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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908379/simultaneous-supratentorial-and-infratentorial-pilocytic-astrocytoma-in-an-adult-patient-with-concurrent-neurofibromatosis-type-1-and-hiv-infection
#1
Dalila Forte, Anabela Nabais, Carlos Pontinha, Manuela Mafra, Luís Mateus
BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a tumour predisposing condition, being Pilocytic Astrocytomas (PA) a common benign central nervous system (CNS) tumour occurring in this setting. Although this is a common association, simultaneous development of multiple lesions is an infrequent finding, especially in non-optic or hypothalamic locations. CLINICAL CASE: A 41 year-old female patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 and uncontrolled human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection presents with a first generalized seizure and associated headache and ataxia...
June 13, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890393/point-of-care-microfluidic-devices-for-pathogen-detection
#2
REVIEW
Behzad Nasseri, Neda Soleimani, Navid Rabiee, Alireza Kalbasi, Mahdi Karimi, Michael R Hamblin
The rapid diagnosis of pathogens is crucial in the early stages of treatment of diseases where the choice of the correct drug can be critical. Although conventional cell culture-based techniques have been widely utilized in clinical applications, newly introduced optical-based, microfluidic chips are becoming attractive. The advantages of the novel methods compared to the conventional techniques comprise more rapid diagnosis, lower consumption of patient sample and valuable reagents, easy application, and high reproducibility in the detection of pathogens...
May 29, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883484/macrophages-protect-talaromyces-marneffei-conidia-from-myeloperoxidase-dependent-neutrophil-fungicidal-activity-during-infection-establishment-in-vivo
#3
Felix Ellett, Vahid Pazhakh, Luke Pase, Erica L Benard, Harshini Weerasinghe, Denis Azabdaftari, Sultan Alasmari, Alex Andrianopoulos, Graham J Lieschke
Neutrophils and macrophages provide the first line of cellular defence against pathogens once physical barriers are breached, but can play very different roles for each specific pathogen. This is particularly so for fungal pathogens, which can occupy several niches in the host. We developed an infection model of talaromycosis in zebrafish embryos with the thermally-dimorphic intracellular fungal pathogen Talaromyces marneffei and used it to define different roles of neutrophils and macrophages in infection establishment...
June 8, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29798109/-neurosyphilis-and-hiv-co-infection-with-the-initial-symptom-of-sudden-deafness-and-optic-atrophy-a-case-report
#4
X Wang, R Y Ma, Z Yu, J Li, H F Zhang, H Yu
A 46-year-old male presented with left ear hearing loss,vertigo,tinnitus and left eye blurred vision. Pure tone audiometry showed left ear had been total deafness. Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) assay was reactive. The serum rapid plasma regain (RPR) was 1∶16. Human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) 1/2 antibody immunoassay was positive,and the CD4 cell count was low at 100 cells/μl. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) TPPA was positive,with a white blood cell count of 53×10 ⁶ /L and protein level of 1...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763303/design-and-synthesis-of-highly-potent-hiv-1-protease-inhibitors-containing-tricyclic-fused-ring-systems-as-novel-p2-ligands-structure-activity-studies-biological-and-x-ray-structural-analysis
#5
Arun K Ghosh, Prasanth R Nyalapatla, Satish Kovela, Kalapala Venkateswara Rao, Margherita Brindisi, Heather L Osswald, Masayuki Amano, Manabu Aoki, Johnson Agniswamy, Yuan-Fang Wang, Irene T Weber, Hiroaki Mitsuya
The design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a new class of HIV-1 protease inhibitors containing stereochemically defined fused tricyclic polyethers as the P2 ligands and a variety of sulfonamide derivatives as the P2' ligands are described. A number of ring sizes and various substituent effects were investigated to enhance the ligand-backbone interactions in the protease active site. Inhibitors 5c and 5d containing this unprecedented fused 6-5-5 ring system as the P2 ligand, an aminobenzothiazole as the P2' ligand, and a difluorophenylmethyl as the P1 ligand exhibited exceptional enzyme inhibitory potency and maintained excellent antiviral activity against a panel of highly multidrug-resistant HIV-1 variants...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734219/correlation-between-inner-retinal-layer-thickness-and-cognitive-function-in-hiv-new-insights-from-an-exploratory-study
#6
Alessandro Invernizzi, Alessandra Acquistapace, Sara Bochicchio, Chiara Resnati, Stefano Rusconi, Marta Ferrari, Valentina Leta, Simone Pomati, Alexander Klistorner, Peter Mccluskey, Giovanni Staurenghi, Agostino Riva
OBJECTIVE: to compare retinal layer thickness in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected subjects with (CI-HIV) and without (NCI-HIV) cognitive impairment, with a control population and to correlate it with the cognitive status of the patient and other clinical parameters. DESIGN: single center cross-sectional study METHODS:: Subjects with controlled HIV infection aged between 40 and 70 years and sex and age matched controls were enrolled. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL) and inner plexiform layer (IPL) thickness were assessed using optical coherence tomography...
May 3, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687965/developments-in-label-free-microfluidic-methods-for-single-cell-analysis-and-sorting
#7
REVIEW
Thomas R Carey, Kristen L Cotner, Brian Li, Lydia L Sohn
Advancements in microfluidic technologies have led to the development of many new tools for both the characterization and sorting of single cells without the need for exogenous labels. Label-free microfluidics reduce the preparation time, reagents needed, and cost of conventional methods based on fluorescent or magnetic labels. Furthermore, these devices enable analysis of cell properties such as mechanical phenotype and dielectric parameters that cannot be characterized with traditional labels. Some of the most promising technologies for current and future development toward label-free, single-cell analysis and sorting include electronic sensors such as Coulter counters and electrical impedance cytometry; deformation analysis using optical traps and deformation cytometry; hydrodynamic sorting such as deterministic lateral displacement, inertial focusing, and microvortex trapping; and acoustic sorting using traveling or standing surface acoustic waves...
April 24, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672246/stromal-keratitis-with-endophthalmitis-caused-by-vittaforma-corneae-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-a-case-report
#8
Lalida Pariyakanok, Vannarut Satitpitakul, Prasart Laksanaphuk, Kitiya Ratanawongphaibul, Chaturong Putaporntip, Somchai Jongwutiwes
PURPOSE: To describe a case of microsporidial stromal keratitis with endophthalmitis in an immunocompetent patient. METHODS: Case reportResults: A 58-year-old HIV-negative man presented with stromal keratitis in his right eye. The patient demonstrated subsequent vitritis, multifocal retinitis and arteritis, and macular edema with recurrent vitreous hemorrhage after therapeutic keratoplasty. Numerous microsporidial spores were detected in corneal tissues by modified trichrome stain...
April 19, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670780/syphilis-related-eye-disease-presenting-as-bilateral-papilledema-retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-hemorrhage-and-anterior-uveitis-in-a-penicillin-allergic-patient
#9
Jamie Dietze, Shane Havens
Purpose . Treponema pallidum is known as the "great masquerader" for its many presentations and ocular findings in patients who are infected and develop secondary and tertiary stage of syphilis. Syphilitic ocular manifestations include uveitis, chorioretinitis, retinitis, vasculitis, vitritis, and panuveitis all with or without decreased visual acuity. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is known to expedite the progression of syphilis when patients are coinfected, thus compounding the potential ophthalmic presentations...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563125/sequential-retinal-necrosis-secondary-to-varicella-zoster-in-unrecognised-long-standing-hiv-infection-patient-safety-report
#10
Brigid Ky Ning, Simon P Kelly, Celia Chu, Emile Morgan
A retired woman with left ophthalmic shingles of over 2 years' duration attended with bilateral vision loss and systemic upset. Acute retinal necrosis with detachment was detected on right fundus examination. Cataract in left eye precluded funduscopy. Ocular ultrasonography revealed fibrotic retinal detachment in the left eye. MRI brain and orbits also showed signals of retinal detachment. No abnormal MRI signal within the optic nerve or brain was found. Varicella zoster virus was detected in ocular aqueous and blood samples...
March 21, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561211/choroidal-thickness-in-patients-diagnosed-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-results-from-two-populations-of-different-ethnicities
#11
Aniruddha Agarwal, Alessandro Invernizzi, Sahil Jain, Alessandra Acquistapace, Agostino Riva, Aman Sharma, Vishali Gupta, Ramandeep Singh
PURPOSE: To measure the choroidal thickness among subjects with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection from two diverse ethnic populations and to compare it with healthy controls. METHODS: Subjects with HIV infection and healthy controls were enrolled in two referring centers in Italy and India. Clinical data were collected. All subjects underwent enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography and measurement of choroidal thickness. RESULTS: A total of 68 eyes from 68 patients with HIV (44 Caucasian, 24 Indians) and 60 eyes from 60 healthy volunteers (36 Caucasian, 24 Indians) were included...
March 21, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547452/panretinal-ritonavir-induced-retinopathy-a-report-of-long-term-use
#12
Leonardo R C Mesquita, Maria L G da Fonseca, Rodrigo M da Silva, Eduardo H Morizot
PURPOSE: To report a case involving a patient with presumed panretinal ritonavir-induced retinopathy. METHODS: A 52-year-old, HIV-positive patient, with no criteria for AIDS associated with the use of ritonavir for more than 10 years, underwent clinical examination, fundus photography, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and fundus autofluorescence imaging. RESULTS: Fundus examination revealed areas of atrophy and hypertrophy in the retinal pigment epithelium throughout the retina...
March 15, 2018: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542319/smartphone-based-mobile-detection-platform-for-molecular-diagnostics-and-spatiotemporal-disease-mapping
#13
Jinzhao Song, Vikram Pandian, Michael G Mauk, Haim H Bau, Sara Cherry, Laurence C Tisi, Changchun Liu
Rapid and quantitative molecular diagnostics in the field, at home, and at remote clinics is essential for evidence-based disease management, control, and prevention. Conventional molecular diagnostics requires extensive sample preparation, relatively sophisticated instruments, and trained personnel, restricting its use to centralized laboratories. To overcome these limitations, we designed a simple, inexpensive, hand-held, smartphone-based mobile detection platform, dubbed "smart-connected cup" (SCC), for rapid, connected, and quantitative molecular diagnostics...
April 3, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528981/the-thicknesses-of-choroid-macular-segments-peripapillary-retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-and-retinal-vascular-caliber-in-hiv-1-infected-patients-without-infectious-retinitis
#14
Ebru N Cetin, Selda Sayin Kutlu, Osman Parca, Murat Kutlu, Gökhan Pekel
PURPOSE: To evaluate choroidal, macular, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thicknesses and retinal vascular caliber alterations in HIV-1-infected patients without opportunistic infections. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 45 HIV-1-infected patients and 47 healthy subjects. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography was used for assessment of choroidal, macular, peripapillary RNFL thicknesses and retinal vascular caliber alterations. RESULTS: The mean CD4 count was 426 ± 226 cells per milliliter and the mean HIV-1 RNA level was 1...
March 8, 2018: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480721/enantioselective-synthesis-of-nelfinavir-via-asymmetric-bromocyclization-of-bisallylic-amide
#15
Yoshihiro Nagao, Tatsunari Hisanaga, Takahiro Utsumi, Hiromichi Egami, Yuji Kawato, Yoshitaka Hamashima
We describe a concise enantioselective synthesis of the HIV-protease inhibitor nelfinavir (1) via a new route in which the key step is construction of the central optically active 1,2-amino alcohol framework via asymmetric bromocyclization of bisallylic amide with N-bromosuccinimide in the presence of a catalytic amount of (S)-BINAP or (S)-BINAP monoxide. The remaining alkene and bromo functionalities were used to install the requisite thioether and chiral perhydroisoquinoline units, respectively.
March 1, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480272/bilateral-central-retinal-artery-occlusion-as-presenting-manifestation-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#16
Reema Bansal, Sahil Jain, Vishali Gupta, Aman Sharma, Amanjit Bal, Sanjay Jain
A 30-year-old male with bilateral acute visual loss presented with retinal edema in the posterior pole and peripapillary region with extensive retinal hemorrhages. Fluorescein angiography revealed delayed arterial filling in the right eye and absent arterial filling in the left eye, suggesting bilateral central retinal artery occlusion. Systemic evaluation revealed a history of chronic low-grade fever and generalized lymphadenopathy. HIV (ELISA) was positive, and other systemic comorbidities were ruled out...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469716/associated-conditions-in-patients-with-multiple-dermatofibromas-case-reports-and-literature-review
#17
Surget V Beatrous, Ryan R Riahi, Stratton B Grisoli, Philip R Cohen
Dermatofibromas are benign, fibrohistiocytic, dermal tumors. Solitary dermatofibromas may be incidental findings, whereas multiple dermatofibromas may be associated with systemic conditions or previous therapies. Two women and one man with multiple dermatofibromas and an associated systemic condition, immunosuppression, or both, are described. Nine dermatofibromas developed in a woman with hypothyroidism, optic neuritis, and Arnold Chiari I malformation. Five dermatofibromas developed in a woman with breast cancer who had received several systemic antineoplastic therapies...
September 22, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468424/full-depth-measurement-of-tenofovir-transport-in-rectal-mucosa-using-confocal-raman-spectroscopy-and-optical-coherence-tomography
#18
Aubrey L Presnell, Oranat Chuchuen, Morgan G Simons, Jason R Maher, David F Katz
The prophylactic activity of antiretroviral drugs applied as microbicides against sexually transmitted HIV is dependent upon their concentrations in infectable host cells. Within mucosal sites of infection (e.g., vaginal and rectal mucosa), those cells exist primarily in the stromal layer of the tissue. Traditional pharmacokinetic studies of these drugs have been challenged by poor temporal and spatial specificity. Newer techniques to measure drug concentrations, involving Raman spectroscopy, have been limited by laser penetration depth into tissue...
June 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466918/multiple-sclerosis-and-hiv-a-case-of-multiple-sclerosis-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-associated-with-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation
#19
Pria Anand, Deanna Saylor
Studies have suggested that the incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in HIV-infected (HIV+) patients is lower than that of the general population. Here, we present a case of MS in an HIV+ patient with a relatively suppressed CD4 cell count who developed clinical and radiographic disease worsening in the setting of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. A 47-year-old HIV+ woman (CD4 cell count 216 cells/µl) presented with decreased vision in her right eye. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed optic nerve enhancement and open ring-enhancing lesions in the brain concerning for demyelinating disease...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445945/spectral-domain-optical-coherence-tomography-and-fundus-autofluorescence-findings-in-cytomegalovirus-retinitis-in-hiv-infected-patients
#20
Shigeko Yashiro, Takeshi Nishijima, Yuuka Yamamoto, Yumi Sekine, Natsuyo Yoshida-Hata, Tomohiro Iida, Shinichi Oka
PURPOSE: To assess the usefulness of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) findings in cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis. STUDY DESIGN: Observational case series. METHODS: Thirteen eyes of 11 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients with CMV retinitis underwent full ophthalmologic examinations, SD-OCT, and 4 eyes of 4 patients underwent FAF. FAF images included short-wavelength autofluorescence (SW-AF) and near-infrared autofluorescence (IR-AF)...
May 2018: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
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