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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040166/measurement-of-retinal-vessels-as-a-biomarker-of-cerebrovascular-ageing-in-older-hiv-positive-men-compared-to-controls
#1
Lewis Haddow, Rosanna Laverick, Irene Leung, Frank Post, Jaime Vera, Richard Gilson, Ian Williams, Marta Boffito, Caroline Sabin, Alan Winston, Tunde Peto
BACKGROUND: To compare retinal vascular measurements, biomarkers of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), in HIV positive men aged 50 years and above with similarly-aged HIV negative men and younger HIV positive men. METHODS: We recruited white, non-diabetic men to a cross-sectional substudy of a larger cohort including three demographically-matched groups. Optic disc centred 45° colour fundus photographs were used to calculate central retinal arterial and venous calibre and the arterial-venous ratio (AVR)...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016527/acute-macular-neuroretinopathy-and-peripheral-retinal-vascular-abnormalities-in-a-patient-born-hiv-seropositive
#2
Chiara Giuffrè, Alessandro Rabiolo, Eleonora Corbelli, Adriano Carnevali, Riccardo Sacconi, Lea Querques, Francesco Bandello, Giuseppe Querques
PURPOSE: To describe the case of a born HIV seropositive woman who developed outer retinal alterations secondary to vascular abnormalities in the perimacular region and in the periphery of both eyes. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 21-year-old woman born HIV seropositive was referred for a routinary visit. Her best-corrected visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes, and during the visit, only mild superotemporal metamorphopsia in the left eye was reported...
October 9, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961280/label-free-analysis-of-tenofovir-delivery-to-vaginal-tissue-using-co-registered-confocal-raman-spectroscopy-and-optical-coherence-tomography
#3
Oranat Chuchuen, Jason R Maher, Marcus H Henderson, Michael Desoto, Lisa C Rohan, Adam Wax, David F Katz
Vaginally applied microbicide products offer a female-controlled strategy for preventing sexual transmission of HIV. Microbicide transport processes are central to their functioning, and there is a clear need for a better understanding of them. To contribute to that end, we developed an assay to analyze mass transport rates of microbicide molecules within the epithelial and stromal layers of polarized vaginal mucosal tissue during contact with a gel vehicle. The assay utilizes a new diffusion chamber mounted in a custom instrument that combines confocal Raman spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843787/a-rapid-ultrasound-particle-agglutination-method-for-hiv-antibody-detection-comparison-with-conventional-rapid-hiv-tests
#4
Simon Bystryak, Natalya Ossina
We present the results of the feasibility and preliminary studies on analytical performance of a rapid test for detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies in human serum or plasma that is an important advance in detecting HIV infection. Current methods for rapid testing of antibodies against HIV are qualitative and exhibit poor sensitivity (limit of detection). In this paper, we describe an ultrasound particle agglutination (UPA) method that leads to a significant increase of the sensitivity of conventional latex agglutination tests for HIV antibody detection in human serum or plasma...
November 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808731/biomacromolecules-as-tools-and-objects-in-nanometrology-current-challenges-and-perspectives
#5
Payam Hashemi, Luise Luckau, Petra Mischnick, Sarah Schmidt, Rainer Stosch, Bettina Wünsch
Nucleic acids, proteins, and polysaccharides are the most important classes of biopolymers. The inherent properties of biomacromolecules are contrary to those of well-defined small molecules consequently raising a number of specific challenges which become particularly apparent if biomacromolecules are treated as objects in quantitative analysis. At the same time, their specific functional ability of molecular recognition and self-organization (e.g., enzymes, antibodies, DNA) enables us to make biomacromolecules serving as molecular tools in biochemistry and molecular biology, or as precisely controllable dimensional platforms for nanometrological applications...
August 14, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768983/longitudinally-extensive-transverse-myelitis-and-optic-neuropathy-associated-with-syphilitic-meningomyelitis-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#6
Rie Tohge, Yuya Shinoto, Makio Takahashi
The incidence of co-infection with Treponema pallidum and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is increasing in developing and developed countries. The neurological complications of both infections occasionally occur simultaneously during a clinical course. We herein report the case of an HIV carrier with syphilitic meningomyelitis and subclinical optic neuropathy. The patient presumably had latent syphilis and slowly developed longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM). A cerebrospinal fluid examination confirmed the diagnosis of active neurosyphilis based on an elevated T...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764214/study-of-retinal-nerve-fibre-layer-thickness-and-visual-contrast-sensitivity-in-hiv-positive-individuals
#7
Rudrajit Paul, Asim K Ghosh, Adwaita Nag, Shyamapada Biswas, Britisundar Naiya, Jayati Mondal
INTRODUCTION: Measurement of Retinal Nerve Fibre Layer Thickness (RNFLT) by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a sensitive, non invasive and cheap method of detecting early retinal changes in a variety of diseases. In HIV infection, RNFLT is altered and this may have effect on other visual functions like Contrast Sensitivity (CS) and visual acuity. Such ocular pathology can affect the daily life and profession (especially driving) of HIV infected individuals. However, studies on this topic in HIV infected population are rare from India...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762410/accurate-nanoscale-flexibility-measurement-of-dna-and-dna-protein-complexes-by-atomic-force-microscopy-in-liquid
#8
Divakaran Murugesapillai, Serge Bouaziz, L James Maher, Nathan E Israeloff, Craig E Cameron, Mark C Williams
The elasticity of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), as described by its persistence length, is critical for many biological processes, including genomic regulation. A persistence length value can be obtained using atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging. However, most AFM studies have been done by depositing the sample on a surface using adhesive ligands and fitting the contour to a two-dimensional (2D) wormlike chain (WLC) model. This often results in a persistence length measurement that is different from the value determined using bulk and single molecule methods...
August 10, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697899/hiv-and-coronary-disease-when-secondary-prevention-is-insufficient
#9
Ana Sofia Carvalho, Rui Osório Valente, Luís Almeida Morais, Pedro Modas Daniel, Ramiro Sá Carvalho, Lurdes Ferreira, Rui Cruz Ferreira
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has created a new paradigm for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, but their increased risk for coronary disease is well documented. We present the case of a 57-year-old man, co-infected with HIV-2 and hepatitis B virus, adequately controlled and with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia, who was admitted with non-ST elevation acute myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography performed on day four of hospital stay documented two-vessel disease (mid segment of the right coronary artery [RCA, 90% stenosis] and the first marginal)...
July 8, 2017: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693564/surveillance-of-recent-hiv-infections-among-newly-diagnosed-hiv-cases-in-germany-between-2008-and-2014
#10
Alexandra Hofmann, Andrea Hauser, Ruth Zimmermann, Claudia Santos-Hövener, Jörg Bätzing-Feigenbaum, Stephan Wildner, Claudia Kücherer, Norbert Bannert, Osamah Hamouda, Viviane Bremer, Barbara Bartmeyer
BACKGROUND: The HIV surveillance system in Germany is based on mandatory, anonymous notification of newly diagnosed HIV cases by laboratories. Because the time between HIV infection and the diagnosis of HIV varies widely between persons, it is difficult to determine the number of cases of recent HIV infection among newly diagnosed cases of HIV. In Germany, the BED-capture-enzyme immunoassay (BED-CEIA) has been used to distinguish between recent and long-standing HIV infection. The aim of this analysis is to report the proportion of cases of recent HIV infection among newly diagnosed cases in Germany between 2008 and 2014 and to identify factors associated with recent infections...
July 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692823/high-hiv-infection-prevalence-in-a-group-of-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#11
Raquel Maria Cardoso Torres, Marly Marques da Cruz, André Reynaldo Santos Périssé, Denise Ribeiro Franqueira Pires
Brazil is characterized by a concentrated AIDS epidemic, it has a prevalence of less than 1% in the general population. However, there are higher rates in specific populations, especially in men who have sex with men. The study's aim was to analyze the association between sociodemographic characteristics, sexual practices, sexual behaviors and the HIV infection in a group of men who have sex with men. Secondary data was collected between June 2014 and September 2015 in a research of cross-sectional design in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil...
July 8, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683400/azidothymidine-triphosphate-impairs-mitochondrial-dynamics-by-disrupting-the-quality-control-system
#12
Ryosuke Nomura, Takeya Sato, Yuka Sato, Jeffrey A Medin, Shigeki Kushimoto, Teruyuki Yanagisawa
Highly active anti-retrovirus therapy (HAART) has been used to block the progression and symptoms of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Although it decreases morbidity and mortality, clinical use of HAART has also been linked to various adverse effects such as severe cardiomyopathy resulting from compromised mitochondrial functioning. However, the mechanistic basis for these effects remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that a key component of HAART, 3ꞌ-azido-3ꞌ-deoxythymidine (AZT), particularly, its active metabolite AZT-triphosphate (AZT-TP), caused mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to induction of cell death in H9c2 cells derived from rat embryonic myoblasts, which serve as a model for cardiomyopathy...
June 29, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682770/the-prevalence-of-cyclospora-cayetanensis-and-cryptosporidium-spp-in-turkish-patients-infected-with-hiv-1
#13
Hayriye Kirkoyun Uysal, Gokhan Tolga Adas, Kevser Atalik, Semih Altiparmak, Ozer Akgul, Suat Saribas, Mert Gurcan, Pelin Yuksel, Taner Yildirmak, Bekir Kocazeybek, Tevhide Ziver, Yasar Ali Oner
Opportunistic infections such as cryptosporidiosis and cyclosporiasis are commonly encountered in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We investigated the existence of opportunistic protozoans that significantly affect the quality of life in HIV-1 infected patients using conventional and molecular methods. The study group comprised 115 HIV-1 positive patients. In the identification of Cyclospora cayetanensis and Cryptosporidium, the formol-ether precipitation method was used and smears were evaluated in optical microscope by staining modified Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN)...
September 26, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594946/association-of-vaginal-dysbiosis-and-biofilm-with-contraceptive-vaginal-ring-biomass-in-african-women
#14
Liselotte Hardy, Vicky Jespers, Irith De Baetselier, Jozefien Buyze, Lambert Mwambarangwe, Viateur Musengamana, Janneke van de Wijgert, Tania Crucitti
We investigated the presence, density and bacterial composition of contraceptive vaginal ring biomass and its association with the vaginal microbiome. Of 415 rings worn by 120 Rwandese women for three weeks, the biomass density was assessed with crystal violet and the bacterial composition of biomass eluates was assessed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The biomass was visualised after fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The vaginal microbiome was assessed with Nugent scoring and vaginal biofilm was visualised after FISH...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522581/conformational-dynamics-of-the-frameshift-stimulatory-structure-in-hiv-1
#15
Dustin B Ritchie, Tonia R Cappellano, Collin Tittle, Negar Rezajooei, Logan Rouleau, William K A Sikkema, Michael T Woodside
Programmed ribosomal frameshifting (PRF) in HIV-1 is thought to be stimulated by a hairpin in the mRNA, although a pseudoknot-like triplex has also been proposed. Because the conformational dynamics of the stimulatory structure under tension applied by the ribosomal helicase during translation may play an important role in PRF, we used optical tweezers to apply tension to the HIV stimulatory structure and monitor its unfolding and refolding dynamics. The folding and unfolding kinetics and energy landscape of the hairpin were measured by ramping the force on the hairpin up and down, providing a detailed biophysical characterization...
September 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418652/design-and-development-of-highly-potent-hiv-1-protease-inhibitors-with-a-crown-like-oxotricyclic-core-as-the-p2-ligand-to-combat-multidrug-resistant-hiv-variants
#16
Arun K Ghosh, Kalapala Venkateswara Rao, Prasanth R Nyalapatla, Heather L Osswald, Cuthbert D Martyr, Manabu Aoki, Hironori Hayashi, Johnson Agniswamy, Yuan-Fang Wang, Haydar Bulut, Debananda Das, Irene T Weber, Hiroaki Mitsuya
Design, synthesis, and evaluation of a new class of exceptionally potent HIV-1 protease inhibitors are reported. Inhibitor 5 displayed superior antiviral activity and drug-resistance profiles. In fact, this inhibitor showed several orders of magnitude improved antiviral activity over the FDA approved drug darunavir. This inhibitor incorporates an unprecedented 6-5-5 ring-fused crown-like tetrahydropyranofuran as the P2 ligand and an aminobenzothiazole as the P2' ligand with the (R)-hydroxyethylsulfonamide isostere...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418539/ophthalmic-manifestations-of-congenital-zika-syndrome-in-colombia-and-venezuela
#17
MULTICENTER STUDY
Juan B Yepez, Felipe A Murati, Michele Pettito, Carlos F Peñaranda, Jazmin de Yepez, Gladys Maestre, J Fernando Arevalo
Importance: The ocular manifestations and sequelae of Zika virus infection are not well known. Recently, the World Health Organization changed the declaration of Zika as a public health emergency and designated the viral outbreak and related microcephaly clusters as a long-term program of work. This change indicates the urgent need to evaluate and document ophthalmic manifestations in patients for timely management of this disease. In addition, confirmation whether the public health problem in Brazil extends to other regions in South America is needed...
May 1, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333858/immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-causing-progressive-optic-nerve-edema-in-cryptococcal-meningitis
#18
Astrid C Werner, Laurel N Vuong, Thomas R Hedges, Caroline R Baumal
PURPOSE: To report an human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient undergoing therapy for cryptococcal meningitis who developed progressive optic disc edema that was steroid responsive. METHODS: Observational case report. RESULTS: One month after commencing antifungal treatment for cryptococcal meningitis, the patient developed bilateral, progressive, recurrent optic disc edema with subretinal fluid that coincided with initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy and recovery of CD4 cell counts...
March 22, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318310/short-communication-comparison-of-maxim-and-sedia-limiting-antigen-assay-performance-for-measuring-hiv-incidence
#19
Katherine E Schlusser, Jacob Konikoff, Allison R Kirkpatrick, Charles Morrison, Tsungai Chipato, Pai-Lien Chen, Marshall Munjoma, Susan H Eshleman, Oliver Laeyendecker
Accurate methods for cross-sectional incidence estimation are needed for HIV prevention research. The Limiting Antigen Avidity (LAg-Avidity) assay has been marketed by two vendors, Maxim Biomedical and Sedia BioSciences Corporation. Performance differences between the two versions of the assay are unknown. We tested a total 1,410 treatment-naive samples with both versions of the assay. The samples came from 176 seroconverters from the Zimbabwe Hormonal Contraception and HIV Study. The correlation between the two versions of the assay was 0...
June 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282092/nir-emitting-and-photo-thermal-active-nanogold-as-mitochondria-specific-probes
#20
Sabyasachi Chakrabortty, Miguel Sison, Yuzhou Wu, Anita Ladenburger, Goutam Pramanik, Johannes Biskupek, Jerome Extermann, Ute Kaiser, Theo Lasser, Tanja Weil
We report a bioinspired multifunctional albumin derived polypeptide coating comprising grafted poly(ethylene oxide) chains, multiple copies of the HIV TAT derived peptide enabling cellular uptake as well as mitochondria targeting triphenyl-phosphonium (TPP) groups. Exploring these polypeptide copolymers for passivating gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) yielded (i) NIR-emitting markers in confocal microscopy and (ii) photo-thermal active probes in optical coherence microscopy. We demonstrate the great potential of such multifunctional protein-derived biopolymer coatings for efficiently directing Au NP into cells and to subcellular targets to ultimately probe important cellular processes such as mitochondria dynamics and vitality inside living cells...
May 2, 2017: Biomaterials Science
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