculous subretinal abscess in a non-HIV patient. It includes the characterization of the lesion with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and fundus autofluorescence examination. SD-OCT and autofluorescence imaging showed external retinal involvement during development of the tuberculous subretinal abscess. Patients with tuberculous lesions need a multidisciplinary approach, since the disease may involve any part of the body. In this case in particular, incidental findings at computed tomography scan led to the detection of this rare ocular manifestation of tuberculous disease...
September 2016: Case Reports in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074347/pattern-and-motion-related-visual-evoked-potentials-in-hiv-infected-adults
#3
Jana Szanyi, Jan Kremlacek, Zuzana Kubova, Miroslav Kuba, Pavel Gebousky, Jaroslav Kapla, Juraj Szanyi, Frantisek Vit, Jana Langrova
PURPOSE: The goal of the current study was to explore visual function in virally suppressed HIV patients undergoing combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) by using pattern-reversal and motion-onset visual evoked potentials (VEPs). METHODS: The pattern-reversal and motion-onset VEPs were recorded in 20 adult HIV+ patients with a mean age of 38 years and CD4 cell counts ≥230 × 10(6) cells/L of blood. RESULTS: Nine out of 20 patients displayed VEP abnormalities...
February 2017: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019008/enantiomeric-resolution-stereochemical-assignment-and-toxicity-evaluation-of-tpa-enantiomers
#4
Yulang Chi, Zhijun Wu, Yi Zhong, Sijun Dong
Tetrahydro-α-(1-methylethyl)-2-oxo-1(2H)-pyrimidineacetic acid (TPA) is a critical intermediate in the synthesis of HIV protease inhibitors. A simple and efficient method for the separation and determination of TPA enantiomers was developed. The TPA was separated into its enantiomers with an enantiomeric purity of 99% using an HPLC system equipped with a Chiralpak OD-H column. Semi-preparative HPLC enantioseparations were carried out for further enrichment of the enantiomers. The validity of this method was evaluated on the basis of its precision, accuracy, linearity and recovery...
December 26, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999698/necrotizing-retinitis-secondary-to-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection-associated-with-severe-combined-immunodeficiency
#5
Pehmen Yasin Ozcan, Hasan Tolga Celik, Kenan Sonmez, Melda Celik
A 20-day-old male infant who was born at 39 weeks of gestation was admitted to neonatal intensive care unit due to severe respiratory insufficiency. In retinal examination, peripheric retinal white-black color areas that correspond to necrotizing retinitis, moderate vitritis, macular and optic nerve head involvement, vascular leakage, and sheathing indicating perivasculitis were revealed. Despite the fact that CMV specific IgM was undetectable, CMV DNA with high viral load was found in his blood sample by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction assay...
2016: Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956326/syphilitic-posterior-placoid-chorioretinitis-as-initial-presentation-of-early-neurosyphilis
#6
F E Molina-Sócola, F López-Herrero, A Medina-Tapia, T Rueda-Rueda, M Contreras-Díaz, J L Sánchez-Vicente
CASE REPORT: A 36 year-old male with a recent HIV diagnosis, presented with loss of vision of his left eye. Ophthalmoscopy revealed a unilateral yellowish placoid lesion in the macula. After fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, optical coherence tomography angiography, syphilis serology, and cerebrospinal fluid results, he was diagnosed with neurosyphilis and syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinitis. DISCUSSION: Acute syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinitis is a rare ocular manifestation of syphilis...
December 7, 2016: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928388/syphilitic-optic-neuropathy-re-emerging-cases-over-a-2-year-period
#7
Supanut Apinyawasisuk, Anuchit Poonyathalang, Pisit Preechawat, Kavin Vanikieti
We report 7 cases of syphilitic optic neuropathy during a 2-year period. All patients were newly diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Six cases (86%) initially presented with swollen optic disc either unilaterally or bilaterally. Blind spot enlargement was the most common type of visual field defect. Final visual acuity of at least 20/25 was achieved together with visual field improvement and resolution of swollen optic disc. Optic nerve involvement can be the first manifestation of syphilis and HIV co-infection...
April 2016: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908111/nuclear-quantum-effects-in-a-hiv-cancer-inhibitor-the-case-of-ellipticine
#8
Subrahmanyam Sappati, Ali Hassanali, Ralph Gebauer, Prasenjit Ghosh
Ellipticine is a natural product that is currently being actively investigated for its inhibitory cancer and HIV properties. Here we use path-integral molecular dynamics coupled with excited state calculations to characterize the role of nuclear quantum effects on the structural and electronic properties of ellipticine in water, a common biological solvent. Quantum effects collectively enhance the fluctuations of both light and heavy nuclei of the covalent and hydrogen bonds in ellipticine. In particular, for the ellipticine-water system, where the proton donor and acceptor have different proton affinities, we find that nuclear quantum effects (NQEs) strengthen both the strong and the weak H bonds...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858357/surface-plasmon-resonance-analysis-of-heparin-binding-angiogenic-growth-factors
#9
Marco Rusnati, Antonella Bugatti
Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is an optical technique to evaluate biomolecular interactions. Briefly, SPR measures the capacity of two molecules to bind each other by detecting reflected light from a prism-gold film interface. One of the two putative interactants (called ligand) is chemically immobilized onto the gold film. When the sensor is exposed to a sample containing the second interactant (called analyte), its binding to the immobilized ligand causes a change of the refractive index of the material above the gold surface that is monitored as a real-time graph of the response units against time, producing a real-time graph called sensorgram...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806411/anal-chromoendoscopy-using-gastroenterological-video-endoscopes-a-new-method-to-perform-high-resolution-anoscopy-for-diagnosing-intraepithelial-neoplasia-and-anal%C3%A2-carcinoma-in-hiv-infected-patients
#10
Mark Oette, Ulrike Wieland, Marko Schünemann, Johannes Haes, Stefan Reuter, Björn Erik Ole Jensen, Abdurrahman Sagir, Herbert Pfister, Dieter Häussinger
Introduction Anal carcinoma represents an increasing problem in HIV-infected patients. Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), the precursor lesion, is currently diagnosed by high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) using optical magnification derived from gynecological colposcopy. This prospective study evaluates anal chromoendoscopy (ACE) using standard gastroenterological video-endoscopes in diagnosing AIN. Methods After clinical examination, proctoscopy and surface staining with acetic acid followed by Lugol's solution, ACE was performed with a mucosectomy cap on the tip of the endoscope...
January 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780490/evaluation-of-the-limiting-antigen-avidity-eia-lag-in-people-who-inject-drugs-in-greece
#11
G K Nikolopoulos, A Katsoulidou, M Kantzanou, C Rokka, C Tsiara, V Sypsa, D Paraskevis, M Psichogiou, S Friedman, A Hatzakis
This analysis assessed the utility of the limiting antigen avidity assay (LAg). Samples of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Greece with documented duration of HIV-1 infection were tested by LAg. A LAg-normalized optical density (ODn) ⩽1·5 corresponds to a recency window period of 130 days. The proportion true recent (PTR) and proportion false recent (PFR) were estimated in 28 seroconverters and in 366 samples collected >6 months after HIV diagnosis, respectively. The association between LAg ODn and HIV RNA level was evaluated in 232 persons...
January 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753271/intravital-excitation-increases-detection-sensitivity-for-pulmonary-tuberculosis-by-whole-body-imaging-with-%C3%AE-lactamase-reporter-enzyme-fluorescence
#12
Fatemeh Nooshabadi, Hee-Jeong Yang, Yunfeng Cheng, Madeleine S Durkee, Hexin Xie, Jianghong Rao, Jeffrey D Cirillo, Kristen C Maitland
Tuberculosis is a pulmonary disease with an especially high mortality rate in immuno-compromised populations, specifically children and HIV positive individuals. The causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is a very slow growing and difficult organism to work with, making both diagnosis and development of effective treatments cumbersome. We utilize a fiber-optic fluorescence microendoscope integrated with a whole-body imaging system for in vivo Mtb detection. The system exploits an endogenous enzyme of Mtb (β-lactamase, or BlaC) using a BlaC-specific NIR fluorogenic substrate...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752180/-panuveitis-with-oral-and-genital-ulcer-misdiagnosed-as-behcet-s-disease-two-cases-report-and-literature-review
#13
Y Wang, L Yang, Z L Zhang
Here we reported two patients who presented with panuveitis and were transferred from ophthalmologists to rheumatologists, for both the patients had oral and genital ulcers. They were misdiagnosed with Behcet's disease at first glance. Two young males presented with acute uveitis with history of recurrent oral and genital ulcers. They initially presented with symptoms and signs resembling Behcet's disease and were treated with systemic steroids with suboptimal responses. Routine laboratory test revealed syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection...
October 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746582/optical-manipulation-of-a-single-human-virus-for-study-of-viral-cell-interactions
#14
Ximiao Hou, Michael C DeSantis, Chunjuan Tian, Wei Cheng
Although Ashkin and Dziedzic first demonstrated optical trapping of individual tobacco mosaic viruses in suspension as early as 1987, this pioneering work has not been followed up only until recently. Using human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) as a model virus, we have recently demonstrated that a single HIV-1 virion can be stabled trapped, manipulated and measured in physiological media with high precision. The capability to optically trap a single virion in suspension not only allows us to determine, for the first time, the refractive index of a single virus with high precision, but also quantitate the heterogeneity among individual virions with single-molecule resolution, the results of which shed light on the molecular mechanisms of virion infectivity...
August 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729756/non-human-immunodeficiency-virus-related-ocular-syphilis-in-a-korean-population-clinical-manifestations-and-treatment-outcomes
#15
Yonguk Kim, Seung-Young Yu, Hyung Woo Kwak
PURPOSE: To describe the clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes of ocular syphilis in patients without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. METHODS: A total of 45 eyes from 39 patients with ocular syphilis confirmed by serologic tests were reviewed retrospectively. The included cases were all non-HIV-infected patients presenting with intraocular inflammation from 2002 to 2014 at Kyung Hee University Hospital. Medical records of 45 eyes were analyzed and included best-corrected visual acuity and ophthalmologic examination findings of the anterior and posterior segments to determine the focus of inflammation...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Ophthalmology: KJO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611434/linezolid-associated-optic-neuropathy-in-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-in-mumbai-india
#16
Salil Mehta, Mrinalini Das, Chinmay Laxmeshwar, Sylvie Jonckheere, Sein Sein Thi, Petros Isaakidis
BACKGROUND: Patients on linezolid-containing drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) regimen often develop adverse-events, particularly peripheral and optic neuropathy. Programmatic data and experiences of linezolid-associated optic neuropathy from high DR-TB burden settings are lacking. The study aimed to determine the frequency of and risk-factors associated with linezolid-associated optic neuropathy and document the experiences related to treatment/care of DR-TB patients on linezolid-containing regimens...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591585/cd4-quantification-based-on-magneto-elisa-for-aids-diagnosis-in-low-resource-settings
#17
S Carinelli, C Xufré, S Alegret, M Martí, M I Pividori
The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) affects the life of millions of people around the world. Although rapid and low cost screening tests are widely available for the diagnosis of HIV infection, the count of CD4+ T lymphocytes remains a drawback in the areas mostly affected by the HIV, being this control imperative for assessing the deterioration of the immunological system and the progression towards AIDS, when the counting of cells falls down 200cellsμL(-1). This paper describes a high-throughput, simple and rapid method for CD4+ T lymphocytes quantification, directly in whole blood, based on a magneto ELISA...
November 1, 2016: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517329/stimulated-emission-depletion-nanoscopy-reveals-time-course-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-proteolytic-maturation
#18
Janina Hanne, Fabian Göttfert, Jiří Schimer, Maria Anders-Össwein, Jan Konvalinka, Johann Engelhardt, Barbara Müller, Stefan W Hell, Hans-Georg Kräusslich
Concomitant with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) budding from a host cell, cleavage of the structural Gag polyproteins by the viral protease (PR) triggers complete remodeling of virion architecture. This maturation process is essential for virus infectivity. Electron tomography provided structures of immature and mature HIV-1 with a diameter of 120-140 nm, but information about the sequence and dynamics of structural rearrangements is lacking. Here, we employed super-resolution STED (stimulated emission depletion) fluorescence nanoscopy of HIV-1 carrying labeled Gag to visualize the virion architecture...
September 27, 2016: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447087/the-eye-as-a-window-to-the-brain-neuroretinal-thickness-is-associated-with-microstructural-white-matter-injury-in-hiv-infected-children
#19
Charlotte Blokhuis, Nazli Demirkaya, Sophie Cohen, Ferdinand W N M Wit, Henriëtte J Scherpbier, Peter Reiss, Michael D Abramoff, Matthan W A Caan, Charles B L M Majoie, Frank D Verbraak, Dasja Pajkrt
PURPOSE: Despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), perinatal HIV-infection can cause decreased gray and white matter volume, microstructural white matter injury, and retinal structural abnormalities. As neuroretinal tissue is directly connected to the brain, these deficits may have a shared pathogenesis. We aimed to assess associations between neuroretinal thickness and cerebral injury in cART-treated perinatally HIV-infected children and healthy controls. METHODS: This cross-sectional observational study included 29 cART-treated perinatally HIV-infected children and 35 matched healthy controls...
July 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27328632/elvitegravir-cobicistat-associated-toxic-optical-neuropathy-in-an-hiv-infected-patient-a-call-for-caution
#20
Agostino Riva, Alessandro Invernizzi, Chiara Resnati, Valeria Micheli, Dario Cattaneo, Cristina Gervasoni
Ocular toxicity may not only be caused by medication overdoses and drug-drug interactions, but also by the chronic administration of medications at recommended doses. We describe the case of an HIV-infected patient who experienced significant and sustained bilateral visual loss two months after starting treatment with elvitegravir/cobicistat/tenofovir/emtricitabine. Given the absence of any evidence of tenofovir- or emtricitabine-induced optical neuropathy after several years of clinical use, the antiretroviral therapy was promptly changed to tenofovir/emtricitabine plus atazanavir/ritonavir, which led to a progressive improvement in visual acuity...
June 22, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
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