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hiv neuroretinitis

Charlotte Blokhuis, Susanne Doeleman, Sophie Cohen, Nazli Demirkaya, Henriëtte J Scherpbier, Neeltje A Kootstra, Jens Kuhle, Charlotte E Teunissen, Frank D Verbraak, Dasja Pajkrt
Purpose: The pathophysiology of neuroretinal thinning in children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is poorly understood. The current study aimed to assess whether neuroretinal thinning in clinically stable perinatally HIV-infected children was associated with biomarkers of immune activation, inflammation, and neuronal damage. Methods: Inflammation-associated and neuronal damage markers were measured in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of HIV-infected children aged 8 to 18 years...
November 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Michael W Stewart
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ophthalmologic conditions were among the earliest described findings in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The purpose of this review is to highlight recent changes in the pathophysiology and management of ophthalmologic conditions in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). RECENT FINDINGS: The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 1996 changed ophthalmologic findings from predominantly acute infectious diseases to chronic, slowly progressive, debilitating conditions...
October 19, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Charlotte Blokhuis, Nazli Demirkaya, Sophie Cohen, Ferdinand W N M Wit, Henriëtte J Scherpbier, Peter Reiss, Michael D Abramoff, Matthan W A Caan, Charles B L M Majoie, Frank D Verbraak, Dasja Pajkrt
PURPOSE: Despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), perinatal HIV-infection can cause decreased gray and white matter volume, microstructural white matter injury, and retinal structural abnormalities. As neuroretinal tissue is directly connected to the brain, these deficits may have a shared pathogenesis. We aimed to assess associations between neuroretinal thickness and cerebral injury in cART-treated perinatally HIV-infected children and healthy controls. METHODS: This cross-sectional observational study included 29 cART-treated perinatally HIV-infected children and 35 matched healthy controls...
July 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Ting Dai, Xinjun Wu, Shaona Zhou, Qianqiu Wang, Daning Li
BACKGROUND: Syphilis with ocular involvement has reemerged as a critical health problem. The aim of the present study was to explore the clinical manifestations and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) status in ocular syphilis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients. METHODS: The clinical records of patients with ocular syphilis presenting to the Shanghai Xuhui Central Hospital in the period from January 2011 to December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed...
June 6, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Nazli Demirkaya, Ferdinand W N M Wit, Thomas J T P van Den Berg, Katherine W Kooij, Maria Prins, Reinier O Schlingemann, Michael D Abramoff, Peter Reiss, Frank D Verbraak
PURPOSE: Loss of neuroretinal structure and function, ascribed to a 'HIV-associated Neuroretinal Disorder' (HIV-NRD), in the absence of ocular opportunistic infections, has been reported in HIV-infected individuals treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Whether HIV-infected individuals with prolonged well-suppressed infection remain at risk for HIV-NRD, is unknown. METHODS: Ninety-two HIV-infected men with suppressed viremia on cART for at least 12 months (HIV+) and 63 HIV-uninfected, highly comparable, male controls (HIV-), aged at least 45 years, underwent functional measurements of spatial (Pelli Robson contrast sensitivity [PR CS]) and temporal contrast sensitivity (TCS) and straylight, as well as spectral-domain optical coherence tomography analysis measured total and individual retinal layer thickness...
March 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Rui Zhang, Jiang Qian, Zhujian Wang, Yifei Yuan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical manifestations of syphilitic uveoretinitis in patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: Uveoretinitis patients presenting between January 2008 and December 2014 at Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University were collected. Patients were selected with positive serologic tests, including rapid plasma regain titer (RPR) > 1:8, treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
October 2015: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Davin C Ashraf, K Patrick May, Gary N Holland, Mark L Van Natta, Albert W Wu, Jennifer E Thorne, Douglas A Jabs
PURPOSE: Some human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals have evidence of optic nerve or retinal dysfunction that manifests as decreased contrast sensitivity, even with good best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). This condition, termed HIV-related neuroretinal disorder (HIV-NRD), is a risk factor for vision impairment (BCVA <20/40), blindness (BCVA ≤20/200), and increased mortality. We investigated the effect of HIV-NRD on vision-specific quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of data from a prospective, observational study...
December 2015: Ophthalmology
Nazli Demirkaya, Ferdinand Wit, Reinier Schlingemann, Franciscus Verbraak
Subtle structural and functional retinal abnormalities, termed 'HIV-associated Neuroretinal Disorder (HIV-NRD)', have been reported in HIV patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), without infectious retinitis or any apparent fundus abnormalities otherwise. In this review, we provide an overview of studies investigating HIV-NRD in HIV patients without opportunistic ocular infections in the cART era, and try to elucidate underlying mechanisms and associated risk factors. Most studies focused on patients with severe immune-deficiency and demonstrated that patients with nadir CD4 counts<100 cells/μL are most at risk for neuroretinal damage, with a thinner retinal nerve fiber layer, subtle loss of color vision and/or contrast sensitivity, visual field deficits, and subnormal electrophysiological responses...
October 2015: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Nazli Demirkaya, Sophie Cohen, Ferdinand W N M Wit, Michael D Abramoff, Reinier O Schlingemann, Taco W Kuijpers, Peter Reiss, Dasja Pajkrt, Frank D Verbraak
PURPOSE: Subtle structural and functional neuroretinal changes have been described in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults without retinitis treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). However, studies on this subject in HIV-infected children are scarce. This study aimed to assess the presence of (neuro)retinal functional and structural differences between a group of perinatally HIV-infected children on cART and age-, sex-, ethnicity-, and socioeconomically matched healthy controls...
June 2015: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Douglas A Jabs, Lea Drye, Mark L Van Natta, Jennifer E Thorne, Gary N Holland
PURPOSE: Patients with AIDS have an abnormality of retina/optic nerve function, manifested as decreased contrast sensitivity (in the absence of ocular opportunistic infections or media opacity), abnormalities on automated perimetry, and loss of retinal nerve fiber layer, even among those with good visual acuity, termed the "human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) neuroretinal disorder." The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of HIV neuroretinal disorder...
April 2015: Ophthalmology
Angelina Espino Barros Palau, Michael L Morgan, Rod Foroozan, Andrew G Lee
OBJECTIVE: To illustrate three different ophthalmic presentations of cryptococcal meningitis (CM). INTRODUCTION: CM is the most common manifestation of extra-pulmonary cryptococcosis. Intracranial hypertension occurs in up to 75% of patients with CM and is associated with increased mortality. CM can present to the ophthalmologist as vision loss, papilledema, abducens palsy, and/or other cranial neuropathies. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: We report three cases, two C...
October 2014: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Giulio Barteselli, Jay Chhablani, Maria Laura Gomez, Aubrey L Doede, Laurie Dustin, Igor Kozak, Dirk-Uwe Bartsch, Stanley P Azen, Scott L Letendre, William R Freeman
Visual function abnormalities are common in people living with HIV disease (PLWH) without retinitis, even after improvement in immune status. Abnormalities such as reduced contrast sensitivity, altered color vision, peripheral visual field loss, and electrophysiological changes are related to a combination of retinal dysfunctions, involving inner and outer retinal structures. The standard protocol for testing vision performance in clinical practice is the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) chart...
2014: PloS One
Andrea D Branch, Lea T Drye, Mark L Van Natta, Efe Sezgin, Sarah L Fishman, Douglas T Dieterich, Curtis L Meinert, Douglas A Jabs
BACKGROUND: Both hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) penetrate the central nervous system. HIV-associated neuroretinal disorder (HIV-NRD), a visual impairment of reduced contrast sensitivity and reading ability, is associated with cytokine dysregulation and genetic polymorphisms in the anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 (IL-10) signaling pathway. We investigated associations between HCV and HIV-NRD and between HCV and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL-10 receptor 1 (IL10R1) gene...
December 2013: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Sophia Pathai, Stephen D Lawn, Helen A Weiss, Colin Cook, Linda-Gail Bekker, Clare E Gilbert
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral treatment (ART) has altered the spectrum of HIV-related eye disease, resulting in a lower prevalence of retinal opportunistic infections (OIs). However, abnormalities in visual function have been reported in HIV-infected individuals despite effective viral suppression and the absence of retinal OIs. These changes may be mediated by an HIV-associated 'neuroretinal disorder', characterized by changes in the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL). HIV infection may also be associated with accelerated biological aging...
2013: PloS One
Nicholas J Butler, Jennifer E Thorne
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the present era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the challenges that HIV/AIDS patients face with regard to ocular complications has changed immensely; nonetheless, significant ocular morbidity persists. We present an update on these challenges, focusing particularly on the relevant literature from the past 12-18 months. RECENT FINDINGS: Although its incidence has decreased substantially in the HAART era, cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis remains an important cause of ocular morbidity and predictor of mortality...
November 2012: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Partho S Kalyani, Gary N Holland, Amani A Fawzi, Tiago E F Arantes, Fei Yu, Alfredo A Sadun
PURPOSE: To investigate relationships between contrast sensitivity (CS), color vision, and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) among people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; to evaluate the effect of time since diagnosis of HIV infection on RNFL thickness. DESIGN: Noninterventional cross-sectional study. METHODS: We evaluated 102 eyes of 57 HIV-infected individuals without ocular opportunistic infections. Peripapillary RNFL thickness was determined with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in 4 quadrants...
April 2012: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Efe Sezgin, Sher L Hendrickson, Douglas A Jabs, Mark L Van Natta, Richard A Lewis, Jennifer L Troyer, Stephen J O'Brien
Approximately 10%-15% of patients with AIDS but without ocular opportunistic infections will have a presumed neuroretinal disorder (HIV-NRD), manifested by reduced contrast sensitivity and abnormal visual fields. The loss of contrast sensitivity often is sufficient to impair reading speed. To evaluate the effect of host genetics on HIV-NRD, we explored validated AIDS restriction gene variants CCR5Delta32, CCR2-64I, CCR5 P1, SDF-3'A, IL-10-5'A, RANTES -403A, RANTES -28G, RANTES-In1.1C, CX3CR1-249I, CX3CR1-280M, IFNG-179T, MDR1-3435T, and MCP-1364G, each of which has been implicated previously to influence HIV-1 infection, AIDS progression, therapy response, and antiviral drug metabolism, and an IL-10 receptor gene, IL-10R1, in the Longitudinal Study of the Ocular Complications of AIDS cohort...
August 2010: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Ankhi Dutta, Heidi L Schwarzwald, Morven S Edwards
Rapidly declining visual acuity from neuroretinitis should prompt aggressive diagnostic intervention to preserve eyesight. We present a young adult with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in whom neuroretinitis was the presenting feature of disseminated bartonellosis. Tissue biopsy was required to establish the diagnosis and directed therapy was associated with restored vision.
July 2010: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Sher L Hendrickson, Douglas A Jabs, Mark Van Natta, Richard Alan Lewis, Douglas C Wallace, Stephen J O'Brien
Although highly active antiretroviral therapy has improved survivorship dramatically and decreased the incidence of cytomegalovirus retinitis among patients with AIDS, other ophthalmic complications continue to occur. One complication observed in approximately 12% of HIV-infected patients is a presumed neuroretinal disorder (NRD), manifested as decreased contrast sensitivity and associated with vague subjective complaints of hazy vision. Pathologically, patients with AIDS even without ocular opportunistic infections have loss of optic nerve axons, suggestive of mitochondrial dysfunction...
April 1, 2010: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
C Merle De Boever, F Mura, M Brun, J Reynes
Bartonella henselae is the etiologic agent of the cat scratch disease and in immunocompromised patients, of bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis hepatis. Less often, ocular complications associated with B. henselae infection have been reported in immunocompetent patients and five times in HIV-infected patients. We report the case of a 42-year-old woman, coinfected by HIV-HCV, presenting with cirrhosis, who owned a cat and was hospitalized for bilateral loss of visual acuity. Ophthalmologic examination revealed bilateral papillitis with hyalitis...
September 2008: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
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